 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 282
 Authors : Ms. Samta Jain
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS2241
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 02 (February 2013)
 Published (First Online): 28022013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Implementation of Parallel Interference Cancellation Algorithm for Rake Receiver and Comparison with DSCDMA
Ms. Samta Jain
Department of Electronics and Communication Acropolis Technical Campus, Indore, India
Abstract In order to suppress the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) in the DS CDMA system, a new RAKE receiver based on parallel interference elimination is proposed in this paper. The multipleaccess interference is evaluated by tentative decision and known user information. Then the performance over Rayleigh fading channel are analyzed and compared to conventional DSCDMA receiver and PIC RAKE receiver. It is shown that RAKE receiver performance can be improved greatly by using Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC) method with simple structure and easy implementation [1].
Key words: Parallel Interference Cancellation (PIC); RAKE receiver; MultipleAccess Interference (MAI); Rayleigh fading.

INTRODUCTION
The CDMA system implemented by the directsequence spread spectrum (DS/SS) technique is the most promising multiplexing technology for cellular telecommunications services, such as personal communications, mobile telephony, and indoor wireless networks. The advantages of DS/SS for these services include superior operation in multipath environments, flexibility in the allocation of channels, the ability to operate asynchronously, privacy, and increased capacity in burst or fading channels [2]. One of the most attractive features of direct sequence codedivision multiple access (DS CDMA) systems is the capability of sharing bandwidth with narrowband communication systems without performance degradation of any one of the systems.
It is well known that the processing gain of a
[4], [5]. The higher the processing gain is, the better interference rejection the system has [5], [6]. For a moderate level of narrowband interference, the processing gain of the spread spectrum system often provides sufficient capability of interference rejection; hence, a simple despreading correlator can be employed to achieve a good performance. However, if the interfering signal is strong enough, the reliable communication becomes impossible even with the advantage of spectrum spreading. In these cases, the interference immunity can be improved significantly by using signal processing techniques which can complement the spread spectrum modulation.According to the conventional DSCDMA system analysis, we find out that the multiple access interference (MAI) is a major problem. Several methods have been proposed to suppress the interference in DS/SS transmission systems [6]. This paper concentrates on developing the parallel interference cancellation (PIC) to achieve a significant improvement in performance and increase the user capacity [7] and to reduce the effects of MAI and utilizes the processing gain with less noise enhancement.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. The system model is addressed in Section II. A system description is given in Section III. The DS CDMA and proposed PIC with RAKE is described in this section. In Section IV, the simulation results and analysis for SNR Vs BER is presented. Finally, the conclusions are given in Section V.

SYSTEM MODEL
A. Transmitter Model
Considering a single district with K
users, the baseband signal for the Kth user is given by
spread spectrum system will provide the system with
a sufficient capability of interference rejection [3],
= ( + )
(1)
Where Eck , dk (t) stand for the signal power and information stream for the Kth user respectively, c is the carrier frequency, k is the carrier frequency
phase, ck (t) is the signature wave for the Kth user, Tc
is the chip width, Ts is the every symbol width for user information stream. So the spread gain is obtained Nc = Ts / Tc.

Channel Model
Rake receivers are designed as taking out delay line model in frequencyselective channel, so the complex lowpass equivalent impulse response can be written as:
= ( )
=
(2)
In (2), L is resolvable path number, l and l is the gain and phase of the lth resolvable path respectively, obey to Rayleigh distribution in the Rayleigh channel.

The Receiving Signal
In this thesis, for simplicity, we consider a synchronous uplink CDMA system in the Rayleigh channel, the received signal can be written as
(3)
In (3), n(t) represents the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and its power spectrum density is 0/2.

Rake parallel interference canceller
In the PIC with RAKE receicer, the RAKE fingers will saperate the paths of rayleigh channel by proving the delay to the received signal. Thus, the output of the correlator can be written as:
, = (+) (4)
=
, +


SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The comparison of DSCDMA with PIC RAKE receiver is explained in this section as follows:

DSSSCDMA
It is well known that in DSCDMA systems all mobiles share the same bandwidth and are distinguished by their unique spreading codes [8]. Nonorthogonality between mobiles spreading codes manifests themselves as mutual interference to other mobiles. For this reason, DSCDMA systems are often termed to be interferencelimited.
Figure 1 shows the simulation model of conventional DSCDMA receiver. As shown in fig. r(t) is the received signal defined by equation (3). This received signal is spreaded signal, so it is first despreaded using despreader in which the signature wave ck is multiplied with the received signal. Then this despreaded signal is demodulated using demodulator in which BPSK demodulator is implemented and final bit error is calculated.
Figure 1: Simulation model of conventional DS CDMA receiver.

Parallel Interference Canceller (PIC)
with RAKE Receiver
According to the conventional DSCDMA
=
= ,
() ,
+ () (5)
system analysis, we find out that the multiple access interference (MAI) is a major problem. However, we use the parallel interference cancellation (PIC) to
= , + + () (6) Where:
achieve a significant improvement in performance and increase the user capacity [9].
= ()
(7)
The fig.2 shows the simulation model for
,
PIC with RAKE receiver. RAKE fingers are used to separate the path of multipath channel, since four
In (6), the first item stands for signal; the second item is the multiple access interference (MAI) of the other (K1) users to the Kth; the last is the additive white Gauss noise (AWGN) and its average square error is N0/2 .
paths channel is assumed, it is four fingers are used. After separation of the paths the signal is given to the PIC stages, where interference is cancelled out parallel.


SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Simulation results for conventional DS CDMA
Figure 4 shows the results of conventional DSCDMA on the basis of number of users. The parameters are chosen as: number of users K is 1, 5 and 10, the value of spread factor Nc is 32, the length of data bits sent is 1000 and the number of paths of Rayleigh Fading channel l is 4.
Figure 2: Simulation model for PIC with RAKE receiver
1 PERFORMANCE OF CONVENTIONAL CDMA
USER=1
USER=5
USER=10
USER=1
USER=5
USER=10
10
We consider a PIC scheme that could be a 2
single stage shown in figure 3. In this scheme, we 10
BER
BER
shall assume that received signal is the sum of K users signal. If it is perfect cancellation, one would theoretically need exact knowledge of the data bits
corresponding to all of the other K1 users. Since indeed this information is unknown, the above theoretical assumption is practically invalid. However, by replacing exact knowledge of the other K1 users bits by estimation of other values, we arrive at an iterative scheme wherein each stage of the iteration produces new and better estimates of the user bits based upon those obtained in the previous stage. This iteration scheme is used in multistage PIC.
3
10
4
10
0 5 10 15
SNR
Figure 4: Performance of Conventional CDMA for Different Users
Figure. 5 show the result of conventional
DSCDMA on the basis of different spread factor. The number of users K is 5.
Figure 3: Simulation Model of One Stage PIC
1 PERFORMANCE OF CONVENTIONAL CDMA
10
SPREAD FACTOR=16 SPREAD FACTOR=32 SPREAD FACTOR=64
2
10
BER
BER
After interference cancellation the
10
10
signal is given to traditional Rake receiver, the result 3
using maximum ratio combining is [10]:
=
=
=
,
, () (8)
In (8), is the evaluation value for the kth
user in the lth path.
When (8) is decided, the tentative test value about the symbol is obtained as:
= ( ()) (9) In (9), D(.) stands for decision function,
which may be hard decision or soft decision. Traditional PIC adopts hard decision. In this paper, we use simplified soft decision—linear decision.
4
10
0 5 10 15
SNR
Figure 5: Performance of Conventional CDMA for different values of Spread Factor

Simulation Results for PIC with RAKE
Figure.6 shows the performance comparison of conventional PIC for different number of users.
The parameters are chosen as: number of users K is 1, 5 and 10, the value of spread factor Nc is 32, the length of data bits sent is 1000 and the number of paths of Rayleigh Fading channel l is 4.
PRFORMANCE OF PIC WITH RAKE
Fig.8 that when the signalnoiseratio (SNR) is lower, the two kind receivers show little difference, but with the SNR increasing, the PIC with RAKE show superior performance than DSCDMA receiver, especially, the PIC system proposed in this paper appears the best performance.
0
10
USER=1 102
USER=5
USER=10
1
10
Performance of PIC
CONVENTIONAL CDMA PIC WITH RAKE
BER
BER
2
10
BER
BER
3
10
3
10
4
10
5 0 5 10 15
SNR
4
10
0 5 10 15
Figure 6: Performance of PIC with RAKE for different Users
Figure. 7 show the performance of PIC with RAKE for different Spread Factor. The number of users K is 5.
SNR
Table 1:Comparison of Conventional DSCDMA on the basis of Users and Spread Factor
0 Performance of PIC
10
1
10
2
BER
BER
10
3
10
4
10
SPREAD FACTOR=16 SPREAD FACTOR=32 SPREAD FACTOR=64
Table 2:Comparison of PIC with RAKE on the basis of Users and Spread Factor
5
10
0 5 10 15
SNR
Figure : 7 Performance of PIC with RAKE for different Spread Factor

Comparison Result of DSCDMA and PIC with RAKE
Figure. 8 show the results of comparison of conventional DSCDMA and PIC with RAKE. The parameters are chosen as: number of users K is 5, the value of spread factor Nc is 64, the length of data bits sent is 1000 and the number of paths of Rayleigh Fading channel l is 4.
In Figure. 8, the parallel interference cancellation algorithm based on linear decision proposed in this paper is compared with conventional DSCDMA. Each L of them is 4. It can be seen from
Table 1 and Table 2 are showing the performance of DSCDMA and PIC with RAKE, respectively. The number of users chosen as 1, 5 and 10 and SNR is compared with bit error rate (BER). The values of SRN are taken as 0, 5 and 10 dB.


CONCLUSION
CDMA is a spreadspectrum multiaccess technique which is currently the object of much attention. However, this technique suffers from severe reductions in system performance because of MultipleAccess Interference (MAI). In this paper, we have proposed and analyzed a MAI cancellation using PIC with RAKE for DS/CDMA signals over wireless channels that are characterized by multipath fading links. The proposed method, which is based on [1], is a parallel interference cancellation which attempts to cancel the MAI. Numerical results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it has been shown that the proposed cancellation strategy can alleviate the effects of the MAI and that significant system capacity improvement can be achieved using the proposed detector instead of the conventional DS/CDMA receiver.
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