Improved Probabilistic Packet Marking Algorithm to Obtain a Correct Constructed Graph

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV2IS101181

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Improved Probabilistic Packet Marking Algorithm to Obtain a Correct Constructed Graph

Ms. Gayatri B.Chavan

M.E. Student, Department of Information Technology Sipanas College of Engineering & Technology, Amravati

Prof. P.P.Tijare

Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology, Amravati Sipanas College of Engineering & Technology

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks could be considered as one of the most serious security problems to the Internet today. To locate the sources of the attack packets, we usually need to find the paths through which the attack packets traversed from the sources to the victim. In this paper, we identify the weaknesses of an existing marking scheme for tracing DDoS attacks and propose an Improved version of the marking scheme. The proposed marking scheme describe a technique for tracing anonymous packet flooding attacks in the internet back towards their source & the proper termination of the traceback procedure with termination packet number. This work is motivated by the increased frequency and sophistication of denial-of- service attacks and by the difficulty in tracing packets with incorrect, or spoofed, source addresses. This system is a general purpose traceback mechanism based on probabilistic packet marking in the network.

  1. Denial of service (DoS) or Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks have become one of the most severe network attacks today [2]. Though relatively easy to be executed , it could cause devastating damages. By consuming a huge

    amount of system resources, DoS attacks can render the normal services to the legitimate users unavailable. While email has become the most popular form of communication, the DDoS attack is a common mode of attack to cripple a mail server. Many researchers have made much effort to withstand DoS attacks, focusing on how to mitigate the effect of the attacks . The most effective approach against DoS attacks is to isolate the attackers from the victims network. Thus, locating the attacker is an important task. We cannot rely on the source address in the IP header of an attack packet, because the source address is never authenticated. In the current protocol when a router forwards a packet, and the attacker can spoof the source IP address while launching an attack. Therefore, locating the source of an attack usually involves finding the paths of the relevant packets. Because of the stateless nature of Internet routing, it is very difficult to identify the paths of the packets. Finding the paths of the attack packets is known as the IP traceback problem [9], [11], [12], [13]. In general, traceback techniques can be grouped into two major categories: one based on tracing a single packet, such as the hash- based traceback approach, and the other based on using a large number of packets for tracing back to the attackers. The marking scheme proposed in this paper belongs to the category based on using large number of

    packets for traceback. In the literature, different approaches, based on using a large number of packets, have been proposed for IP traceback, such as link testing, ICMP traceback, probabilistic packet marking (PPM) scheme based methods, advanced authenticated marking scheme, algebraic marking scheme, etc. However, all of them have drawbacks and cannot be easily exploited for practical applications.

    This paper proposes an Improved packet marking scheme which provide a precise termination condition for the PPM lgorithm. The most significant merit of this algorithm is that when the algorithm terminates, the algorithm guarantees that the constructed attack graph is correct, with a specified level of confidence.

    1.1 Overview of PPM algorithm

    The packet marking procedure is designed to randomly encode edges information on the packets arriving at the routers. Then, by using the information, the victim executes the graph reconstruction procedure to construct the attack graph. The packet marking procedure aims at encoding every edge of the attack graph, and the routers encode the information in three marking fields of an attack packet: the start, the end, and the distance fields.

    Packet Marking Procedure (Packet w)

    Step 1: Let x be a random number in [01) Step 2: If x< pm, Then

    Step 3: Write routers address into w.start and 0 into w.distance

    Step 4: else

    Step 5: If w.distance=0 then

    Step 6: Write routers address into w.end Step 7: end If

    Step 8: increment w.distance by one Step 9: end If

    When a packet arrives at a router, the router determines how the packet can be processed based on a random number x (line number 1 in the pseudocode). If x is smaller than the predefined marking probability pm, the router chooses to start encoding an edge. The router sets the start field of the incoming packet to the routers address and resets the distance field of that packet to zero. Then, the router forwards the packet to the next router. When the packet arrives at the next router, the router again chooses if it should start encoding another edge. For example, for this time, the router chooses not to start encoding a new edge. Then, the router will discover that the previous router has started marking an edge, because the distance field of the packet is zero. Eventually, the router sets the end field of the packet to the routers address. Nevertheless, the router increments the distance field of the packet by one so as to indicate the end of the encoding. Now, the start and the end fields together encode an edge of the attack graph. For this encoded edge to be received by the victim, successive routers should choose not to start encoding an edge, that is, the case x > pm in the pseudocode, because a packet can encode only one edge. Furthermore, every successive router will increment the distance field by one so that the victim will know the distance of the encoded edge.

    Figure1.1 Example: Probabilistic Packet Marking

    Figure1.2 A 14-router binary-tree network

    When the graph reconstruction procedure returns a constructed graph, it implies the termination of the PPM algorithm. However, the termination condition has not thoroughly been investigated in the literature. It turns out that the termination condition is important, because it determines the correctness of the constructed graph: If it stops too early, the constructed graph will not contain enough edges of the attack graph and, thus, fails to fulfill the traceback purpose. In addition, it is also not a proper way to allow the victim to collect marked packets for a long period before the victim starts the graph reconstruction procedure, because the victim would never know how much time is long enough. Also one cannot apply one cannot apply the termination condition to complex networks such that the reconstruction of one path is dependent on another. This scenario can be explained in Figure1.2, which is a binary-tree network with 14 routers. The leaf routers from R7 to R14 are connected to a pool of attackers. These attackers send out attack traffic toward the victim v, and this presents a multiple-attacker environment. In this graph, the attack packets traversed through eight paths that are identical in structure. However, there are shared edges among

    these paths. This implies that the reconstruction of one path is dependent on another. Therefore, one cannot treat (1) as the termination condition under this scenario and this restricts the application of the PPM algorithm. Hence, a proper termination condition can also help in speeding up the traceback process. Therefore, the new algorithm the Improved PPM(IMPROVED PPM) algorithm is a way to obtain a correct constructed graph with a specified level of guarantee.

  2. The denial-of-service (DoS) attack has been a pressing problem in recent years [2]. Pushback message [3], ICMP traceback [4],

    rate limiting, packet filtering [5], [7], [8], in some cases, help limit the impact of Denial- of-service attacks, but usually only at points where the Denial-of-service attack is consuming fewer resources than that are available. In many cases, the only defense is a reactive one, where the source or sources of an ongoing attack are identified and prevented from continuing the attack. One major difficulty is to defend against Distributed Denial-of-service attack is that attackers often use fake, or spoofed IP addresses as the IP source address. Therefore, attackers can easily disguise themselves as some other hosts on the Internet. Because of the stateless nature of the Internet, it is a difficult task to determine or trace the source of these attackers packets and there by locate the potential locations of these attackers. This is known as the IP traceback problem. Many IP traceback techniques [9], [11], [12], [13] have been proposed, they all have short comings that limit their usability in practice. Some of them are Ingress filtering[6] requires edge routers to have sufficient processing power, to inspect the packets

    destination IP address for normal packet forwarding service. It also need to inspect the source address and determine whether it is a legitimate or illegitimate address. Another major problem with ingress filtering is that this technique is only effective if there is a widespread deployment in the networking community such that many ISPs are willing to deploy this service. Moreover, even with the enabling of ingress filtering service, attackers can still forge the source IP addresses as other hosts within their network domain. Alternative approach to DDoS traceback includes input debugging approach, which requires cooperation between system administrators of different ISPs. Therefore, it may not be able to trace the attackers in realtime or in the midst of a DDoS attack. Other approaches such as controlled flooding, which either generates many additional packets to the network (which can be viewed as another form of DDoS attack), or network logging [12], which requires additional storage and computational overhead of the participating routers. All, the above approaches have performance problems and significant deployment difficulties. One promising solution, proposed by savage et al [10], is to let routers probabilistically mark packets with partial path information during packet forwarding. The victim then reconstructs the complete path after receiving a modest number of packets that contain the marking. This approach has a low overhead for routers and the network and supports incremental deployment.

  3. The PPM algorithm is not perfect, as its termination condition is not well defined. The algorithm requires prior knowledge about the network topology. In PPM algorithm the Termination Packet Number (TPN) calculation is not well defined and it

    only supports the single attacker environment. On the other hand, the improved PPM algorithm does not require any prior knowledge about the network topology and it determines the certainty that the constructed graph is the attack graph when the algorithm terminates. To accomplish this goal, the graph reconstruction procedure of the original PPM algorithm is replaced and new technique is called improved graph reconstruction procedure. And the packet marking procedure of PPM algorithm is not required to change.

  4. This scheme introduces the new termination condition of the PPM algorithm. Through the new termination condition, the user of the new algorithm is free to determine the correctness of the constructed graph. The constructed graph will reach the marking probability and the structure of the underlying network graph.

    In the proposed work, the path will be constructed which the data packets should traverse. This path should dynamically change in case of traffic and failure in router. In packet marking procedure each packet will be marked with random values. These values are encoded edges information on the packet arriving at the routers. After that, the router availability will be checked, depends upon the router availability the path will be constructed. The encoded values in the packet are retrieved and it decoded and checked with the generated code. The path will be re- constructed with the received packets, it validated with the constructed path.

  5. The goal of this algorithm is that guarantees that the constructed graph is the same as the attack graph with probability greater than P* where P* is the traceback confidence level. To accomplish this goal, the graph reconstruction procedure of the original PPM algorithm is completely replaced, and the new procedure called Improved graph reconstruction procedure. On the other hand, the packet marking procedure put as it is so that every router deployed with the PPM algorithm is not required to change.

    1. Improved Graph Reconstruction Procedure

      The pseudocode of the improved graph reconstruction procedure is shown in pseudo code and the procedure is started as soon as the victim starts collecting marked packets. When a marked packet arrives at the victim, the procedure first checks if this packet encodes a new edge. If so, the procedure accordingly updates the constructed graph Gc. Next, if the constructed graph is connected, where connected means that every router can reach the victim, the procedure calculates the number of incoming packets required before the algorithm stops, and we name this number the TPN.

      Improved Graph Reconstruction Procedure

      /* Initially, Gc contains the victim node only, and pkt_count=0. */

      Step 1. Foreach incoming packet pkt ; do Step 2. pkt_count := pkt_count + 1;

      Step 3. If the incoming packet pkt contains an edge e

      that is not included in Gc; then

      Step 4. Construct the new attack graph Gc by inserting the edge e;

      Step 5. If Gc is a connected graph; then Step 6. TPN := TPN_subroutine(Gc,P*) Step 7. pkt_count := 0

      Step 8. end if Step 9. end if

      Step 10. If Gc is a connected graph ; then Step 11. If pkt_count > TPN ; then

      Step 12. Return Gc as the constructed graph : Step 13. end If

      Step 14. end if

      Step 15. end Foreach

      The procedure then resets the counter for the incoming packets to zero and starts counting the number of incoming packets. In the meantime, the procedure checks if the number of collected packets is larger than the TPN. If so, the procedure claims that the constructed graph Gc is the attack graph, with probability P*. Otherwise, the victim receives a packet that encodes a new edge. Then, the procedure updates the constructed graph, revisits the TPN calculation subroutine, resets the counter for incoming packets, and waits until a packet that encodes a new edge arrives or the number of incoming packets is larger than the new TPN.

      As suggested by the pseudo code, the termination condition of the Improved PPM algorithm is that the counter for the incoming packets is larger than the TPN, and this implies that the calculation of the TPN during each update of the constructed graph is the core of the Improved PPM algorithm.

  6. This section presents the calculation of the TPN at each connected state so that the Improved PPM algorithm returns a correct

    constructed graph, with probability larger than P*.

    1. Termination Packet Number Calculation Pseudo code

      The subroutine calculates the TPN, and it is executed whenever the Improved graph reconstruction procedure enters a new state. When the routine is visited for the first time, the variable X that is used to store the accumulated state-change probability is initialized to one.

      TPN_subroutine(Graph G, Traceback Confidence Level P*)

      /* Let the variables , X and p_min be static variables, which mean the values of these variables are not erased after exiting the subroutine. */

      Step 1. If G is not connected & G.edge > 0; then Step 2. If the previous state is a connected state ; then Step 3. X := X × (1 – (1 p_min) ) ;

      Step 4. end If

      Step 5. exit the subroutine ; Step 6. end If

      Step 7. If the previous state is a connected state &

      G.edge > 0; then

      Step 8. p := packet_type probability of the new edge of the constructed graph ;

      Step 9. X := X × (1 – (1 p) ) ;

      Step 10. end If

      Step 11. p_min := 1 ;

      Step 12. Foreach extended graph Ge in G(G) ;

      Step 13. p := the packet-type probability of the extended edge of Ge ;

      Step 14. p_min := min(p_min, p) ; Step 15. end Foreach

      Step 16. := [log(1 P*/X)/ log(1 – p_min) + 1]; Step 17. return ;

      Next, based on the connectivity of the current constructed graph, the variable X is updated in different ways: 1) if the current constructed graph is connected, the subroutine calculates the packet-type probability of the new edge and then updates the variable X, and 2) if the current constructed graph is disconnected, the subroutine uses the minimum packet-type probability of the extended edge that was chosen from the extended graphs of the previous constructed graph, that is, p min in the pseudocode. Next, if the current constructed graph is disconnected, the TPN subroutine will not calculate the TPN, and one should exit the subroutine. Otherwise, the subroutine calculates the TPN . Finally, the subroutine returns the calculated TPN.

  7. An attack graph is a visual aid used to document the known security risks of a particular architecture; in short, it captures the paths attackers could use to reach their goals. The graphs purpose is to document the risks known at the time the system is designed, which helps architects and analysts understand the system and find good trade-offs that mitigate these risks. Improved PPM has natural applications in solving the IP traceback problem which is a potential countermeasure against distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. In this problem, the internal network information at each router is the IP address of its (incoming) interface and the goal of a Improved PPM scheme for IP traceback is to convey the entire IP-level path from the source to the destination.

  8. The denial-of-service attacks motivate the development of Improved traceback capabilities. There are various traceback

    algorithms based on packet marking and the PPM is one of them which is based on overloading existing IP header fields and its implementation is capable of fully tracing an attack after having received only a few thousand packets. But PPM algorithm lacks a proper definition of the termination condition. Which leads to an undesirable outcome: there is no guarantee of the correctness of the constructed graph produced by the PPM algorithm. So the Improved PPM guarantees that the constructed graph is a correct one, with a specified probability, and such a probability is an input Parameter of the algorithm. To conclude, the Improved PPM algorithm is an effective means of improving the reliability of the original PPM algorithm.

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