Identification of Appropriate Locations for Various Water Supply and Sanitation Infrastructure in Chiplun using Q-GIS

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Identification of Appropriate Locations for Various Water Supply and Sanitation Infrastructure in Chiplun using Q-GIS

Aniket V. Chile1, Prathamesh S. Dhawade2, Vinay V. Khandekar3, Pranit G. Thasal4, Prof. Renu Hujre5

1,2,3,4 UG Student, Department of civil Engineering, Gharda Institute of Technology, Lavel-Khed, Ratnagiri-Maharashtra, India. 5Associate Professor, Department of civil Engineering, Gharda Institute of Technology, Lavel-Khed, Ratnagiri-Maharashtra, India.

Abstract: QGIS is one of the best software for site selection. With the help of QGIS software we can select sites without doing the physical survey of the region for which we are going to do site selection.

There should be the proper or appropriate sites for water treatment plant, sewage treatment plant and Landfill. The proper or appropriate site means the site should be at proper distance from different areas like agricultural area, residential area, forest area, road, railway line, etc. according to the government norms, For this we can QGIS software. If we do the site selection by actually going on site, then it will be time consuming but this disadvantage can be overcome with the help of QGIS. In this study we have done site selection for landfill, WTP, STP by using QGIS software. First, we have identified the study area for which we are going to select the WTP, STP and landfill sites. Then we have prepared LULC map. We have identified different regions of land like agricultural, forest, river, etc. and prepared LULC map also we have located road network and railway line.

After preparing LULC we have found the buffer distances to locate buffer zones for WTP, STP, Landfill. Buffer zone means the area which separates the two lands from each other. In our case buffer zone separates WTP, STP, Landfill from agricultural, residential, forest, etc. After that we have applied buffer distances for each area. After application of buffer the which remained in which we have located the sites for WTP, STP and landfill.

INTRODUCTION:

The proper disposal and management of wastes (Liquid waste and solid waste) generated in the city is one of the critical issues. The management of waste has major impact on ecology and environmental health. Due to rapid urbanization and increasing growth of population solid waste management has become acute in India. There are different water supply and sanitary infrastructures for the management and disposal of waste. Landfilling is one of the best solutions for solid waste disposal. If the region contains the different industries, then liquid waste is one of the greatest issues along with the solid waste and hence there should be facilities for the disposal of these generated wastes. Sewage generated from industries should undergoes proper treatment in the sewage treatment plant. With the help of these infrastructures, we can control waste management efficiently, but for this these infrastructures should be located on proper site.

Population growth, rapid urbanization and booming economy and also the increase in living standards of each

community the rate of municipal solid waste generation is increasing nowdays in every country. Usually, the municipality has the responsibility for the management of the waste generated within the cities, municipality facing the challenges associated with the economy, space and providing effective system for the inhabitants. The elementary goal for the solid waste management system is to handle the land use, economic consideration, health and environmental aspects connected with inappropriate disposal of waste. In many countries due to the poor management of waste disposal creates severe environmental issues that have an effect on the welfare of humans and animals and produce cocering serious economic and welfare losses.

Site selection is becoming very challenging task involving socio-economical, environmental and technical dimension. Because while selecting the site we have to take care all the environmental, ecological and social factors. The treatment of sewage is large scale process so it should be done at proper site. While treating sewage so many harmful substances or gases are generated. If the site is very close to the residential, agricultural, water bodies or near to any environmentally sensitive area then there will be enormous harmful impact. So, to avoid this we have to select the appropriate sites for the sewage treatment plant which satisfying all the site selection criteria. With the help of Quantum Geographic Information System (Q-GIS) we can achieve this goal very easily.

STUDY AREA:

CHIPLUN is a city and a tehsil in Ratnagiri district in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the head-quarter of Chiplun taluka and located on the MumbaiGoa highway (NH-66) (it was earlier numbered as NH-17) in western India. The city is about 320 km south of Mumbai in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. It is a fast-developing city in Konkan with a strong cultural background. The name Chiplun means "The abode of Lord Parshuram.

Chiplun city is the economical and commercial Centre of the Ratnagiri District. It is connected to the National Highway 66 and the State Highway 78. It is well connected to Mumbai, Pune, Panaji, etc.

Chiplun municipal council is the head quarter of taluka Chiplun in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra state situated on a west coast of India. This is hilly region and it also lies in between the valley which is covered by Western

Ghats on one side and the Arabian Sea on the other side. The work area of Chiplun region is 24.73 Sq. Kms. The industries are growing on large scale. There are 3 MIDC developed Sat a distance of 12 to 15 Kms from Chiplun.

Fig.01: Study Area (Chiplun)

Material: A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earths surface. GIS can show many different kinds of data on one map. This enables people to more easily see, analyse, and understand patterns and relationships. With GIS technology; people can compare the locations of different things in order to discover how they relate to each other. It can include information about the land, such as the location of streams, different kinds of vegetation, and different kinds of soil. It can include information about the sites of factories, farms, and schools, or storm drains, roads and electric power lines.

In this study we have used version 3.16 of Q GIS software. We have used this version because this version is user friendly. It is very easy to use.

METHODOLOGY:

Sr N

Landfill

WTP

STP

1

Elevation

Elevation

Elevation

2

Availability of waste land

Source of water bodies

Away from Residential area

3

Distance from Road, Residential area, water bodies, Agricultural area

Distance from Road, Residential area, water bodies, Agricultural area

Distance from Road, water bodies, Agricultural area

4

Existing dumping ground

Present & Future land use

Present & Future land use

5

Ground water depth

Topography of the area

Ground water depth

1) Identification of different planning parameter: Based on literature study, considering Geophysical conditions, and availble data on the study area, following criteria were adopted to select suitable site for landfill, WTP & STP.The importance of those criteria and the basis of their selection are outlined below:

STP, WTP required cost and this cost can be reduced by optimizing the best route. It is possible that there may be the multiple routes for transportation of waste. From these routes to identify the best appropriate route we will required to do the analysis of the road network in the study area.

  1. Preparation of different types of maps (LULC, Contour map):

    Land use-Land cover is all about differentiating a given land into various entities such as residential area, agricultural land, water bodies, waste area etc. For the particular area, a land use land cover analysis has to be done to analyse land use and land coverage areas so that we can identify the vacant sites in the given study area. Vacant sites mean the the area of the land which not comes under the any category like agricultural, residential or forest area etc. Basically, identification is very important because in the vacant sites we are going to locate the sites for the landfill, WTP and STP. In this paper the major classification used for the land is residential area, agricultural land, water bodies, forest area. To do so, the google map is opened in the QGIS software as the XYZ tiles.

    Map 01: Land use Land cover map

  2. Buffering & Analysis: Buffering usually creates two areas: one area that is within a specified distance to selected real world features and the other area that is beyond. The area that is within the specified distance is called the buffer zone.

According to the Schedule-I of (Solid Waste Management Rules, Ministry of Environment, India 2016) , (T. Subramani, et al. (2014)), (Kerala Water Authority, (2021) following are the buffer distances for Landfill, WTP, STP with respect to different areas mentioned in table 02.

AREA

BUFFER DISTANCES IN METERS

LANDFILL

WTP

STP

Residential

500

200

400

Road

100

60

200

River

100

100

200

Pond

200

200

200

Agricultural

200

300

200

Playground

200

200

400

Forest

200

100

100

Railway

200

100

200

Table no 01: Different planning parameter for Landfill, WTP, STP

  1. Analysis of different routes: Transportation is one of the major factors which affect the economy of the solid waste management. Transportation of the sludge generated in the

    Table 02: Buffer Distances for LANDFILL, STP, WTP

    1. Landfill Buffering: 7 sites located after buffering.

      Site-1

      Site-2

      Site-3

      Site-4

      Site-7

      Site-5

      Site-6

      Map 02: Landfill Buffered Map with Optimal Sites

    2. WTP buffering: 7 sites were located after buffering.

      1. For Landfill:

        Site-1

        Site-2

        Site-3

        Site-4

        Site-6

        Site-7

        Site-5

        Map 03: WTP Buffered Map with Optimal Sites

    3. STP Buffering: 7 sites located after buffering.

Site-1

Site-2

Site-3

Site-4

Site-7

Site-6

Site-

Map 04: STP Buffered Map with Optimal Sites

Sites No

Area (Km2)

Elevation (m)

Topography

Accessibility Of Route

Conclusion

Remark

1

0.166

423

Gentle slope

Not Easily accessible

Nearest to the out sided residential area

Rejected

2

0.134

539

Sloping ground towards NW

Easily accessible

Steep sloping ground

Rejected

3

0.103

640.5

Moderate slope

Easily accessible

Less area

Rejected

4

0.248

628

Gentle slope

Easily accessible

Most suitable

Adopted

5

0.064

1349

Highly elevated

Not Easily accessible

Outside of study area

Rejected

6

0.083

1248

Steep slope

Easily accessible

Existing Dumping site

Rejected

7

0.046

774

Gentle slope

Not Easily accessible

Outside of study area

Rejected

Table no 03: Discussion of result for Landfill sites

For landfill there were total 7 sites located. From these sites one site of area about 0.248 Sq. km. is adopted.

  1. For WTP:

    Site No

    Area (km2)

    Elevation (m)

    Availability of water source

    Conclusion

    Remark

    1

    0.493

    423

    Railway line between water source

    & railway line, road

    Not easy to access water

    Rejected

    2

    0.470

    539

    Railway line between water source

    & railway line, road

    Not easy to access water

    Rejected

    3

    0.208

    640.5

    Railway line between water source

    & railway line, road

    Not easy to access water

    Rejected

    4

    0.594

    628

    Railway line between water source

    & railway line, road

    Already adopted for landfill site

    Rejected

    5

    0.432

    1248

    Water source available at greater distance

    Existing dumping ground

    Rejected

    6

    0.373

    774

    Near river

    Outside of study area

    Can be adopted but located outside of the study area

    7

    0.284

    703

    Very close to water source

    Most suitable

    Adopted for WTP

    Table no 04: Discussion of result for WTP sites

    For Water Treatment Plant 2 sites were adopted from 7 optimal sites. Out of these 2 sites one site is adoptable only after the relocation of people.

  2. For STP:

Site No

Area (Km2)

Elevation (m)

Proximity to residential area

Conclusion

Remark

1

0.297

425

Near to the residential area

Very close to residential area

Can be adopted but relocation of people required

2

0.301

540

Near to the residential area

Very close to residential area

Can be adopted but relocation of people required

3

0.151

640

Away from residential area

Suitable

Adopted

4

0.458

630

Away from residential area

Adopted for landfill

Rejected

5

0.061

1350

Away from residential area

Highly elevated

Rejected

6

0.284

1250

Near to the residential area

Existing dumping ground

Rejected

7

0.150

775

Near to the residential area

Highly elevated

Rejected

Table no 05: Discussion of result for STP sites

For Sewage Treatment Plant 2 sites are adoptable but only after the relocation of peoples. 3rd site is most suitable.

STP SITE NO: 03

Area: 0.151 sq. km.

Elevation: 640 m.

LANDFILL SITE NO: 04

Area: 0.248 sq. km.

Elevation: 628 m

WTP SITE NO: 06

Area: 0.373 sq. km.

Elevation: 774 m

Note: Relocation of the residence is required for this site

WTP SITE NO: 07

Area: 0.284 sq. km.

Elevation: 703 m.

Fig 02: Final sites for Landfill, WTP, STP

CONCLUSION:

It was discussed in the previous chapter about various sites obtain by using sites suitability analysis. Analysing all the sites with respect to different criteria, we have concluded that one most suitable site for each (landfill, WTP, STP).

  1. Most suitable site for landfill: Site no 04: This site has been selected as the most suitable site, as it has maximum area being far away from residential area, water bodies & other agricultural area. This site is easily accessible from road network, so transportation of waste is easy & economically.

  2. Most suitable site for WTP:

    Site no 07: This site has been given first priority as it has major area is near from water sources (Vashisthi River), So it has easily accessible water from source. This site is situated at high elevation (703 m)

    Site no 06: This site has also more area which near from water source & elevation (774) So it has been given 2nd priority. But actually, it is outside from our study area.

  3. Most suitable site for STP:

Site no.- 03: This site is selected among of 7 sites because this site is near to road, low elevation (640 m), away from residential area.

RESULT:

For the given study area minimum one site for the landfill, water treatment plant and sewage treatment plant is located with the help of the QGIS.

REFERENCES:

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[2] Tamrat Mekuria, J. Muralitharan, Yahya Ali, (2019), GIS and Remote Sensing Based Suitable Site Selection for Solid Waste Disposal: A Case Study of Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia, Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), Volume 8, issue 2

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[9] Sk Ajim Ali, Farhana Parvin, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Quoc Bao Pham, Ateeque Ahmad, Meena Sansar Raj, Duong Tran Anh, Le Huy Ba, Van Nam Thai (2020), Sanitary landfill site selection by integrating AHP and FTOPSIS with GIS: a case study of Memari Municipality, India, Environmental science and pollution Research.

[10] Tilik Tena Wondim and Bloodless Dzwairo, (2018), " A scenario- based multiple attribute decision-making approach for site selection of a wastewater treatment plant: Bahir Dar City (Ethiopia) case study", ISSN 1816-7950 (Online) = Water SA Vol. 44 No. 4

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