Gender Difference in Anxiety Among University Students of Ranchi

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Gender Difference in Anxiety Among University Students of Ranchi

*Dr. (Mrs.) Zeba

Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Doranda College, Ranchi University

**Nazia Kausar,Maulana

Azad National Senior Research Fellow University, Department of Psychology,

Ranchi University

Abstracts:- The present study investigated Gender Difference in Anxiety among University Students of Ranchi. The research sample consisted of 60 Students of University students, both 30 females and 30 males from Ranchi. Personal Data questionnaire was used to collect information about the respondents and Sinha Anxiety Scale was used for the data collection. High scores on this scale indicate higher level of anxiety. The result of the present study shows that female have scored higher than male on anxiety. A significant difference t = 4.65 (p<.01) between female and male on anxiety is found in the present study. Findings of the present study clearly indicate that females have higher anxiety than male.

Keywords:- Anxiety, male, female.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    When faced with potentially harmful or worrying triggers, feelings of anxiety are not only normal but necessary for survival. Ever since the earliest days of humanity, the approach of predators and incoming danger has set off alarms in the body and allowed an individual to take evasive action. These alarms become noticeable in the form of a raised heartbeat, sweating, and increased sensitivity to surroundings.

    A rush of adrenaline in response to danger causes these reactions. This adrenaline boost is known as the fight-or- flight response. It prepares humans to physically confront or flee any threats to safety. For most modern individuals, running from larger animals and imminent danger is a less pressing concern. Anxieties now revolve around work, money, family life, health, and other crucial issues that demand a persons attention without necessarily requiring the fight-or-flight reaction. That nervous feeling before an important life event or during a difficult situation is a natural echo of the original fight-or-flight reaction. It can still be essential to survival anxiety about being hit by a car when crossing the street, for example, means that a person will instinctively look both ways to avoid danger.

    In the present scientific era, the progress of a nation depends upon its educational system. Without a sound and qualitative educational system, the nation cannot keep pace with the developed countries. Education is a lifelong process, which starts right from cradle and goes on throughout life. Education is about the preparation of unprepared minds. Preparation of mind as a process, thus involves enormous inputs and efforts on the parts of all

    stakeholders namely parents, teachers, peers and society. All these play a very significant role in the development of a child from his birth till death. The child learns a lot from all these in all stages of his life. But, this process of development is not an easy process. The child faces many problems from his childhood till his death. In a developing country like India, where there is lack of resources in almost every sphere, it becomes difficult for the individual to fulfill most of his needs during his life span. This difficulty in the fulfillment of his needs due to several personal, emotional and social reasons creates anxiety among the individuals. Anna Freud characterizes adolescence as a period of internal conflict, psychic disequilibrium and erratic behavior. Adolescents are on one hand egoistic regarding themselves as the sole object of interest and the centre of the universe but on the other hand also capable of self sacrifice and devotion. Youth today are living in an increasingly anxiety ridden atmosphere. They live in a world where nothing seems to be guaranteed with certainty and at the same time they are expected to perform at every front, the main being the academics. Adolescents often lack in academic motivation and performance, as their attention is divided among a lot many things especially at creating an identity for themselves. Anxiety is one of the most studied phenomena in psychology. It is normal human response to stress. The concept of anxiety is differentiated from fear as it is a normal human response to stress.

  2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Bryme (2000) conducted a study on anxiety, depression and coping strategies in adolescents. Results suggested that males present significant decrease of anxiety and fear in 12th grades instead of girls who show increase in anxiety and by this time both males and females use different coping strategies in order to deal with fear and anxiety.

    Robinson (1966) Student anxiety has long been a topic of discussion amongst researchers. Some research from the 1950s indicates a negative correlation between anxiety and academic performance and other research that did not support that correlation. The researcher worked with students at Brigham Young University to test the hypothesis that honors students with high academic ability have less anxiety than honors students with lower academic ability.

    Bekker and van Mens-Verhulst (2007), report that anxiety is substantially higher in women than in men. Study by Mundia (2010), indicates that there is an increase in the prevalence of anxiety in college students. In addition, anxiety was more prevalent in female students than male students.

    1. Aims

      1. To measure the level of anxiety among university student.

      2. To examine the difference in anxiety between male and female.

    2. Hypotheses

      • Level of anxiety will vary among university student.

      • Females have more anxiety then male.

    3. Sample

      The sample for the present study consisted of 60 college students of Ranchi University. They use selected through stratified random technique. The stratification being based gender (male and female), and in each sample sub-group 30 college students use selected randomly.

    4. Tools

      The following tools used for the collection of data.

      1. Personal Data Questionnaire

        It elicited information about respondent name, age, gender, religion, caste, college, class, parental income, education, occupation etc.

      2. Sinha Anxiety Scale:- Sinha anxiety scale developed and standardized by D.Sinha (1961) formerly professor and head department of Psychology University of Allahabad. The scale is consists of 100 items. The split half reliability of the test is 0.86 and test-retest reliability found

      .75.The validity of this scale is .69.

    5. Test administration and Procedure

    The data was collected in small group in classroom situation. During the testing session respondent were instructed in brief about the purpose of investigation. They were instructed to read the items carefully and to put a tick () mark or cross (X) mark in one of the provided boxes according to their opinion to the items. They had ample time to read the questionnaire and respond. There was no time limit fixed for filing up the questionnaire. However, they were asked not to take unnecessarily long time. They were first asked to fill in the biographical details thereafter they were asked to proceed with the filling of the questionnaire time. In case of any difficulty they could seek clarification from the investigator.

  3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Table 4.1

Comparison between Male and Female University Students: t-values

Gender

N

Mean

SD

t

Male

30

49.4

11.36

4.65

Female

30

64.43

13.71

t is significant at 0.01 level

Figure 4.1

Gender Difference on Mean Score

100

80

mean score

mean score

60 49.4

64.43

40

20

0

Male Female

Table 4.2

Level of anxiety between Male and Female Students

Groups

N

Percentage (%)

Male

30

43.396

Female

30

56.60

Figure 4.2

Level of anxiety between Male and Female Students

100

persentage

persentage

80

60

43.396

40

56.6

20

0

Male Female

Gender

Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 showed that significant difference between male and female, t is significant at 0.01 level. Mean is also indicate female is more anxiety then male hypothesis is proved.

Table 4.2 and figure 4.2 showed that higher level of anxiety was found in female students (56.6%) as compared to male students (43.396%).

REFERENCE

  1. Bekker, M. H. J., & van Mens-Verhulst, J. (2007). Anxiety disorders: Sex differences in prevalence, degree and background, but gender neutral treatment. Gender Medicine, 4(B), S178-S193.

  2. Bryme, B. (2000). Relationship between Anxiety, Fear, Self Esteem and Coping Strategies. Journal of Educational psychology. Vol 35(137): 201-215.

  3. Mundia, L. (2010). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in Brunei preservice student teachers. The Internet Journal of Mental Health, 6.

  4. Robinson, B. W. (1966). A study of anxiety and academic achievement. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30(2), 165167.

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