Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purpose in Hisar City, Haryana

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Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purpose in Hisar City, Haryana

Anup Kumar, R. S. Hooda and Sanjay Bhatiya Haryana Space Applications Centre (HARSAC) Department of Science and Technology, Haryana CCS HAU Campus, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India

Abstract- In arid to semi-arid regions of the world, groundwater is the main source for drinking, irrigation and industrial uses. The availability and good quality of groundwater play vital role in agriculture and industrial development in an area. Remote sensing satellite data, geographical information system and global positioning system are highly useful for searching potential groundwater sites as well as providing clues for groundwater quality. In the present study, groundwater quality in Hisar city has been assessed using primary groundwater quality data, remote sensing satellite data (Worldview-2), geographical information system(GIS) and GPS.Hisar city boundary has been demarcated with the help of satellite data and prepared a base map. The sample location sites were marked on the base map. GPS was used to locate the sample location sites. 40 groundwater samples were collected in the months of January-February 2015. The sources of groundwater sample were hand pumps and tube well. The samples were analysed using Field Water Testing Kit prepared by Tamilnadu Water Supply and Drainage Board, Chennai for pH, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, total dissolved solids, iron, fluoride, nitrate and ammonia parameters. The groundwater analysis result show that pH ranges 7 to 8; alkalinity 50 mg/l to 400 mg/l;

hardness 100 mg/l to 900 mg/l; chloride 50 mg/l to 900 mg/l; fluoride 0.5 mg/l to 5 mg/l; iron nil to 2 mg/l; ammonia nil to 5 mg/l; nitrate 45 mg/l to 75 mg/land total dissolved solids 240 mg/l to 2172 mg/l in the city area. The groundwater analysis data were entered in ArcGIS 9.3 software and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique was applied to know the spatial scenario of quality parameters in the study area. The data were categorised in to desirable, permissible and non- potable classes according to IS 10500:2012 drinking water standards. The pH is under desirable;alkalinity under desirable and permissible; hardness under desirable, permissible and non- potable; chloride under desirable and permissible; fluoride under desirable, permissible and non-potable; iron under desirable and non-potable; nitrate under desirable and non- potable; ammonia under desirable and non-potablein the study area.The study is highly useful for planning and management of groundwater for drinking purpose in the study area.

Keywords: Groundwater, quality, drinking, GIS, Hisar

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In the present context of global changing in natural and cultural environment, it becomes need of hour to sustainably use the natural resources for fulfilling the needs. Of all the natural resources, water is prime requirement for living beings. In arid to semi-arid regions of the world, groundwater is the main source for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. The use of modern technology like remote sensing,

    GIS and GPS facilitate in better planning and management of resources. Many workers have done good work on groundwater resource mapping using satellite data, GIS and GPS technologies [1, 2, 3, 4].

  2. STUDY AREA

    In the present study, Hisar city area has been demarcated on World View-2 satellite data for the year 2009.The study area is situated in south-western part of Haryana state. The geographical coordinates of the study area are 290063.177N-290129.617N latitude and 7504014.425E-

    7505215.298E longitude which covers 89.27sq.km area.

  3. MATERIALS AND METHOD

    Worldview-2 satellite data for the year 2009 have been used to demarcate the Hisar city area. 40 groundwater samples have been collected from city area (Fig.1) in the months of January-February 2015 and location recorded in Garmin 72 GPS. Field Water Testing Kit prepared by Tamilnadu Water Supply and Drainage Board,Chennai has been used for groundwater samples analysis for various parameters (Table 1).ArcGIS 9.3software has been used for Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation of groundwater samples and categorised as per IS 10500:2012 drinking water standards (Table 2).

    Table 1. Details of groundwater sample analysis

    Fig.1. Sample location map

    Table 2. Drinking water parameters standard (is 10500:2012)

    Parameter

    Desirable

    Permissible

    Non-potable

    pH

    6.5-8.5

    Alkalinity (mg/l)

    < 200

    200-600

    > 600

    Hardness (mg/l)

    < 200

    200-600

    > 600

    Iron (mg/l)

    < 0.3

    Chloride (mg/l)

    < 250

    250-1000

    >1000

    Total Dissolved

    Solids (TDS) (mg/l)

    < 500

    500-2000

    >2000

    Nitrate (mg/l)

    < 45

    Fluoride (mg/l)

    < 1.0

    1.0-1.5

    >1.5

    Ammonia (mg/l)

    0.5

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    In the study drinking water quality of groundwater has been assessed based on pH, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, total dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, ammonia and nitrate.

    pH

    In the study area, pH ranges between 7 to 8 which is under desirable limit (6.5-8.5)of drinking water parameters of IS 10500:2012. As the pH in whole study area is under desirable limit, hence, covers 100% area falls under desirable limit. (Fig.3 and Table3).

    Fig.3. Spatial scenario of pH in Hisar city

    Table 3. Area of ph under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water

    Category (pH)

    Area (sq.km)

    Percentage of Total

    Area

    Desirable

    89.27

    100

    Total

    89.27

    100

    Alkalinity

    Alkalinity in the study area ranges between 50mg/l to 400mg/l which falls under desirable (<200mg/l) and permissible (200-600mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 57.66 sq.km (64.59%) and permissible limit covers 31.61 sq. km. (35.41 %) (Fig.4 and Table 4).

    Fig.4. Spatial scenario of alkalinity in Hisar city

    Table 4. Area of alkalinity under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water

    Category (Alkalinity)

    Area (sq.km)

    Percentage of Total Area

    Desirable

    57.66

    64.59

    Permissible

    31.61

    35.41

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Hardness

    Hardness in the study area ranges between 100mg/l to 900mg/l which falls under desirable (<200mg/l), permissible (200-600mg/l) and non-potable (>600mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 4.59 sq.km (5.14%); permissible limit covers 71.90 sq. km. (80.54 %) and non- potable limit covers 12.8 sq.km. (14.32%) (Fig.5 and Table 5).

    Fig.5. Spatial scenario of hardness in Hisar city

    Table 5. Area of hardness under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water Category

    (Hardness)

    Area (sq.km)

    Percentage of Total Area

    Desirable

    4.59

    5.14

    Permissible

    71.90

    80.54

    Non-potable

    12.78

    14.32

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Chloride

    Chloride in the study area ranges between 50 mg/l to 900mg/l which falls under desirable (<250mg/l) and permissible (200-1000mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 47.60 sq.km (53.32%) and permissible limit covers

    41.67 sq. km. (46.68 %) (Fig.6 and Table 6).

    Fig.6. Spatial scenario of chloride in Hisar city

    Table 6: Area of chloride uder varrious drining water categories

    Drinking water Category

    (Chloride)

    Area

    (sq.km)

    Percentage of

    Total Area

    Desirable

    47.60

    53.32

    Permissible

    41.67

    46.68

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Total Dissolved Solids

    Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the study area ranges between 240 mg/l to 2172 mg/l which falls under desirable (<500mg/l), permissible (500-2000mg/l) and non-potable (>2000mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 3.96 sq.km (4.44%); permissible limit covers 85.17 sq. km. (95.41%) and non-potable limit covers 0.14 sq.km. (0.15%) (Fig.7 and Table 7).

    Fig.7. Spatial scenario of total dissolved solids in Hisar city Table 7: Area of total dissolved solids under various drinkig water

    categories

    Drinking water

    Category (TDS)

    Area

    (sq.km)

    Percentage of Total

    Area

    Desirable

    3.96

    4.44

    Permissible

    85.17

    95.41

    Non-potable

    0.14

    0.15

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Fluoride

    Fluoride in the study area ranges between 0.5 mg/l to 5 mg/l which falls under desirable (<1mg/l), permissible (1.0-1.5 mg/l) and non-potable (>1.5mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 34.07 sq.km (38.17%); permissible limit covers 32.95 sq. km. (36.91%) and non-potable limit covers 22.25 sq.km. (24.92%) (Fig.8 and Table 8).

    Fig.8. Spatial scenario of fluoride in Hisar city

    Table 8. Area of fluoride under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water Category

    (Fluoride)

    Area

    (sq.km)

    Percentage of

    Total Area

    Desirable

    34.07

    38.17

    Permissible

    32.95

    36.91

    Non-potable

    22.25

    24.92

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Iron

    Iron in the study area ranges between nil (0 mg/l) to 2 mg/l which falls under desirable (<0.3 mg/l) and non-potable (>0.3 mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 5.0 sq.km (5.60%) and non-potable limit covers 84.27 sq.km. (94.40%) (Fig.9 and Table 9).

    Fig.9. Spatial scenario of iron in Hisar city

    Table 9. Area of iron uder various drinking water categories

    Drinking water

    Category (Iron)

    Area (sq.km)

    Percentage of

    Total Area

    Desirable

    5.00

    5.60

    Non-potable

    84.27

    94.40

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Ammonia

    Ammonia in the study area ranges between nil (0 mg/l) to 5 mg/l which falls under desirable (<0.5 mg/l) and non- potable (>0.5 mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 10.01 sq.km (11.21%) and non-potable limit covers 79.26 sq.km. (88.79%) (Fig.10 and Table 10).

    Fig.10. Spatial scenario of ammonia in Hisar city

    Table 10. Area of ammonia under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water

    Category (Ammonia)

    Area

    (sq.km)

    Percentage of

    Total Area

    Desirable

    10.01

    11.21

    Non-potable

    79.26

    88.79

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

    Nitrate

    Nitrate in the study area ranges between 20 mg/l to 75 mg/l which falls under desirable (<45 mg/l) and non-potable (>45 mg/l) drinking water class of IS 10500:2012. In the study area, desirable limit covers an area of 35.76 sq.km (40.06%) and non-potable limit covers 53.51 sq.km. (59.94%) (Fig.11 and Table 11).

    Fig.11. Spatial scenario of nitrate in Hisar city

    Table11. Area of nitrate under various drinking water categories

    Drinking water

    Category (Nitrate)

    Area

    (sq.km)

    Percentage of

    Total Area

    Desirable

    35.76

    40.06

    Non-potable

    53.51

    59.94

    Total

    89.27

    100.00

  5. CONCLUSIONS

    The study shows that pH falls under desirable limit; alkalinity and chloride fall under desirable and permissible; hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and fluoride fall under desirable, permissible and non-potable limit; ammonia and nitrate fall under desirable and non-potable limit of drinking water class.

  6. REFERENCES

  1. Dhobale, Anil, F., Jain, N. S. and Patil, ShivajiGovind (2014): Utility of geoinformatics in watershed management and water quality analysis for North-East Region of Pune District, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol.5, issue 6, pp.1256-1260.

  2. Mahalingam, B., Ramu, Bhauso, MagdumDeepali and Jayashree, P. (2014): Assessment of groundwater quality using GIS techniques: a case study of Mysore City, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, vol. 3, issue 8, pp.117-122.

  3. Usali, Norsaliza and Ismail, MohdHasmadi (2010): Use of remote sensing and GIS in monitorin water quality, Journal of Sustainable Devlopment, vol. 3, no.3, pp.228-238.

  4. Venkateswarlu, Gogana (2014): Analytical study on effects of water quality parameters using remote sensing & GIS under Hyderbad urban area zone-V, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 03,issue 03,pp. 308-316.

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