Impact of Petroleum Products on Strength of Concrete

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Impact of Petroleum Products on Strength of Concrete

Vikas Katariaa , Ankur Tayala

a(Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering)

Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta Institute of Technology & Management

Rishabh Kumarb, Nikhilb, Ravi Kumarb,

Abhishek Raib

b(B.tech Student of Civil Engineering, 4th year ADGITM)

Abstract Concrete is the main component for the construction purposes which provide strength to the buildings. Concrete is composed of fine and coarse aggregates bonded together with cement mixed with water in a fixed proportion that hardens over time. Compressive strength of a concrete plays a major role in construction of a structure. This paper investigates the impact of petroleum products on the properties of the concrete. Concrete produced in regions where petroleum products are exploited can have significant changes on the property of the concrete which can adversely affect the construction

Keywords Concrete, Petrol, Kerosene, Diesel, Slump, Compressive strength

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The main aim of this paper is to study about the changes occur on the property of the concrete with contamination of petroleum products to the concrete mix with fixed proportions. So that we could know the effect of petroleum products are how much negative on the properties of the concrete.

    Oil spills in the Niger Delta have been a regular occurrence, and the resultant degradation of the surrounding environment has caused significant tension between the people living in the region and multinational oil companies operating there. It groups, the federal government, and the foreign oil companies operating in the area commenced steps to mitigate the impacts. Large areas of the mangrove ecosystem have also been destroyed.

    It is necessary to find the impact of petroleum products (kerosene, petrol and diesel) on the strength as well as other properties of the concrete. This will help us to study if water contaminated with petroleum products is used in making a concrete structure then what will be the results to the properties of the concrete on the basis of percentage of contamination.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

    Cement

    Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates Water

    Petroleum Products (kerosene, petrol, diesel)

    In this paper, concrete cubes of grade M20, M25 and M30 are made, first with normal water and then by replacing the

    water by 2%, 4% and 6% with petroleum products (Kerosene, Diesel and Petrol) then comparing the values of the strength of the plain and contaminated concrete blocks with each other with the help of compression testing machine to check the strength of the concrete before use for residential purpose, industrial purposes and also comparing the workability (by slump test) of concrete which tells about working time with concrete.

    Material Collection

    Material Collection

    Addition of petroleum products

    Addition of petroleum products

    Slump test

    Slump test

    Results

    Results

    Compression testing after hardening of concrete

    Compression testing after hardening of concrete

    Compression tests are done on 3rd, 7th and 28th day after proper curing in fresh water.

    2.1. Batching of the Constituent Materials

    In general, concrete is mixed with the accurate proportion according to the nominal design as well as calculated mixed design. Batching is done in a quality control laboratory.

    For batching of concrete properly coarse aggregates are further taken into two parts in which 60% aggregates are taken which are passing from 20mm size sieve and retaining on 10mm size sieve, and the remaining 40% aggregates are taken which are passing from 12.5 mm size sieve and retaining on 2.36 mm size sieve, Cement used was 43 grade ordinary Portland cement and fine aggregates

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    65.5mm

    70mm

    72.7mm

    74mm

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    65.5mm

    70mm

    72.7mm

    74mm

    or sand are mixed in the mixer with water with a water cement ratio of 0.45.

    1.1. Slump Test

    The slump values of the concrete mix was achieved by the help of slump cone in the shape of frustrum with upper diameter as 100mm, bottom diameter as 200 mm and height as 300mm. It iis used for determine the workability of concrete . Workability determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated and finished.

    2.2. Compression Testing

    Compression testing is the main test done on concrete to determine the strength of the concrete. For compression testing Universal Testing Machine is use which is a machinery assembly which apply load on the concrete cube(of size 150mm * 150mm * 150mm) by 10 KN per minute.

    Workability of the concrete mix is increasing with the increase of percentage of petroleum products.

    Finally addition of higher percentage of petroleum products is leading to the segregation of the composition of the concrete i.e., Cement, aggregates, Sand which results in the collapse of slump.

    Type

    3rd day

    7th day

    28th day

    Plain concrete

    15.244

    24.57

    38.11

    With 2% diesel

    15.11

    24.23

    37.75

    With 4% diesel

    12.44

    20.215

    31.10

    With 6% diesel

    12.12

    18.78

    30.30

    With 2% petrol

    13.98

    22.86

    36.81

    With 4% petrol

    12.28

    19.59

    33.21

    With 6% petrol

    10.20

    16.28

    26.70

    Type

    3rd day

    7th day

    28th day

    Plain concrete

    15.244

    24.57

    38.11

    With 2% diesel

    15.11

    24.23

    37.75

    With 4% diesel

    12.44

    20.215

    31.10

    With 6% diesel

    12.12

    18.78

    30.30

    With 2% petrol

    13.98

    22.86

    36.81

    With 4% petrol

    12.28

    19.59

    33.21

    With 6% petrol

    10.20

    16.28

    26.70

    3.2. Compressive Strength Test on Cubes Compressive strength in N/mm2

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    25.5mm

    26mm

    26.7mm

    30mm

    S.No.

    Plai Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    25.5mm

    26mm

    26.7mm

    30mm

    S No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    25.5mm

    25.9mm

    26.5mm

    29mm

    S No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    25.5mm

    25.9mm

    26.5mm

    29mm

    3.1. Slump Test For M20

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    25.5mm

    25.7mm

    26.5mm

    28.2mm

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    25.5mm

    25.7mm

    26.5mm

    28.2mm

    For M25

  3. RESULTS

    FOR PETROL

    Compressive Strength on 3rd day

    18

    16

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    40.8mm

    45.4mm

    55.4mm

    Shear Slump

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    40.8mm

    45.4mm

    55.4mm

    Shear Slump

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    40.8mm

    41.5mm

    47.6mm

    52mm

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    40.8mm

    41.5mm

    47.6mm

    52mm

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% Petrol

    With 4% Petrol

    With 6% Petrol

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    40.8mm

    37.5mm

    41mm

    42.6mm

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% diesel

    With 4% diesel

    With 6% diesel

    1

    40.8mm

    37.5mm

    41mm

    42.6mm

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    65.5mm

    72.1mm

    Shear slump

    Collapse slump

    S.No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    1

    65.5mm

    72.1mm

    Shear slump

    Collapse slump

    For M30

    Compressive Strength on 7th day

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    S

    No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    65.5mm

    71.3mm

    74mm

    Shear slump

    S

    No.

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% kerosene

    With 4% kerosene

    With 6% kerosene

    1

    65.5mm

    71.3mm

    74mm

    Shear slump

    Plain Concrete

    With 2% Petrol

    With 4% petrol

    With 6% petrol

    Compressive Strength on 28th day

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% concrete petrol petrol petrol

    Compressive Strength on 28th day

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% Concrete diesel diesel diesel

    Compressive Strength on 28th day

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% concrete petrol petrol petrol

    Compressive Strength on 28th day

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% Concrete diesel diesel diesel

    Compressive Strength on 3rd day

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% Concrete diesel diesel diesel

    Compressive Strength on 3rd day

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% Concrete diesel diesel diesel

    FOR DIESEL 4. CONCLUSION

    Value of slump of concrete is increasing with the increase with amount of contamination of the petroleum products.

    Strength of the concrete is decreasing with increase of amount of petroleum products.

    Increase in contamination of purest form of petroleum product is bad for concrete.

    Contamination of the petroleum products in concrete decreases the binding property of cement.

    With the help of this research paper we have concluded that contamination of petroleum products in concrete is harmful for concrete.

    5. REFRENCES

    1. Benka-Coker, M.O. and Ekundayo, J.A. Effects of an Oil Spill on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties of a Spill Site in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 36, Number 2, pp.93-104, 1994.

      Compressive Strength on 7th day

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% concrete diesel diesel diesel

      Compressive Strength on 7th day

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Plain With 2% With 4% With 6% concrete diesel diesel diesel

    2. Atlas, R. M. Petroleum Biodegradation and Oil spill Bioremediation. Marine Pollution Bulletin 31, pp.178-182, 1995.

    3. Akpofure, E.A., Efere, M.L. and Ayawei, P. The Adverse Effects of Crude Oil Spill in the Niger Delta Urhobo Historical Society, 2000.

    4. Nwilo P. C and Badejo O. T. Impacts and Management of Oil Spill Pollution, International Oil Spill Conference, Miami, Florida, 2005.

    5. Ukoli, M. K. Environmental Factors in the Management of the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria, http://www.warmofloor.co.uk/pages/environmenta lpdf [Accessed on 2/12/2005].

    6. Calabrese, E.J., Kostecki, P.T and Bonazountas, M. Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Taiwan, Vol II, 1991.

    7. Hoff, R. Bioremediation: An Overview of its Development and Uses for Oil Spill Cleanup, Mar. POLLUT. Bull. 26, 476-481, 1993.

    8. Onabolu, O. A. Effect of Hot Crude Oil on Concrete for Offshore Storage Application, PhD Thesis, University of London, pp. 298, 1989.

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    12. Teychenné, D.C., Franklin, R.E., and Erntroy H.C. Design of Normal Concrete Mixes, Building Research Establishment, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Department of Environment, 1978.

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    15. Wilson, S. A., Langdon, N. J. and Walden, P. J. The Effects of Hydrocarbon Contamination on Concrete Strength, Proceedings Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering, Thomas Telfords, London, pp.189-193, 2001.

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    17. Ayininuola, G.M. Influence of Diesel Oil and Bitumen on Compressive Strength of Concrete, Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), Vol.37 (1) pp.65-71, 2009.

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