 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 96
 Authors : Fanidhar Dewangan, Abhijit Mandal
 Paper ID : IJERTV5IS090342
 Volume & Issue : Volume 05, Issue 09 (September 2016)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV5IS090342
 Published (First Online): 17092016
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Induction Machine, Loss Modelling and Parameter Estimation
Fanidhar Dewangan,
Department of Electrical Engineering, DIMATRaipur
Raipur
Abhijit Mandal
Department of Electrical Engineering, DIMATRaipur
Raipur
AbstractInduction machines (IMs) are today widely used in various applications. For example, it is by far the most used electrical motor in industry. Asynchronous motors, particularly the squirrelcage induction motor, enjoy several inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, low cost and virtually maintenancefree electrical drives. These facts are due to the induction motor advantages over the rest of motors. The main advantage is that induction motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and brushes. Induction motor also has low weight and inertia, high efficiency and high overload capability. In addition, due to its practical importance, tremendous amounts of money are still spent today on research regarding its physics and operation. The range of possible research subjects pertaining to IMs is beyond belief. Covering all results and all references available in the literature could easily fill up a thesis all by itself.
KeywordsInduction Machine, Modelling, Thermal Rise, Parameters, Stator and Rotor Winding Resistance

INTRODUCTION
Induction machines (IMs) are today widely used in various applications. For example, it is by far the most used electrical motor in industry. Asynchronous motors, particularly the squirrelcage induction motor, enjoy several inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, low cost and virtually maintenancefree electrical drives. These facts are due to the induction motor advantages over the rest of motors. The main advantage is that induction motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and brushes. Induction motor also has low weight and inertia, high efficiency and high overload capability. In addition, due to its practical importance, tremendous amounts of money are still spent today on research regarding its physics and operation. The range of possible research subjects pertaining to IMs is beyond belief. Covering all results and all references available in the literature could easily fill up a thesis all by itself.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the electric motor of an electric vehicle, are fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. The development of modern technology, including power electronic components, electric machines, computer control and software makes switching power between the gasoline engine and electric drive motor appear to be seamless to the driver. In comparison to the internal combustion engine, an electric motor is a relatively simple and far more efficient machine. The moving parts
consist primarily of the armature (DC) or rotor (AC) and bearings, and the motoring efficiency is typically on the order of 80% to 95%. In addition, the electric motor torque characteristics are much more suited to the torque demand curve of a vehicle. Figure 1 depicts the basic classification of induction machine.. The problems associated with existing control technique can only be reviewed and commented after the literature survey. Rotor resistance estimation and modelling of induction machine have been popular for past one decade in the research community. Moreover, fast and accurate control technique and evolutionary development in the digital control techniques opened a new area for research as model based predictive control, sliding mode control and switching transient control.
All these technique of sensorless or encoderless control promises the faster and accurate control. In [1] have presented an article related to sensorless control of induction machine that includes the techniques that estimate the rotor speed based on nonideal phenomena such as rotor slot harmonics and high frequency signal injection methods. Such methods require spectrum analyses which, besides being timeconsuming procedures, allow a narrow band of speed control.
Figure 1 Utilization of Electrical Machine in Different Application New techniques to evaluate faults have been given, in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closedloop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at startup and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type [2]. The percentage of copper losses in the induction machine (IM) governs the performance and hence the efficiency of the machine.
The temperature dependence of stator resistance results in inaccurate performance prediction if temperature is not taken into account in advance [3]. Estimation of both stator and rotor resistances are dealt with, in order to monitor the thermal behavior of the induction machine in real time. For this, a
modelling is not given for the simplicity of the paper. However, the reason due to which the heat generated in any electrical machine is classified in the figure 3. No load loss and full load loss are the basic division and had been studied throughout the literatur
reducedorder electrical model is presented and introduced in extended Kalman filters. [4] A new technique for stator resistance (R/sub s/)based thermal monitoring of small line connected induction machines is proposed in this paper.
A simple device is developed for injecting a small DC signal into lineconnected induction machines for estimation of Rs. The proposed DC injection device is capable of intermittently injecting a controllable DC bias into the motor with very low power dissipation [8].

INDUCTION MACHINE AND LOSS MODELLING Figure 2 gives the definite arrangement of the induction
machine with detailed assembly. It is very much obvious that the heat flow in the machine is part of the air and ventilation provided by the structure. There are several indian standards which are more prominent for the design of induction machine with definite heat flow to cool the machine for the ambient issue.
Total Loss
No Load Loss
Full Load Loss
Iron Loss
Mechanical Loss
Copper Loss
Stray Load Loss
Eddy Current
Loss Hysteresis Loss
Friction Loss
Windage Loss
Rotor Copper Loss
Stator Copper Loss
Slot Leakage Flux Loss
Surface Loss
Rotor Position and Copper Loss due to Zigzag mmf
Losses Due to Belt Leakage Flux
End Leakage Losses
Figure 3 Separation of Losses
Skew Leakage Losses
Figure 2 Part of the Induction Machine
Figure 2 is more elaborative as part of induction machine is given where as the insulation in between the contact is provided in the machine. The insulation in the system is given in the classes and categorized with the highest and average heat with the operation.
Table 1 Level of allowable temperature for Various Insulation Class
Class of Insulation
Temperature Level [C]
Y
90
A
105
E
120
B
135
F
150
H
180
C
>180
Table 1 provides the class of insulation for the different temperature range s per the improved analysis and in the degree centigrade. The class is useful for the selection of the insulation applied in the induction machine with rise in the temperature and fall in the heat flow as depending on the operation of the induction machine. Here, the heat flow
Losses are produced by magnetic fluxes and electric currents in machines which have complicated distribution such that the sources of losses are often ambiguous. In addition, when heat is generated its dissipation follows yet another complicated thermal pattern.
Rotor Axis for PhaseA
Rotor Axis for PhaseA
A
iA
ib
b
A
iA
ib
b
B
i
V
v
B
i
V
v
VB
VB
va
ia
a
va
ia
a
VC
Stator Axis Phasea
v
VC
Stator Axis Phasea
v
C iC
Rotor
Stator
ic
c
C iC
Rotor
Stator
ic
c
Direction of Rotation
Direction of Rotation
B
B
A
A
b
b
c
c
r
r
Figure 4 Stator and Rotor winding of Electrical Machine
The dq Transformation
For induction machine the very preferred reference frame is one with the axes rotating at synchronous speed. In dq axis it is assumed to be 90 phase displacement between the d and q axis. The dq variable transformation is given as:
2 2 2
2 2 2
i i cos t i cos t i cos t
(3.1)
Temp Rise
150
ds 3 a s b s 3 c s 3
2 2 2
2 2 2
i i sin t i sin t i sin t
qs 3 a s b s 3 c s 3
And the inverse transformation is given as;
ia ids cosst iqs sin st
Temperature
Temperature
100
i i
cos t 2 i
sin t 2
(3.2)

ds
s 3 qs s 3
i i cos t 2 i
sin t 2

ds s 3 qs s 3
Similarly, all the transformation can be applied for voltage and flux linkages of the induction machine for 3phase to 2phase conversion. However, for the rotor quantities in relation to synchronously rotated dq axes need to be determined. Let us assume that the r is the angle by which daxis leads phase A axis of rotor.
The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font (please no other font). To create multileveled equations, it may be necessary to treat the equation as a graphic and insert it into the text after your paper is styled.
Temperature Rise
120
100
Temperature [C]
Temperature [C]
80
50
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [min]
Figure 6 Temperature rise with ambient effect


LOSSES IN INDUCTION MACHINE
Iron Loss
Iron loss is more prominent and it is consequences of an alternating magnetic field. The losses comprise hysteresis and eddy currents are comprised and result of induction of current which circulate within the conducting material. The iron losses mainly occur in stator magnetic section, since under normal operating conditions the frequency of the rotor flux is low, resulting in small rotor losses
60
40
20
0
Winding Temp Frame Temp
Friction and Windage Loss
A loss caused by the resistance to the motion within the bearing is classed as friction loss. Whereas, in fan cooled machine power required to drive the fan and to overcome the resistance offered by air is called the Windage loss. In practical machine it is not possible to segregate these two losses in the machine as both are associated with rotational
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [min]
Figure 5 Temperature Rise in the Induction Machine
However, the system used in the experiment is low rating and the mounting mechanism is used in order to develop the analytical study for the thermal behaviour.
speed. Generally, friction and Windage loss is proportional to the square root of the speed. In practice, the measurement of iron, friction and windage losses are straightforward using a series of no load tests despite all the complexities involved in their prediction. In the no load test, the machine is run at rated voltage and frequency without any connected load until the power input becomes constant. The power input at the rated voltage will therefore be the sum of the friction and windage, core, and no load primary copper losses. Subtracting the calculated copper losses at the test temperature from the power input gives the sum of the friction and windage, and core losses.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This paper is part work of the master of technology under the guidance of the Mr. Abhijit Mandal at Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Raipur affiliated to the Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai.
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Fanidhar Dewangan pursued Bachelors Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai, India. Currently he is doing M.Tech from Disha Institue of Technology, Raipur in the Electrical drives and Power system.
Abhijit Mandal, Bachelors Degree in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering from Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India and Masters Degree in Electrical Engineering from Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai, India. Currently he is working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Disha Institute of Management & Technology, Raipur, India. His research interest includes Power Electronics Converters, Non Conventional Energy Sources and Energy Conservation.