Ground Water Quality Analysis of Part of MMR

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Ground Water Quality Analysis of Part of MMR

Mrs. Pushpam K, V (1), Mrs. Chitra B. Iyer (2) , Mr. Sayed Arshadul Quadri(3), Mrs. Grace selvarani(4) Mrs. SharminShaikh(5)

Civil Engineering Dept., MH Saboo Siddik Polytechnic, Byculla

AbstractGroundwater quality in the study area has been analysed in the present work. For this study, four regions (Mumbai, Thane-Kalyan, Vasai-Virar, and New Mumbai) of MumbaiMetropolitan Region were selected which covers almost the entire area. Thirty water samples, from various bore wells covering the study area during post monsoon season 2013 and pre monsoon season 2014 were collected to find out the concentration of various parameters in the groundwater. The tests for different parameters like pH., DO, Chloride, TSS, TS, TDS, MPN,Hardness, Sulphates, Iron, and Fluoride were performed in VJTI lab. Volumetric and instrumental techniques were adopted for systematic analysis of the water samples using Standard procedures. Water Quality Index (WQI) was also calculated by using weighted arithmetic index method.On comparison with BIS standards TDS, MPN, Hardness are higher than permissible values and WQI of all locations are more than100. Hence the ground water is unfit for drinking in this area.

KeywordsMMR-Mumbai metropolitan region, TSS-Total suspended solids. DO-Dissolved oxygen, TS-total solids, MPN- most probable number.

I. INTRODUCTION

Of the available global water supply, 97.2% is saline water in oceans. This water is unsuitable for drinking or agricultural uses. 2.14% is in ice caps and glaciers, 0.61% is groundwater. Much of this water is too deep for extraction. 0.009% is found in surface water. This is where most drinking water comes from.0.005% makes up soil moisture.0.001% of water is found in the atmosphere (United Nations 2012).Rapid urbanization, growing population and speedy industrialization have led to the pressure on demand for water. Groundwater is used for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes all over the world. In the last few decades there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for fresh water due to rapid growth of population and the accelerated pace of industrialization ((Rijsberman 2006).Anthropogenic activities deteriorates the quality of groundwater. Water is a universal solvent and it dissolves the minerals from rocks in which it is stored and then chemical and physical attributes of groundwater depend on the geology of a particular area, rapid urbanization especially in developing countries like India has affected the availability and quality of groundwater (Burjia et al 1995). Intensively irrigated agricultural discharges into the ground water bring about considerable change in the ground water quality. The quality of groundwater is the resultant of all the processes and reactions that have acted on the water from the moment it condensed in the atmosphere to the time it is discharged by a well.

Therefore, the quality of ground water varies from place to place, with the depth of the water table, and from season to season and is primarily governed by the extent and composition of dissolved solids present in it (Ravikumar and Somashekar 2010). A vast majority of ground water quality problems are caused by contamination, over- exploitation, or combination of the two. The solutions are usually very expensive, time consuming and not always effective. The socioeconomic growth of a region is severely affected by unavailability of safe drinking water (Kumar and Ahamed 2003). Ground Water quality is slowly but surely declining everywhere. Groundwater pollution is intrinsically difficult to detect, since problems may well be concealed below the surface and monitoring is costly, time consuming. Precise classification and identification of groundwater quality is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. The quality of groundwater is of great importance in determining the suitability of particular ground water for a certain use (public water supply, irrigation, toilet flushing, industrial applications, constructional use etc.).The wide range of contamination sources is one of the many factors contributing to the complexity of groundwater assessment. It is important to know the geochemistry of the chemical- soil-groundwater interactions in order to assess the fate and impact of pollutants discharged on to the ground. Pollutants move through several different hydrologic zones as they migrate through the soil to the water table. The serious implications of this problem necessitate an integrated approach in explicit terms to undertake groundwater pollution monitoring and abatement programs. (CPCB 2010) A major problem in urbanized areas is the collection and disposal of domestic wastes. Because a large volume of sewage is generated in a small area, the waste cannot be adequately disposed off by conventional septic tanks and cesspools. Therefore, special disposal sites are being used to collect and dispose of such wastes in densely populated areas. The leakages from the sewer pipes may join the groundwater later. The intensive use of natural resources and the large production of wastes in modern society often pose a threat to ground water quality and have

already resulted in many incidents of groundwater contamination. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the factories, which is subjected to reaction with percolating rainwater and reaches the ground water level. The percolating water picks up a large amount of dissolved constituents and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the groundwater. (D .Loganathan et al 20112)

II AIM OF STUDY

The objective behind this study is to understand an overall picture of ground water quality of the Part of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)To assess the ground water quality and its suitability for drinking and for flushing by comparing the results with quality standards. To find out the suitability of groundwater for domestic use, based on WQI.

III SCOPE

Fifteen locations have to be selected and a sanitary survey ofthe locations has to be done. After collecting the sample, the various chemical parameters and biological parameters (MPN) will be checked in the VJTI lab and the data will be checked with standards for suitability for drinking and for flushing.

1V METHODOLOGY

  • Literature survey.

  • Deciding the sampling locations.

  • The sanitary survey of water resources.

  • 30 samples from 15 locations of MMR have to be collected representing different regions during post monsoon season 2013 and pre- monsoon season 2014.

  • Conducting tests for pH, Chlorides, Hardness, Total Suspended Solids, TDS, MPN, Dissolved oxygen, Iron, Sulphate and fluorides in EnvironmentalEngineering laboratory of VJTI.

  • The data will be analyzed with reference to quality standards to examine the suitability of groundwater for drinking and for flushing purposes.

  • Finding out WQI for all the thirty samples by using the weighted arithmetic index method.

    V EXPECTED OUTCOME

    The project study is to check whether the water is safe in the study area for drinking, if not to inform the stakeholders suitably and also to classify the water on the basis of WQI, TDS and hardness. This study will enable us to know the change in concentration in various parameters from post- monsoon season 2013 to pre- monsoon season 2014.

    V1 SAMPLING

    Thirty water samples, 3000 ml each, were collected in polyethylene bottles from various bore wells covering the study area during post monsoon 2013and pre monsoon 2014. At the sampling points, te boreholes were pumped to purge the aquifer of stagnant water to acquire fresh samples for analysis (purging lasted for 510 minutes).Utmost care has to be taken during the collection of samples to avoid any kind of contamination. Water samples were examined immediately after collection that is within one hour after collection and in no case the time exceeded 24 hours. If they cannot be

    analyzed within 24 hours, the samples were preserved in the fridge until analysis. No sample is fit for bacteriological analysis after 72 hours. Volumetric and instrumental techniques were adopted for systematic analysis of the water samples using Standard procedures. The water samples were analyzed in the VJTI laboratory.

    VI1 STUDY AREA

    For this study, the sampling sites representative of Mumbai Metropolitan Region is selected which covers almost the entire area. Greater Mumbai district is located on the western most periphery of the Maharashtra State. Arabian Sea lies on the southern and western side of the district while it borders Thane district on the north and eastern side.The coordinates of the study area are Virar on the north, Kalyan on north east and Panvel on south east.

    Fig.1 VIII METHODS OF ANALYSIS

  • pH by using a potentiometric method. (pH meters).

  • Mohrs method followed to find out chloride content. Hardness of Water was found out by the EDTA titrimetric method.

  • A Winkler test was done to find out dissolved oxygen.

  • Iron test was done by the Merck kit.

  • TDS found out by calculation from TS and TSS and TSS by gravimetric after filtration method

    .TS by gravimetric method.

  • Electrical conductivity was found out by dividingTotal dissolved solids (TDS) by a factor 0.65.

  • MPN found out by multiple-tube fermentation technique by using lauryl tryptose broth.

  • Sulphate and Fluoride were analyzed by Merck kit.

  • The data were analyzed with reference to(BIS10600) to examine the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes.

  • WQI by weighted arithmetic index method.

.

1X RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.

Groundwater quality in the study area has been analyzed in the present work. For this study, four regions (Mumbai, Thane-Kalyan, Vasai-Virar, and New Mumbai) of Mumbai Metropolitan Region were selected which covers almost the entire area. Thirty water samples, from various bore wells covering the study area during post monsoon season 2013 and pre monsoon season 2014 were collected to find out the concentration of various parameters in the groundwater. The tests for different parameters like pH, DO, Chloride, TSS,TS, TDS, MPN, Hardness, Sulphates, Iron and Fluoride were performed in VJTI lab. Water Quality Indices (WQI) were also calculated by using the weighted arithmetic index method. The values of various parameters of water for drinking purposes were found out in the study area during post and pre monsoon seasons and compared with BIS standards and found that chloride, hardness, TDS, MPN and sulphates are exceeding the limits.

Thirty water samples, from various bore wells covering the study area during post monsoon season 2013 and pre monsoon season 2014 were collected to find out the concentration of various parameters in the groundwater. The tests for different parameters like pH, DO, Chloride, TSS, TS, TDS, MPN, Hardness, Sulphates, Iron and Fluoride were performed and the results are tabulated as under in table 1 and 2. Volumetric and instrumental techniques were adopted for systematic analysis of the water samples using Standard procedures.

Table 1 The values of various parameters in ground water samples in the study area during post monsoon2013

Table 2 The values of various parameters in groundwater samples in the study area during pre- monsoon 2014

Table 3.Classification of the water samples in the areaon the basis of TDS(c.w Fetter 1990)

Table 4.Classification of the water samples in the areaon the basis of Hardness.

Table 5.Comparison of ground water quality at the study area with the drinking water standards.BIS-10500

X WATER QUALITY INDEX

Table 6 .Classification of water on the basis of WQI(Brown et al 1972)

WQI

QUALITY OF WATER

0-24

EXCELLENT

25-49

GOOD

50-74

POOR

75-100

VERY POOR

>100

UNFIT FOR DRINKING

Water quality indexes of all locations are found out and tabulated as under. All the samples are unfit for drinking since the index of all the samples is above 100.

Fig.2 WQI Variations at various locations Table 7. WQI of ground water in sampling locations.

Table 8.WQI calculations

X SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Groundwater quality in the study area has been analyzed in the present work. For this study, four regions (Mumbai, Thane-Kalyan, Vasai-Virar, and New Mumbai) of Mumbai Metropolitan Region were selected which covers almost the entire area. Thirty water samples, 3000 ml each, were collected in polyethylene bottles from various bore wells covering the study area during post monsoon season 2013 and pre monsoon season 2014 to find out the concentration of various parameters in the groundwater. The tests for different parameters like pH, DO, Chloride, TSS, TS, TDS, MPN, Hardness, Sulphates, Iron and Fluoride were performed in VJTI lab. Volumetric and instrumental techniques were adopted for systematic analysis of the water samples using Standard procedures. Water Quality Indices (WQI) were calculated by using weighted arithmetic index method. Analysis for suitability for drinking was also done. In Mumbai region during post monsoon and pre-monsoon season minimum pH was recorded (pH= 6.69) at Jogeshwari well and higher value was recorded (pH= 8.5) at Mahim well. All wells except one, showed alkaline pH. The TDS in the area during post-monsoon season varied from 260mg/l (Jogeshwari & Mulund) to 820mg/l (Chembur) and during pre monsoon it was 390- 850mg/l (Mulund-Chembur). The Total hardness of groundwater in the area during post-monsoon season ranged from 126-270mg/l (Mahim- Matunga) and during pre monsoon it was 164-271mg/l (Andheri- Matunga). The variation of chloride concentration in the area during post-monsoon season ranged from 40- 240mg/l (Mahim and Chembur) and during pre- monsoon, it was 43-242 mg/l (Mahim and Chembur). In this area there was a slight increase in pH (Except in

2 places), Chloride, TDS and Hardness from post monsoon 2013 to pre monsoon 2014. The

DO in the area during post-monsoon season varied from 3.3-5.0mg/l (Mahim-Andheri and Chembur respectively) and during pre-monsoon, it was 3-4.5mg/l (Mahim- Andheri and Chembur respectively). In the Mumbai area MPN was found to be 23-540 mg/l (Jogeshwari- Chembur). In the present investigation sulphate concentration was ranged 0 – 200 mg/l which is within the permissible limit of 250 mg/l (BIS 10500). The fluoride concentration in groundwater of the area varies from 0.15 to 0.3 mg/lit. The concentration of iron in the groundwater of the area is below the detectable limit. Chloride concentration varied from 42-241 mg/l and Sulphate concentration was less than 200 mg/l which were within its permissible limits 500mg/l and 400mg/l respectively. Suspended solids in the area was in the range of 30-70 mg/l (<2000mg/l). Hence the ground water in this region was found suitable for construction and can be used for flushing purposes. On comparison with BIS standards TDS (at Chembur during post monsoon season and at Matunga and Chembur during pre- monsoon season) MPN, Hardness, (Matunga and Jogeshwari during post-monsoon season and Matunga, Jogeshwari and Chembur during pre- monsoon season) are higher than permissible values and WQI of all locations are more than100. Hence the ground wate is unfit for drinking in this area.

In Thane Kalyan region during post monsoon season, pH ranged from 7.0 to 8.27 (Dombivali (w)-Thane) and during pre-monsoon season it was found to be 7.17- 8.50 (Dombivali (w)-Thane). TDS in this region, during post monsoon season was 270-700mg/l (Dombivali (E) Thane- Kalyan) and during pre-monsoon season it was 330-760 mg/l ((Dombivali (E)-Thane). Hardness during post monsoon season was 192-212mg/l (Thane Dombivali (w)) and during pre-monsoon season was 236-464 mg/l (Kalyan – Dombivali (E)). In the region, during post monsoon season Chloride was 42-81mg/l (Kalyan Thane) and during pre- monsoon season the same was 43- 113 mg/l (Kalyan Thane). In this area too there were slight increase of pH (except in two places), Chloride, TDS, and hardness from post monsoon 2013 to pre monsoon 2014. DO in the region, during post monsoon season was 3.2- 5.0mg/l (Kalyan Thane) and during pre-monsoon season it was 3.2-4.5 mg/l (Kalyan Thane & Dombivali E). MPN varied from 140 (Thane and Dombivali (w)) to more than1600 (Kalyan and Dombivali (E)). In the present investigation sulphate concentration was ranged from 0 – 200 mg/l which is within the permissible limit of 250 mg/l (BIS 10500). Fluoride content ranged from 0.15 mg/l to 0.3 mg/l. The concentration of iron in the groundwater of the area is below the detectable limit. Chloride concentration varied from 43- 97 mg/l and Sulphate concentration was less than 200

mg/l which were within its permissible limits 500mg/l and400mg/l respectively. Suspended solids in the area were in the range of 15-110 mg/l (<2000mg/l). Hence the ground water in this region was found suitable for construction and can be used for flushing purposes. While comparing different parameters with standards, it is found that, TDS (at Thane and Kalyan during post monsoon season and pre monsoon season), MPN, hardness (Dombivali(E), during post-monsoon season and Thane, Dombivali (W), Dombivali(E), and Kalyan during pre- monsoon season) are higher than the permissible values and WQI of all locations are more than 100. Hence the ground water is unfit for drinking in this area.

In Vasai-Virar area pH was 7.21-7.58 during post monsoon season and during pre monsoon season it was 7.8-

7.9 (Nalasopara- Vasai). TDS in Vasai-Virar region during post monsoon season was 690-1120mg/l (Vasai- Virar) and 740-1400mg/l during pre- monsoon (Vasai- Virar). The TDS was relatively high in Vasai- Virar area which may be due to influence of anthropogenic sources such as domestic sewage, septic tanks, agricultural activities and influence of rock-water interaction. The TDS slightly increased in pre monsoon season 2014 compared to post monsoon season 2013. Hardness In the region during post monsoon season was 384-649mg/l (Vasai-Virar) and during pre- monsoon it was 495- 725mg/l (Vasai-Virar). In Vasai-Virar region Chloride was 43-345mg/l (Vasai-Virar) during post monsoon and 50- 426mg/l (Vasai-Virar) during pre- monsoon. In this region higher concentration of chloride is found (>250 mg/l), which could be dangerous from a health point of view. It might be due to proximity to sea. In this area too there were slight increase of pH, Chloride, TDS, and hardness from post monsoon 2013 to pre monsoon 2014.In the region DO was 2-4.2mg/l (Vasai-Virar) & 2-

4.0 mg/l (Vasai-Virar) during post monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. In the area MPN was 17-53. In this region it was comparatively low. In the present investigation sulphate concentration was ranged 0 – 1600 mg/l which is not within the permissible limit of 250 mg/l (BIS 10500). The fluoride concentration in groundwater of the area varies from 0.15 to 0.3 mg/l. The concentration of iron in the groundwater of the area is below the detectable limit. Chloride concentration varied from 47-386 mg/l (<500 mg/l). Sulphate concentration was in the range of <200 to

>1600 which was not within its permissible limit (400 mg/l). Suspended solids in the area was in the range of 120- 180 mg/l (<2000mg/l). Since the sulphate concentration was exceeding its permissible limit, the groundwater in this region is unsuitable for construction activities but can be used for flushing purposes. In comparison with BIS standards Chloride (Virar and Vasai),

TDS, MPN, Hardness and Sulphates (Virar and Vasai) are higher than permissible values and WQI of all locations are more than100. Hence the ground water is unfit for drinking in this area.

In New Mumbai area pH was 7.29-7.93 (New Panvel and Old Panvel) during post monsoon season and was 7.5-8.2 (New Panvel and Old Panvel) during pre- monsoon season. In the region during post monsoon season TDS was 250- 320mg/l (New Panvel-Old Panvel) and during pre-monsoon season it was 360-390mg/l (Old Panvel and New Panvel). In the area during post monsoon season hardness was 118- 197mg/l (New Panvel-Old Panvel) and during pre-monsoon season it was187- 230mg/l (Old Panvel and New Panvel). The Hardness slightly increased in May 2014 compared to Jan 2014. In the region Chloride was 52-55mg/l during post monsoon season and 52-67 mg/l during pre-monsoon season at Old Panvel and New Panvel respectively. In this area too there were slight increases of pH, Chloride, TDS and hardness from post monsoon 2013 to pre monsoon 2014. DO in New Mumbai region was 3.80-4.20mg/l and 3.50- 4.0mg/l (New Panvel and Old Panvel) during post monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. MPN in the New Bombay area (in Old and New Panvel) was 1600. In the present investigation sulphate concentration was ranged 0

– 200 mg/l which is within the permissible limit of 250 mg/l (BIS 10500). The concentration of iron in the groundwater of the area is below detectable limits .The fluoride concentration in groundwater of the area varies from 0.15 to 0.3 mg/l. Chloride concentration varied from 52-61 mg/l and Sulphate concentration was less than 200 mg/l which were within its permissible limits 500mg/l and 400mg/l respectively. Inorganic matter found to be in the range of 340-350 mg/l and Organic matter was in the range of 50-80 which were also well within its permissible limits 3000 mg/l and 200 mg/l respectively. Suspended solids in the area was in the range of 60-100 mg/l (<2000mg/l). Hence the ground water in this region was found suitable for construction. and can be used for flushing purposes. In comparison with BIS standards Hardness and MPN are higher than the permissible values and WQI of all locations are more than100. Hence the ground water is unfit for drinking in this area. There was a slight increase in the study area in the concentration of pH, hardness, TDS and chloride in pre- monsoon season 2014 compared to post-monsoon season 2013. In the fourteen locations of the study area TDS fall under non-saline category (<1000mg/l), and one falls under slightly saline (1000-3000mg/l) category. Total Hardness in twelve samples falls under very hard category and the remaining three samples in the

moderately hard category. The residents of Mahim, Virar,

Vasai, Nalasapora, New-Panvel and Old-Panvel are using the ground water under study for domestic purposes especially for drinking and bathing where, the values of the various parameters like MPN of the groundwater are found exceeding the acceptable limits of drinking. Hence the concerned residents will have to be informed about the consequences to enable them to take the precautionary measures.

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