- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 27
- Authors : S. Vadivelan, K. Abirami, R. Agasthiya, D. Karthikayeni, V. Meena
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV6IS04020
- Volume & Issue : ETEDM – 2018 (Volume 6 – Issue 04)
- Published (First Online): 24-04-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Influence of Cactus Milk and Blood in Natural Soil ConcretefFor Improving Compressive Strength of Concrete
S. Vadivelan1,K. Abirami2,R. Agasthiya3,D. Karthikayeni4,V. Meena5
1 Assistant Professor, Dept of Civil engineering , VSB College of Engineering technical campus, Coimbatore, India.
2,3,4,5 UG Scholar, Dept of civil, VSB College of Engineering technical campus, Coimbatore, India.
Abstract Now-days there is a demand of river sand. it is not economical. So, we are using natural soil in concrete, if we using natural soil in concrete means the compressive strength go down for that we are adding the natural admixtures such as cactus milk and waste blood to improve (or) attain the normal strength of concrete.
Keywords Compressive strength, natural soil, blood, Cactus milk, cooking oil, engine oil, non bio degradable ash.
Sustainability in construction industry is important for the modern development of construction industry. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the modern world. Concrete incorporates large amount of natural resources as aggregates and cement with water. Sand is the main ingredient of concrete.
As there is more demand for river sand so we have used replaced partially natural soil. Basically river sand gives more compressive strength as compare to natural soil but in this we shown that by using natural soil and natural admixtures also we can increase the compressive strength of concrete. As chemical admixtures are costly and not eco- friendly so we have used natural admixtures like animal blood, cactus milk, sunflower oil, and engine oil.
Non bio degradable ash
To sustain the metabolism, the blood vessels transport blood throughout the body via network of arteries, veins and capillaries. The usage of such vascular structures in fingers and palms has been investigated in biometrics literature - , with high success. Even in the identical twins and eve between the different fingers of an individual, the finger-vein patterns are believed to be unique. There are two important factors for the preference of finger-vein biometrics. First, high degree of privacy. Second, offering strong ant spoofing capabilities.
This chapter deals with the methodology adopted for the present study.
Literature Study Collection of Material
Primary Testing of Materials Mix Design of M25 grade cement
Batching of Material Mixing of Material Moulding of Specimen
Demoulding of specimen
Curing of Specimen Testing of specimen
Result of specimen
Fig 1: This is the schematic representation of our project
MATERIAL USED AND ITS PROPERTIES
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is composed of calcium silicates and aluminates and aluminoferrite. It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions limestone clay and other materials in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature around 1500ÂºC to produce clinker. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland Cement.
Aggregates are the important constituents in concrete. They give body to the concrete, reduce shrinkage and effect economy. Earlier, aggregates were considered as chemically inert materials but now it has been recognised that some of the aggregates are chemically active and also that certain aggregates exhibit chemical bond at the interface of aggregate and paste. The mere fact that the aggregates occupy 70-80 per cent of the volume of concrete, their impact on various characteristics and properties of concrete is undoubtedly considerable. To know more about the aggregates which constitute major volume in concrete.
Aggregates are divided into two categories from the consideration of size:
Aggregates passing through 4.75mm sieve are defined as fine. The smallest size of fine aggregate is 0.06mm. Fine aggregate is added to concrete to assist workability and to bring uniformity in mixture. Usually, the natural sand is used as fine aggregate. Important thing to be considered is that fine aggregate should be free from coagulated lumps.
Fig 3: natural soil
Grading of natural sand or crushed stone i.e. fine aggregate shall be such that not more than 5% shall exceed 5mm in size, not more than 10% shall IS sieve No.150 not less than 45% or more than 85% shall pass IS sieve No.1.18mm and not less than 25% or more than 60% shall pass IS sieve No. 600 micron.
Fig 4:river sand
Coarse aggregate is chemically stable material in concrete presence of coarse aggregate reduces the drying shrinkage and other dimensional changes occurring an account of movement of moisture. Coarse aggregate contributes to impermeability of concrete, provided that is properly graded and the mix is suitably designed.
fig 5: coarse aggregate
The pH value of water should be in between 6.0 and
according to IS 456-2000.
Effect of Mixing Sea Water in Concrete:
The sea Water generally contains salinity of about 3.5% in which about 80% is sodium chloride. Many researchers have been conducted to study the corrosion problem of steel Embedded in concrete where sea water is used as mixing water in concrete nevertheless the Indian standard is adamant & do not permit using sea water for mixing or curing in reinforced Concrete constructions, but allows for using of sea water only for PCC work that too under unavoidable circumstances.
Quality of Water for Curing Concrete Cubes:
The water that is fit for mixing and curing of water for concrete is also fit for curing of cubes which are cured under water. However the curing water should not to be allowed to remain in stagnant condition in water tanks for long time. As a guideline the water tanks shall be cleaned
twice a week or when ph value of water reaches a value more than 9. The cleaned Water tanks shall be refilled with fresh water every time.
The cleaning of water is necessary to remove algae and fungus materials developed inside the water tanks which otherwise alters the setting and strength gaining properties of Concrete. The low results of such cubes may call for in situ tests resulting in consequential Delay of the project.
ii. CACTUS MILK
Cactus milk is a natural admixture. To adding the concrete to improve the workability and also reduce the water content that would increase strength.. The cactus milk has rheological property. The rheological property especially in relation between the manufacturing processes. The pulp exhibits a high PH value 5.3to 7.1 and low acidity 0.01to 0.018and total soluble solids at
degree to 17 degree. The cactus milk is obtained from xuccina plant from pollachi. The cactus milk has thyrotrophic material. The thyrotrophic material exhibits a decreasing shear stress.
Fig 6: water
Natural admixtures are admixture which is obtained from the natural material that would increase the strength. Comparatively with chemical admixture natural admixture is more economical. Natural admixture is the one of the waste product material from the environment. The natural admixtures used in our project are,
Blood is a natural admixture which acts as a good air entraining agent that would increase the strength of the material. The air entraining agent would reduce the porosity, air voids and reduce the gap between the materials.
Fig 8: (a) &(b) are cactus milk
Sunflower is a waste product from the house hold and restaurant. It has good workability. This waste product can be utilizes by adding admixtures to improve the compressive strength. It has good durability when compared to other natural admixtures. That admixture would increase the compressive strength. The edible part of sunflower that would increase the strength of the material. The correlate part of the material contains more durability condition when exposed to atmospheric condition.
Fig 9: cooking oil
There is a current trend all over the world to investigate the utilization of processed and unprocessed by- products and domestic wastes as raw materials in concrete, as components of concrete binder, as aggregates, a portion of aggregate, or ingredients in manufactured aggregates. Some wastes can be used as chemical admixtures and additives, which can alter the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. However, successful use of industrial byproducts or wastes in concrete depends mainly on the requisite properties of the end product. Several by-products or wastes have been reported in literature to be used in concrete and construction industry; such as recycled concrete aggregate, pozzolans, fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, rice husk ash, waste- derived fuels, organic fiber materials, etc. It is estimated that
less than 45% of the used-engine oil is being collected worldwide while the remaining 55% is thrown by the end user in the environment.
The discharge of used oil can become a serious problem or a valuable resource depending upon how it is managed. Simply reflect on the fact that one oil change contains four quarts of foils, which when improperly disposed of sufficient to ruin one million gallons of fresh water, which in turn adversely impacting human life, fish and plant life. So, in this context, the proper management of used oil is essential to eliminate or minimize potential environmental impacts.
Fig 10: engine oil
Engine oil (25%)
The testing result implies that compressive strength of concrete is obtained by adding blood, cactus milk, cooking oil and engine oil. This is suitable for attaining good compressive strength.
natural soil blood milk
Fig 11: comparison of natural concrete with admixtures. (Blood, cactus milk, cooking oil, engine oil)
Testing result on blood (b)Testing result on cactus milk
Testing result on cooking oil (d)Testing result on engine oil
Based on the results obtained from the experimental investigation the following conclusions are made,
It is concluded that sufficient workability was attained for M25 grade of concrete at 0.5 water cement ratio. We are using M25grade of concrete. This is suitable for normal construction work. The availability of river sand is a major problem in construction work in now- days. So, we are replacing it by means of top layer of natural soil. But, these natural soil that do not have a binding property. So we are adding natural admixtures to increase the compressive strength. It is an important ingredient in the construction materials. There are 2 variety of cement are available such as
OPC and PPC. In PPC cement there is more fly ash content are available. So, to reduce the fly ash content we are using OPC.
In OPC cement we are using 43grade of cement. It is used in normal construction work. Non bio degradable ash is waste product from plastic waste like GRO CERY bags, plastic bags, water battle. We are replacing it for 10% replacement of cement. Water cement ratio would determine the workability conditions of the concrete. So, we are choosing an optimum W/C ratio. We are partially replacing by blood, cactus milk, sunflower oil and engine oil. The chemical admixture available in market is highly economical
So we are replacing it, by means of natural admixture like blood, sunflower oil, cactus milk, engine oil. The air entertaining agent is cost effective. So, we are replacing by blood which is low cost. By testing it we get a good compressive strength of 42.22N/mm2. So it is highly preferable to use as a admixtures.
The workability is cost effective. So, we are replacing by cactus milk which is low cost. By testing it we get a good compressive strength of 38N/mm2. So it is highly preferable to use as an admixtures. The workability, durability is cost effective. So, we are replacing by sunflower oil which is low cost. By testing it we get a low compressive strength of 20N/mm2. But, it is waste product in many foreign countries. So, it is economical to as a admixtures.
The workability, durability and increases the initial setting time. So, we are replacing by engine oil which is low cost. By testing it we get a poor compressive strength of 14.5N/mm2. So, it is not preferable to add as an admixture even though it is economical. The chemical admixtures are heavy cost. So, we are replacing it my means of natural admixtures. The natural admixtures are available is easily. When, compared to the chemical admixtures. Natural admixtures such as blood, cactus milk attain a good compressive strength of 42.22N/mm2 and 38N/mm2. But our natural admixtures such as sunflower oil, engine oil do not attain a good compressive strength. But, it is preferable to economical.
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