- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 17
- Authors : Nisha Jain, Sumit Kumar, Rashmi Lata , Ravi Kumar Singh, Shad Ahmad, Sukul Kumar
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV3IS03021
- Volume & Issue : ETWQQM – 2014 (Volume 3 – Issue 03)
- Published (First Online): 24-04-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Ground Water Quality Assesment of Jaipur City, Rajasthan (India)
Nisha Jain, Sumit Kumar, Rashmi Lata , Ravi Kumar Singh, Shad Ahmad, Sukul Kumar
Department of Civil Engineering Poornima Institute of Engineering and Technology
Jaipur – 302022 (Rajasthan) India.
Abstract:The groundwater quality assessment is a significant issue in ground water studies. Jaipur city experienced degradation of groundwater quality due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Eighteen ground water samples were collected randomly from 6 different area of Jaipur City, from different hand pumps to study the physicochemical parameter, such as pH, Conductivity, TDS, Total Hardness, Chloride with the help of standard method of APHA during monsoon (1September to 30 September 2014). Present study shows that underground water quality of Jaipur city is not good
Keywords: Jaipur City, ground water, monsoon, physico- chemical parameter.
Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on earth. It is most important that the water which people drink and use for other purposes is clean water. The quality of water is of upper most importance compared to quantity in any water supply planning and especially for drinking purpose. The chemical, physical and bacterial characteristics of ground water determine its usefulness for municipal, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and domestic water supplies.
Jaipur City (Longitude: 95Â°24 E; latitude: 27Â°18N), the capital city of Rajasthan is one of the fastest growing cities in the country, is undergoing rapid urbanization and industrialization. Urbanization has led to immense pressure on ground water resources and has resulted in quality deterioration of ground water as well. The area experiences semi-arid to arid climate characterized by a hot and dry summer and pleasant winter.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Various workers in our country have carried out extensive studies on Water Quality. Abbasi  et al and Jagdap Jyashri  et al have studied water quality of different rivers. Shriniwas  et al and Jha  et al studied water quality in Hydrabad and Bihar, respectively. Patnaik et al reported water pollution in industrial area. Fluoride level in drinking water from various sources in and around Jaipur and in many villages and trace metals have been carried out in our laboratory  earlier. Studies of industrial wastewater and ground water and pollution problem in ground water have also been studied in our laboratory  recently.
The objective of the scientific investigations is to determine the hydrochemistry of the ground water and to classify the water in order to evaluate the water suitability for drinking, domestic and irrigation uses and its suitability for municipal, agricultural and industrial use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
During monsoon period (1September to 30 September 2014) ground water samples from eighteen sampling points were collected. Before collection from tube wells, the water was left to run for 5 to 7 minutes to get a representative sample. Samples were collected in good quality polyethylene bottles of one-litre capacity. Sampling has been carried out without adding any preservatives in well- rinsed bottles. Geographical coordinates of each sampling location was recorded using a handheld Magellan Triton global positioning system (GPS). Various physicochemical parameters like temp., pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Total Hardness and Chloride test were determined at the Environmental lab.
Unstable hydro chemical parameters including pH, electric conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in situ with the help of digital portable water analyzer kit (CENTURYCK710). Total hardness (TH) as CaCO3 were analyzed titrimetrically, using standard EDTA. Total Alkalinity (TA) as CaCO3 were estimated by titrating with H2SO4 and Chloride was determined by standard argentometric titration.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of solution. A pH of 7 is neutral; lower number indicates acidity whereas higher indicates alkalinity. During present investigation, It was observed from the pH value that water samples were varying from 7.0 to 7.9 .Lowest pH value is recorded in Vaishali nagar and the highest was found in Pratap nagar. In general, pH of groundwater samples of the study area is within the permissible limit.
The electrical conductivity at 25ÂºC of water is due to the presence of various dissolved salts.
EC of the groundwater is varying from 687.5 to 3162.5 S/cm at 25Â°C.
A high total dissolved solid (TDS) reduces utility of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes . TDS varied from 412.5 to 1739 mg/L. According to Indian standards, 94.5% of the samples has exceeds the permissible limit and 5.5% of samples are within the permissible limit.
Higher value of TDS can be attributed to the contribution of salts from the subsurface lithology and further due higher residence time of groundwater in contact with the aquifer [2,3,4].
The chloride (Cl-) concentration varies between 72 to
367 mg/l. From the results, it is observed that in 16% samples chloride content is higher than permissible limit (250 mg/l). High concentration of chloride in drinking water gives a salty taste to the water and produces a laxative effect on people not habituated to it. Moderate quantities have little effect on the usefulness of water for most purposes.
The hardness of water is define as the soap consuming capacity of water. It is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in water .Its permissible limit is 300 mg/l. From the results, it is observed that Hardness content is higher than permissible limit in 44 % samples.
The Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye. From the results, it is observed that all the water samples are within the permissible limit.
From the investigation, it has been concluded that excess concentration of chloride, EC and TDS as well as the presence of water hardness, make the groundwater unfit for drinking.
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