- Open Access
- Authors : Preety Rani, R. S. Mishra
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS11160
- Volume & Issue : ICEI – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 11)
- Published (First Online): 30-08-2022
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of Aluminum Alloys: A Review
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University
R. S. Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi Technological University
Abstract:- The main goal of this research work is to consider and provide a complete analysis of friction stir welding on aluminum alloys undertaken by the majority of researchers. The impact of process factors on weld reactions, material flow, and microstructure is the focus of the research. FSW factors such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, shoulder diameter, tool pin diameter, and tool pin profile have a substantial impact on the micro hardness, tensile strength, yield strength, and strain rate of FSWed aluminum alloys, according to the study.
Keyword: Friction stir welding, strain rate, ultimate tensile strength, micro-hardness.
Friction-stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state method, which implies that the base metals are bonded without melting during the process, preserving the parent material's original features as much as possible after welding [1-2]. FSW is done with the assistance of a specially designed tool that consists of a shoulder of cylindrical shape and a pin of different profiles that spins and plunges into the parting line of the two-base plate. When the tool pin and the workpiece make contact, friction is created, which provides heat for welding, softening the workpiece without melting it and allowing the tool to move along the weld line under force. Intermixing of work- piece material occurs as a result of tool rotation, and work- piece plates are connected together.The demand for lightweight materials, particularly aluminium and its alloys in structural components, is increasing in practically all
industries, including cars, aircraft, marine, and defence . The permanent bonding of different aluminium alloys would improve structural design flexibility and increase its uses . As a result, a number of fusion and solid-state welding methods have been used to examine the welding of incompatible aluminium alloys . Due to the increased potential for solidification cracking, greater residual stress, intermetallics, and vaporisation of alloying elements caused by high heat input, the use of fusion welding methods in welding dissimilar aluminium alloys is limited.Because of its high weld quality, cheap cost, and low energy consumption, friction-stir welding (FSW) is often used to weld lighter materials including aluminium and magnesium alloys.
The influence of different friction stir welding/ processing process parameters on different metals has been reviewed after a thorough study of numerous research data. This review is offered in tabular form and consists of published works on dissimilar metals. The Table A below summarizes the parameters that were considered by previous writers.
Table 1 Literature review of aluminum alloys: –
Tool & type of joint
Prado et al.
traverse speed and tool pin profile
Tool wear and wear rate
1) When weld or traverse speeds are increased, tool wear and the wear rate are found to decrease. [7, 8]
Fratini,L. and, Buffa,G.
strain, strain rate and temperature
1) An inverse-identification technique based on a linear regression methodology was employed to provide the required material characterization. .
Kulekci, et al.
tool pin dia., and tool rotation speed
fatigue strength and microstructure
1) The fatigue strength of joints is reduced when tool rotation is increased for a fixed tool pin diameter. The fatigue strength of joints is reduced when tool pin diameter is increased for a fixed tool rotation .
Liu et al..
non-rotational shoulder dia. And welding speed
micro structure, hardness and tensile strength
1) Microstructures and Vickers hardness distributions revealed that this novel welding method improves asymmetry and in homogeneity, particularly non the weld nugget zone. Up to 69 percent of the basic material's tensile strength was achieved .
Scialpi et al.
transverse tensile strength, microstructure
1) According to the findings, the best joint for thin sheets was welded by a shoulder having cavity and fillet [12-15].
Cavalier et al.
tensile, fatigue strength,
T1) he two sheets were successfully welded one after the other, and the welded sheets were tested under strain at room temperature to
hardness and microstructure
determine their mechanical reaction in comparison to the parent materials .
Deplus et al.
AA 2024-T3, AA5754-
H111 and AA 6082-T6
thin copper, brass and tungsten of dia.
0.05 to 0.3 mm
Machining Gap, Thermal Energy, Dilectric Pressure, Current
MRR and Surface Finish
1) The static deflection of the wire and vibrational behaviour have been reported to produce inaccuracies . intelligent systems or Expert knowledge have been stated to lessen the inaccuracy due to the static deflection of the wire and vibrational behaviour.
Zhang et al.
AA 6061 -T6
rotation speed, axial forceand welding speed
1) There appears to be a quasi-linear relationship between the variation of the equivalent plastic strain and the variation of the applied loads on the shoulder. On increasing in the pin's translational and angular velocity, the material flow may be accelerated .
Raghu Babu, et al.
butt joint & HSS tool
rotation speed, axial force and welding speed
tensile strength, hardness and microstructure
1) The joint's tensile strength is less than that of the parent metal. And it's proportional to the speed of travel / welding [19-22].
Heurtier, et al.
micro-hardness, estimations of the temperatures strains and strain rates.
1) The semi-analytical model may be employed to calculate stresses, micro-hardness, strain rates, and temperature estimates in different weld zones .
Aval et al.
Tool rotational speed, welding speed
temperature distribution, yield & tensile effect.
1) The final microstructures and mechanical characteristics of welded alloys can be greatly influenced by work-hardened and annealed conditions .
Mehtaa et al.
tool steel of M2 grade
cylindrical, triangular, square and hexagonal Pin profile
Zhang et al..
welding speeds,water- coolingand air- cooling conditions
& artificial ageing
tensile strength andhardness
1) The ideal method to increasing the mechanical characteristics of FSW2219Al-T6 joints has been demonstrated to be a combination of post-welding artificial ageing and high welding speed, with a highest joint efficiency of 91 percent attained .
Guillo. et al.
Rotationalspeed, travelingspeed, tiltangle
1) A robot with an inbuilt real-time algorithm for compensating lateral tool deviation may recreate the same FSW edquality as a gantry- type CNC system, according to this article .
Nam et al.
a narrower probe and a columnar shape.
Potentiodynami c and EIS studies
1) According to the findings, a high-quality thin coating on the surface with improved properties resulted in a high-corrosion-resistant alloy. This might be owing to the FSW's homogenous impurity distribution in the alloy, on which a homogeneous passive coating was generated to improve corrosion resistance .
Babu. et al.
High carbon steel tool
rotational speed, tool pin profiles, welding speed and axial (downward) force.
1) With a 95% confidence level, a mathematical model was built to estimate the tensile strength of FSWed AA2219 joints .
Dongxiao. et al.
Tool rotational speed (rpm), Welding speed (mm/min)
Microstructural characteristics, welding process,Hardne ss and tensile strength
1) Both the existence of precipitates and the displacement of component particles may be blamed for the reduced crack initiation energy in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The presence of precipitates in the HAZ was the primary cause of the SSFSW joint's lower tensile strength .
t. et al.
AA7075-O and AA2024- T4
Threaded with four flute and threaded taper tool
Tool rotation speed,welding speed
Ultimate Tensile strength, Elongation,Har dness,yield strength,
1) The purpose of the microstructure analysis is to see how the pin profile and rotating speed affect grain size. Furthermore, one of the most important aims in the current study is to get high-quality welds with the least amount of money .
Chionopo ul et al.
butt joint, thermal treated steel
a) Compact conical
(N) and Welding speed, (S)
1)It was shown that under particular welding conditions, only the conical pin shape resulted in defect-free welds. In terms of the in the case
Welds constructed using triangular pin shapes produced the most uneven and massive copper particles. Furthermore, holes, tunnels, fractures, and fragmental flaws were generated by polygonal pin profiles, regardless of their static and dynamic constant areas.
Additionally, as the number of polygonal edges increased, faults reduced. The cylindrical tool pin profile has been reported to have a defect-free macro joint .
pin tool, b) Screw type pin head.
of screw type pins, these first studies resulted in defective welds, most likely owing to the screw's unique design or the welding settings used, which were not ideal.
2)Micro-hardness measurements were made on specimen cross sections and associated with the establishment of FSP zones. The ideal parameters matched to welding zones that were free of flaws and other interruptions. In any event, the welding instrument suffered no damage as a result of the procedure .
Mishra et al.
Single pass FSPed zone of 0.3 m length
traverse speed of 15 cm/min.
Strain rate, Tensile tests
1) The current findings show that friction stir processing may be used to create a microstructure in a commercial aluminum alloy that is susceptible to high strain rate superplasticity .
GarcÃa- Bernal et al.
produced by continuous strip casting with different Mn
FSP tool of MP159 alloy.Mn and Cr dispersoid formers
rotation rate -400
rpm and 0.42 mm/s traverse speed
1) Increased Mn concentration increases ultimate and yield strength. The two alloys with the lowest Mn concentration had the highest elongation values (almost 800 percent) .
H13 tool steel tool was used
rotational speeds – 430 and 850 rpm and traverse speed
Tensile tests andstrain rates
I) The attributes of the DRX refined microstructure achieved in the 43990 FSP condition were far better to those of the 85090 FSP condition.
Kandasam y.J, and Rajesham.
6mm thick AA7075 and AA6061
speed steel toolwith 10% cobalt
Yield strength Tensile strengt
%Elongation Hardness Shear strength Distribution Vickers micro hardness across the weld line
Suresha. et al.
of 5mm thickness
square butt joints. Nonconsumable tools made of hot die steel
Tensile strength, joint efficiency
Amini.S., and Amiri.M.,
friction stir welding on aluminum 5083with dimensions of 120 mmÃ—60
Four tools of AISIH13 with 1)shoulder dia.-18 mm,
Different shapes of tool pin were used
vertical force and
1) The impact of an offset pin on vertical force and welding force reduction (between 50 and
70 percent) is larger than the impact of a concentric pin with the tool shoulder axis on these forces.
2) Tools with a half pin and an arching pin exert greater force than tools with an offset pin, but less force than tools with a concentric pin .
Scialpi. et al.
AA 6082 T6
The tool made of 56NiCrMoV7-KU.
The tool with pin
1.7 mm dia. and 1.2 mm height.
Mechanicaland Microstructural properties
Demonstrated that reducing grain size increased ductility and reduced forming loads considerably.
The presence of a rather high strain rate sensitivity shows that superplastic deformation is operating under these experimental conditions .
Shoulder dia. (16mm)
threaded Pin dia (6mm)
Tool rotational speed (1400rpm)
traverse speed (16mm/min)
Axial force (6kN)
The goal of the experiment is to reduce the temperature difference between bottom surfaces and the top of the plates as much as possible..
The creation of Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 IMCs increases bond strength, according to analysis of the generated intermetallic compound (IMC).
Tool rotational speed (900,1120,1400RP M)
Welding speed (40,50 and 63mm/min)
Plunge depth (4.93,4.96 and
The welded joints of the conical tool are more efficient than those of the square tool.
ANOVA was used to determine the percentage contribution of these FSW process parameters, and it was observed that tool rotating speed, when compared to weld traverse speed and plunge depth, has a substantial contribution in both conical and square tools .
pin dia.- 5.5 mm,
angle – 9Â°
pin height – 3.85 mm
Rotational speed – (560,900,1120,140 0rpm)
Tool tilt angle – (1.5Â°)
Tool rotation speed – 1810 rpm
traverse speed – 460 mm/min) tilt angle 2 & 0.1 mm plunge Shoulders with three different features1. scroll (TFS)2. cavity (TFC)3. fillet (TF)
A study of three shoulder geometries was conducted in this study. The tool analysis was performed on 1.5 mm thick AA 6082 T6 sheets. The tool was rotated at 1810 rpm with a federate of 460 mm/min during the welding operation.
The analysis revealed that the optimum junction for thin sheets was welded by a shoulder with fillet and cavity .
h. et al
Al-Cu alloy and AA5083.
Squar- butt joint
-1, 0, 1 ,2mm)
Johannes et al
High strength cobalt alloy (MP159) tool. shoulder – 25 mm Tool pin length –
Microstructure examination Tensile testing
1) By modifying the size and distribution of component particles before to cold rolling, FSP assists in the reduction of post-recrystallization grain size. It was discovered that adding the FSP stage refined the recrystallized grain size, decreased flow stresses and enhanced elongations .
M. E. and Ehab A.
T651 plates , 6mm thick
Tool material Mo W tool steel
1) The results of the hardness and tensile tests showed that increasing the number of passes resulted in softening and a decrease in UTS, but increasing traverse speed enhanced strength and hardness.
2). Multiple passes resulted in increased grain size, precipitate dissolution, and fragmentation of second phase particles due to the accumulated heat..
AA5083 and AA1100(T- 6-
Tool made of H-13 tool steel
&tapered cylindrical pin tool
., et al.
AA 5083 (T-
Tool made of EN 42CrMo4
FSW tool geometry was used with a threaded pin
to 1250 r/min
1) The microstructure was prepared for examination under a polarized light source using a light microscope. At an FPR of 0.35 mm/r, a set of ideal welding conditions was identified, allowing excellent welds to be formed with a small improvement in hardness and a 15% reduction in tensile strength .
Jerome.S. et al
Tool made of EN 31 steelShoulder Dia.- 18 mm, Pin Dia. and length 6 mm and 2 mm, respectively
1) Tool Rotation Speed-
0 Rpm2) Traverse Speed – 16mm/min
Microstructural Observations.2) Microhardness Details
1) The microhardness profiles of the treated samples were assessed along the top surface and across the cross section. When compared to the base metal (88Hv), the average hardness along the top surface increased by 27.27 percent .
Krishna et al
AA6351 and AA5083
High speed steel (HSS)
Feed rate – 20 mm/min
1) Rotational speed – 1000,
Yield strength, Tensile strength and % elongation
Rotation speed (400,800,1200,160 0,2000 rpm)
Tool traverse speed (30 210 390 570 750 mm/min)
Tool offset from joint line (-2,
Joint efficiency on UTS
Using diverse methods such as macrostructural analysis and electron probe micro analysis, the impacts of process parameters and tool-offset on the degree of material intermixing and to reduce percent area of volumetric defects were investigated in detail.
It is well established that the tool offset and welding settings have the greatest impact on the nugget zone mixing pattern and subsequent joint strength .
Rotational rate – 600 rpm
traverse speed –
Tool rotational speed – 850 rpm
Transverse speed- 90,140,224
Second phase particles
Tool-rotation speed – 1000,1400
welding speed – 56,80 mm/min
Tool geometries have a substantial impact on dissimilar material FSW weld quality. In the case of taper cylindrical tools with the same process parameter, both hardness and tensile strength were greater.
In dissimilar friction stir weldments, lower traverse rates combined with greater rotating speeds produce the highest tensile characteristics .
tool-rotation speed -200 r/min
welding speed – 71 mm/min to 450
Describes the effect of an FSW process including butt joining of identical AA6351 and AA6351 combinations and dissimilar AA6351 and AA5083 combinations on tensile, hardness, and impact behaviour.
When compared to different alloy combinations, the tensile, hardness, and impact characteristics of Aluminum alloys of comparable alloy combinations show better results [46-49].
The results of this investigation showed the proces factors employed during the welding of several aluminum alloys, as well as the impact of those parameters on the weld reactions. Process factors such as rotating speed, weld speed, tool pin shape, tool tilt angle, tool offset, and others were shown to have a substantial impact on the weld quality of friction stir welded aluminum alloys. The following findings may be taken from the preceding research.
In compared to different aluminum alloy combinations, comparable aluminum alloy combinations have higher tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength.
The final microstructures and mechanical characteristics of welded AA5083 alloy can be greatly influenced by work- hardened and annealed conditions.
The creation of Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 IMCs by the interaction of AA6061 and AA7075 with copper in coating form increases bond strength, according to analysis of the generated intermetallic compound (IMC).
ANOVA was used to evaluate the % contribution of these FSW process factors, and it was discovered that in the case of both square and conical tools during welding AA7075, tool rotating speed has a significant contribution compared to weld plunge depth and traverse speed.
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