Impact of Socio Cultural Challenges in Solid Waste Management

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Impact of Socio Cultural Challenges in Solid Waste Management

Dr. Ritika Sinha

Assistant Professor, CBSMS, Dept. of Mgmt Studies Bangalore University

Bangalore, India

B. C. Prabhudev

Research Scholar, CBSMS, Dept of Mgmt Studies Bangalore University

Bangalore , India

AbstractSolid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area. By observation we can find that peoples behavior is based on social and cultural world around them. Through this paper we are trying to explore the relationship of the socio-cultural attributes in generation of solid waste. These identified attributes are also the challenges for the society while handling solid waste .To identify these attributes, we have followed a two stage design, first stage being exploratory research to explore the socio-cultural attributes followed by descriptive research to understand the influence of these attributes in generation of solid waste. The analysis of these attributes will help in framing polices for solid waste management by Urban Local Bodies and also in educating and training pourakarmikas, educational institutions and Common man about solid waste and its management.

KeywordsSolid Waste Management, Socio cultural Challenges , Urban Local Bodies , Pourakarmikas

  1. INTRODUCTION

    This Solid waste was a problem even before water and air pollution issues attracted the notice of human civilization. Problems associated with solid wastes can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services, the quantity and quality of waste have changed over the years[7].

    Excessive quantities of waste are generated from a society from inefficient production processes, and low durability of goods as well as unsustainable consumption of resources.a1

    Solid Waste Management is one of the important obligatory functions of ULB in India. This service falls far short of desired levels, resulting in problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation[2].

  2. OBJECTIVES:

    1. Identify key socio-cultural issues of Solid waste management.

    2. To recognize the impact of these socio-cultural issues on solid waste management.

    attributes from the Indian context is a challenge and very important for multi cultural country with many religions and regional cultural differences like India.

    To achieve our goal , we have followed a two stage design, first stage being exploratory research to explore the socio cultural attributes followed by descriptive research to understand the influence of these attributes in generation of solid waste. The analysis of these attributes will help us in educating and training the stakeholders about solid waste and its management.

    Using both primary and secondary data we have conducted an exploratory research and found that Gender, education, age, festivals, work / occupation are the most important key factors contributing for the generation and composition of solid waste. Second, we have tried to find the impact of these factors in our society through descriptive research, considering random sampling technique with a sample size of 50 respondents across Bengaluru.

    The key attributes identified in our research are discussed in detail below:

    1. Gender

      A study among men and women were conducted to understand their perceptions about waste and its generation. Due to the involvement of females in household activities, females understand waste and its management better than men as shown in Fig.1. and Table I. Hence, if the females of the society are well educated about segregation of waste at the source, then much of the solid waste management related problems can be avoided.

      On the otherhand , educating males about waste and its management is also very important which could enhance the SWM process at the household and office level. Hence a collective understanding of both males and females will solve the SWM problem at ease.

      80

      60

  3. METHODOLOGY: 40

    By observation we can find that people based on their 20

    experience of the social and cultural world around them

    generate solid waste. Through this paper we have tried to 0

    explore the relationship of the socio cultural attributes in

    generation of solid waste. Identification of the socio cultural

    Males Females

    SW Understanding

    Fig. 1. Gender wise understanding of Solid Waste

    1. Education

      35

      Table I 30

      Gender

      Percentage (%)

      Male

      26

      Female

      74

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      Education is also one of the key attribute identified during this research. From Fig.2. and Table II we can observe that the understanding of solid waste in the minds of a School and Degree students are almost the half of the HE holders. This is the pain point to be solved by policy makers of the Government by introducing waste management as a part of their syllabus at both school and university level. It also becomes the duty of the Schools and colleges to conduct awareness and training programmes for the students regarding waste management. By doing so, the future generations would take waste management to the next level.

      60

      40

      20

      0

      10th – 12th

      Degree

      Higher Education

      Education

      Fig.2. Education wise Understanding of Solid Waste

      Table II

      Education

      Percentage (%)

      10th 12th Standard

      26

      Degree

      26

      Higher Education

      48

    2. Age

      Age is also a very important attribute which plays a major role in the management of waste.Identification of the age group contributing for generation of waste is very important because , the root cause for the problem in SWM can be eleminated at the earlier stage. Fig.3. and Table III shows our research findings where people with the age group from 25 34 and 35 44 contribute more in generating solid waste . Hence, it becomes easy to conclude that the age group 25 to 45 years are responsible for generation of solid waste , followed by the age group 15 24 years. This indirectly indicates , the working people and the student categories involvement in generation of SW.

      0

      15 – 24 25 – 34 35 – 44 45 – 54 55 – 64 65 – Above

      Age

      Fig.3. Age wise contributing to the generation of Solid Waste Table III

      Age

      Percentage

      15 – 24

      14

      25 – 34

      31

      35 – 44

      25

      45 – 54

      10

      55 – 64

      10

      65 – Above

      10

    3. Festivals in India

      Fig.4 and Table IV depicts that majority of the festivals in India is from the month July to December where October to December being the peak , contributing for most of Solid waste generation. List of major festivals are below:

      • April June: Sriramanavami , Ugadi and Good Friday.

      • July Sept: Ramzaan , Varamahalakshmi Vratha , Independence Day, Krishna Janmastami, Gowri and Ganesha festival

      • Oct Dec : andhi Jayanthi , Ayodh pooja , Vijay Dashami , , Naraka Chaturthi ( Dewali ) , Kannada Rajyothsava , Moharam , Chrismas

      • Jan March : New Year , Id Milad , Shankranthi , Maha Shivarathri , Holi

        8

        6

        4

        2

        0

        April -Jun July – Sept

        Oct – Dec

        Jan – Mar

        Quarters

        Fig.4. Festivals generating more Solid Waste

        Table IV

        Months

        No. of Major Festivals in India

        April – June

        3

        July – Sept

        6

        Oct – Dec

        7

        Jan – Mar

        5

        We can also observe that July toDecember being the rainy and cold season in India , it becomes very difficult to manage SW This is a clear indication that, there must be two different types of solid waste management model for any city in India i.e., One solid waste management model from Jan June ( Cold and Summer season ) and another model from July December ( Rainy and Cold Season ).

    4. Work and Occupation

    Fig.5. and Table V through our research shows that, the housewives are not segregating the solid wastes. House wives need to be trained, through workshops to teach them how to segregate wastes. It is important because Kitchen is the source point for household solid waste generation in most of the cases. Schools and colleges must create awareness and training programme to teach their students about how to segregate wastes.

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Student House Wife Professional Retd Personal

    Segregating

    Not Segregating

    (%)

    Segregating

    Not Segregating

    Student

    67

    33

    House Wife

    17

    83

    Professional

    79

    21

    Retired Personal

    50

    50

    Fig.5. Work & Occupation wise Understanding of Solid Waste Table V

    Abbreviations and Acronyms

    SW Solid Waste

    SWM Solid Waste Management ULB Urban Local Bodies Pourakarmikas ULB field workers HE Higher Education

  4. CONCLUSION:

Results of this study found the socio-cultural attributes like festivals, age, education, work and occupations of people countribute in generation of solid waste. This paper also shows that educated people are also not segregating waste. A thought needs to be given in educating learned people about the importance in SWM. The findings shown through this paper are very much practical and can be used as a reference material in any part of India to undertand the reality in society about solid waste management in Indian context.

REFERENCES

  1. Gadkari Shubha, Pune : Awareness Makes a Difference , The Hindu survey of Environment , 1995 , Madras

  2. H.V.N. Rao; Health of the Metropolis Bangalore , Indian Society of Health Administrators, 1989, Bangalore, a study of management of solid waste in Bangalore city, Bangalore

  3. Joshi Sharmila ; Bombay : The City of waste The Hindu Survey of the Environment, 1995, Madras

  4. Maheshwari Shivani; Little Things That Count , The Forum for Environment Concerns, plan for recycling paper, Bombay.

  5. Naryan Manjula; Garbage to Gold , Midday, January 25, 1995, Bombay.

  6. Tinaikar S.S.; What a Waste June 15, 1995, Midday

  7. Timmy Katyal & M. Satake; Environmental Pollution, Anmol Publications. New Delhi.

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