Ground Water Quality Assesment of Jaipur City, Rajasthan (India)

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Ground Water Quality Assesment of Jaipur City, Rajasthan (India)

Nisha Jain, Sumit Kumar, Rashmi Lata , Ravi Kumar Singh, Shad Ahmad, Sukul Kumar

Department of Civil Engineering Poornima Institute of Engineering and Technology

Jaipur – 302022 (Rajasthan) India.

Abstract:The groundwater quality assessment is a significant issue in ground water studies. Jaipur city experienced degradation of groundwater quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Eighteen ground water samples were collected randomly from 6 different area of Jaipur City, from different hand pumps to study the physicochemical parameter, such as pH, Conductivity, TDS, Total Hardness, Chloride with the help of standard method of APHA during monsoon (1September to 30 September 2014). Present study shows that underground water quality of Jaipur city is not good

Keywords: Jaipur City, ground water, monsoon, physico- chemical parameter.

I.INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on earth. It is most important that the water which people drink and use for other purposes is clean water. The quality of water is of upper most importance compared to quantity in any water supply planning and especially for drinking purpose. The chemical, physical and bacterial characteristics of ground water determine its usefulness for municipal, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and domestic water supplies.

Jaipur City (Longitude: 95°24 E; latitude: 27°18N), the capital city of Rajasthan is one of the fastest growing cities in the country, is undergoing rapid urbanization and industrialization. Urbanization has led to immense pressure on ground water resources and has resulted in quality deterioration of ground water as well. The area experiences semi-arid to arid climate characterized by a hot and dry summer and pleasant winter.

  1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Various workers in our country have carried out extensive studies on Water Quality. Abbasi [1] et al and Jagdap Jyashri [5] et al have studied water quality of different rivers. Shriniwas [14] et al and Jha [7] et al studied water quality in Hydrabad and Bihar, respectively. Patnaik

    [8] et al reported water pollution in industrial area. Fluoride level in drinking water from various sources in and around Jaipur and in many villages and trace metals have been carried out in our laboratory [611] earlier. Studies of industrial wastewater and ground water and pollution problem in ground water have also been studied in our laboratory [1213] recently.

    The objective of the scientific investigations is to determine the hydrochemistry of the ground water and to classify the water in order to evaluate the water suitability for drinking, domestic and irrigation uses and its suitability for municipal, agricultural and industrial use.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    During monsoon period (1September to 30 September 2014) ground water samples from eighteen sampling points were collected. Before collection from tube wells, the water was left to run for 5 to 7 minutes to get a representative sample. Samples were collected in good quality polyethylene bottles of one-litre capacity. Sampling has been carried out without adding any preservatives in well- rinsed bottles. Geographical coordinates of each sampling location was recorded using a handheld Magellan Triton global positioning system (GPS). Various physicochemical parameters like temp., pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Total Hardness and Chloride test were determined at the Environmental lab.

    Unstable hydro chemical parameters including pH, electric conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in situ with the help of digital portable water analyzer kit (CENTURYCK710). Total hardness (TH) as CaCO3 were analyzed titrimetrically, using standard EDTA. Total Alkalinity (TA) as CaCO3 were estimated by titrating with H2SO4 and Chloride was determined by standard argentometric titration.

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of solution. A pH of 7 is neutral; lower number indicates acidity whereas higher indicates alkalinity. During present investigation, It was observed from the pH value that water samples were varying from 7.0 to 7.9 .Lowest pH value is recorded in Vaishali nagar and the highest was found in Pratap nagar. In general, pH of groundwater samples of the study area is within the permissible limit.

The electrical conductivity at 25ºC of water is due to the presence of various dissolved salts.

EC of the groundwater is varying from 687.5 to 3162.5 S/cm at 25°C.

A high total dissolved solid (TDS) reduces utility of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes [15]. TDS varied from 412.5 to 1739 mg/L. According to Indian standards, 94.5% of the samples has exceeds the permissible limit and 5.5% of samples are within the permissible limit.

Higher value of TDS can be attributed to the contribution of salts from the subsurface lithology and further due higher residence time of groundwater in contact with the aquifer [2,3,4].

The chloride (Cl-) concentration varies between 72 to

367 mg/l. From the results, it is observed that in 16% samples chloride content is higher than permissible limit (250 mg/l). High concentration of chloride in drinking water gives a salty taste to the water and produces a laxative effect on people not habituated to it. Moderate quantities have little effect on the usefulness of water for most purposes.

The hardness of water is define as the soap consuming capacity of water. It is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in water .Its permissible limit is 300 mg/l. From the results, it is observed that Hardness content is higher than permissible limit in 44 % samples.

The Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye. From the results, it is observed that all the water samples are within the permissible limit.

From the investigation, it has been concluded that excess concentration of chloride, EC and TDS as well as the presence of water hardness, make the groundwater unfit for drinking.

REFERENCES

  1. Abbasi S.A., F.I. Khan, K. Sentilvelan and A.Shabudeen (2002): Modelling of Buckinggham Canal Water Quality. Indian J. Environ. Health.44(4): 290297.

  2. APHA (1985): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water works Association, Water Pollution Control federation, Washington D .C. 16thedition.

  3. Hem, J. D. (1970): Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (2d ed.) U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1473, 363 p.

  4. IAH (International Association of Hydrogeologist) (1979): Map of mineral and thermal water of Europe. Scale; 1:500,00. IAH, United Kingdom.

  5. Jagdap Jayashri, Bhushan Kachawe, Leena Deshpande and Prakash Kelkar (2002): Water Quality Assessment of the Purna River for Irrigation Purpose in Buldana District, Maharastra. Indian J. Environ. Health. 44(3): 247257.

  6. Jangir, J.P., Alka Sharma, M.P. Singh Sengar and C.M. Gupta (1990): Indian J. Environmental Protection, 10 (7):515-17.

  7. Jha A.N. and P.K. Verma (2000): PhysicoChemical Property of Drinking Water in Town Area of Godda District Under Santal Pargana, Bihar. Pollution Research. 19(2): 245247.

  8. Patnaik, K.N., S.V. Satyanarayan and Rout Swoyam Poor (2002): Water Pollution from major industries in Pradip Area-A Case study.

    Indian J. Environ. Health, 44(3): 203-211.

  9. Piper, A.M. (1953): A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. U.S. Geol. Survey Groundwater Note 12.

  10. Richard, L.A. (1954): Diagnosis and improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. Agric.Handbook 60, (U.S. Dept. Agric., Washington, D.C., 160 pp.

  11. Sharma, D.K., J.P. Jangir, C.P.S. Chandel and C.M. Gupta(1988): Studies in quality of water in and around Jaipur: Fluoride levels of Drinking waterfrom various sources in villages around Jaipur. J. Indian Water Works Associati on 121-122(1990)

  12. Sharma Surendra Kumar, Vijendra Singh and C.P. Singh Chandel (2004): ground water pollution problem and evaluation of Physico- Chemical properties of Ground Water. Environment and Ecology, 22 (spl-2): 319-324.

  13. Singh Vijendra and C.P. Singh Chandel (2006): Analysis of Wastewater of Jaipur City for Agricultural Use. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. 10(1): 3033.

  14. Sriniwas C.H., Ravi Shankar Tiska, C. Venkateshwar, M.S. Satyanarayan Rao and Ravindra R. Reddy (2000): Studies on Ground Water Quality of Hyderabad. Pollution Research. 19(2): 285289.

  15. . WHO (1996). World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva 2: 231

S.No.

LOCATION

SAMPLE NO

pH

EC

(S/cm)

TDS

TURBIDITY (NTU)

CHLORIDE

(mg/l)

TOTAL HARDNESS

(ppm)

N

E

1

Sitapura

1

7.4

1650

907.5

4.5

367

304

26.7582

75.8596

2

2

7.2

1320

726

4.3

355

210

26.7685

75.8506

3

3

7.3

1292.5

710.8

4.2

366

260

26.7708

75.8549

4

Pratap nagar

1

7.6

1732.5

952.6

4.6

230

121

26.8364

75.7743

5

2

7.7

1237.5

680.6

4.6

172

115

26.8339

75.7743

6

3

7.9

1129

620.9

4.7

205

210

26.8384

75.7788

7

Mansarovar

1

7.4

687.5

412.5

3.2

128

310

26.8594

75.7659

8

2

7.3

1512.5

831.8

3.5

210

500

26.8668

75.7701

9

3

7.2

1402.5

771.1

3.3

175

460

26.8658

75.7624

10

Jhotwara

1

7.6

3162.5

1739

4.1

215

425

26.9421

75.7603

11

2

7.1

2700

1485

4.3

170

250

26.943

75.7648

12

3

7.5

2826

1554.3

4.0

168

400

26.9443

75.7661

13

Vaishali nagar

1

7.4

1100

605

2.9

90

225

26.9127

75.7436

14

2

7.5

1155

635.25

3.1

83

231

26.916

75.7435

15

3

7

1320

726

3.1

72

195

26.9077

75.7433

16

Ajmeri gate

1

7.4

1540

847

4.2

105

125

26.9247

75.8267

17

2

7.6

1815

998.2

4.0

235

620

26.9228

75.8223

18

3

7.3

1595

872.2

4.2

215

610

26.9175

75.8213

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