Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV10IS11160

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Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Preety Rani

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University

Delhi, India.

R. S. Mishra

Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi Technological University

Delhi, India.

Abstract:- The main goal of this research work is to consider and provide a complete analysis of friction stir welding on aluminum alloys undertaken by the majority of researchers. The impact of process factors on weld reactions, material flow, and microstructure is the focus of the research. FSW factors such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, shoulder diameter, tool pin diameter, and tool pin profile have a substantial impact on the micro hardness, tensile strength, yield strength, and strain rate of FSWed aluminum alloys, according to the study.

Keyword: Friction stir welding, strain rate, ultimate tensile strength, micro-hardness.


    Friction-stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state method, which implies that the base metals are bonded without melting during the process, preserving the parent material's original features as much as possible after welding [1-2]. FSW is done with the assistance of a specially designed tool that consists of a shoulder of cylindrical shape and a pin of different profiles that spins and plunges into the parting line of the two-base plate. When the tool pin and the workpiece make contact, friction is created, which provides heat for welding, softening the workpiece without melting it and allowing the tool to move along the weld line under force. Intermixing of work- piece material occurs as a result of tool rotation, and work- piece plates are connected together[3].The demand for lightweight materials, particularly aluminium and its alloys in structural components, is increasing in practically all

    industries, including cars, aircraft, marine, and defence [4]. The permanent bonding of different aluminium alloys would improve structural design flexibility and increase its uses [5]. As a result, a number of fusion and solid-state welding methods have been used to examine the welding of incompatible aluminium alloys [6]. Due to the increased potential for solidification cracking, greater residual stress, intermetallics, and vaporisation of alloying elements caused by high heat input, the use of fusion welding methods in welding dissimilar aluminium alloys is limited[5].Because of its high weld quality, cheap cost, and low energy consumption, friction-stir welding (FSW) is often used to weld lighter materials including aluminium and magnesium alloys.


    The influence of different friction stir welding/ processing process parameters on different metals has been reviewed after a thorough study of numerous research data. This review is offered in tabular form and consists of published works on dissimilar metals. The Table A below summarizes the parameters that were considered by previous writers.

    Table 1 Literature review of aluminum alloys: –






    Tool & type of joint

    Input parameters

    Output parameters




    Prado et al.

    AA6061+20% Al2O3

    butt joint

    traverse speed and tool pin profile

    Tool wear and wear rate

    1) When weld or traverse speeds are increased, tool wear and the wear rate are found to decrease. [7, 8]



    Fratini,L. and, Buffa,G.

    AA 6082-T6

    butt joint

    strain, strain rate and temperature

    1) An inverse-identification technique based on a linear regression methodology was employed to provide the required material characterization. [9].



    Kulekci, et al.


    Lap joint

    tool pin dia., and tool rotation speed

    fatigue strength and microstructure

    1) The fatigue strength of joints is reduced when tool rotation is increased for a fixed tool pin diameter. The fatigue strength of joints is reduced when tool pin diameter is increased for a fixed tool rotation [10].



    Liu et al..

    AA 2219-T6

    non-rotational shoulder dia. And welding speed

    micro structure, hardness and tensile strength

    1) Microstructures and Vickers hardness distributions revealed that this novel welding method improves asymmetry and in homogeneity, particularly non the weld nugget zone. Up to 69 percent of the basic material's tensile strength was achieved [11].



    Scialpi et al.


    shoulder geometries

    transverse tensile strength, microstructure

    1) According to the findings, the best joint for thin sheets was welded by a shoulder having cavity and fillet [12-15].



    Cavalier et al.


    tensile, fatigue strength,

    T1) he two sheets were successfully welded one after the other, and the welded sheets were tested under strain at room temperature to

    hardness and microstructure

    determine their mechanical reaction in comparison to the parent materials [16].



    Deplus et al.

    AA 2024-T3, AA5754-

    H111 and AA 6082-T6

    thin copper, brass and tungsten of dia.

    0.05 to 0.3 mm

    Machining Gap, Thermal Energy, Dilectric Pressure, Current

    MRR and Surface Finish

    1) The static deflection of the wire and vibrational behaviour have been reported to produce inaccuracies [17]. intelligent systems or Expert knowledge have been stated to lessen the inaccuracy due to the static deflection of the wire and vibrational behaviour.



    Zhang et al.

    AA 6061 -T6

    rotation speed, axial forceand welding speed

    material flow

    1) There appears to be a quasi-linear relationship between the variation of the equivalent plastic strain and the variation of the applied loads on the shoulder. On increasing in the pin's translational and angular velocity, the material flow may be accelerated [18].



    Raghu Babu, et al.


    butt joint & HSS tool

    rotation speed, axial force and welding speed

    tensile strength, hardness and microstructure

    1) The joint's tensile strength is less than that of the parent metal. And it's proportional to the speed of travel / welding [19-22].



    Heurtier, et al.


    butt joint

    micro-hardness, estimations of the temperatures strains and strain rates.

    1) The semi-analytical model may be employed to calculate stresses, micro-hardness, strain rates, and temperature estimates in different weld zones [23].



    Aval et al.


    Tool rotational speed, welding speed

    temperature distribution, yield & tensile effect.

    1) The final microstructures and mechanical characteristics of welded alloys can be greatly influenced by work-hardened and annealed conditions [24].



    Mehtaa et al.


    tool steel of M2 grade

    cylindrical, triangular, square and hexagonal Pin profile




    Zhang et al..


    welding speeds,water- coolingand air- cooling conditions

    & artificial ageing

    tensile strength andhardness

    1) The ideal method to increasing the mechanical characteristics of FSW2219Al-T6 joints has been demonstrated to be a combination of post-welding artificial ageing and high welding speed, with a highest joint efficiency of 91 percent attained [26].



    Guillo. et al.


    FSWtool ofH13toolsteel

    Rotationalspeed, travelingspeed, tiltangle

    1) A robot with an inbuilt real-time algorithm for compensating lateral tool deviation may recreate the same FSW edquality as a gantry- type CNC system, according to this article [27].



    Nam et al.


    aluminum alloy

    SKD11toolconsist of

    a narrower probe and a columnar shape.

    welding speed

    Potentiodynami c and EIS studies

    1) According to the findings, a high-quality thin coating on the surface with improved properties resulted in a high-corrosion-resistant alloy. This might be owing to the FSW's homogenous impurity distribution in the alloy, on which a homogeneous passive coating was generated to improve corrosion resistance [28].



    Babu. et al.


    aluminium alloy

    High carbon steel tool

    rotational speed, tool pin profiles, welding speed and axial (downward) force.

    Tensile strength

    1) With a 95% confidence level, a mathematical model was built to estimate the tensile strength of FSWed AA2219 joints [29].



    Dongxiao. et al.


    aluminumallo y

    Butt joint

    Tool rotational speed (rpm), Welding speed (mm/min)

    Microstructural characteristics, welding process,Hardne ss and tensile strength

    1) Both the existence of precipitates and the displacement of component particles may be blamed for the reduced crack initiation energy in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The presence of precipitates in the HAZ was the primary cause of the SSFSW joint's lower tensile strength [30].




    t. et al.

    AA7075-O and AA2024- T4

    Threaded with four flute and threaded taper tool

    Tool rotation speed,welding speed

    Ultimate Tensile strength, Elongation,Har dness,yield strength,

    1) The purpose of the microstructure analysis is to see how the pin profile and rotating speed affect grain size. Furthermore, one of the most important aims in the current study is to get high-quality welds with the least amount of money [31].



    Chionopo ul et al.


    aluminum alloy

    butt joint, thermal treated steel

    a) Compact conical

    Rotational speed,

    (N) and Welding speed, (S)

    Microhardness, Microstructure

    1)It was shown that under particular welding conditions, only the conical pin shape resulted in defect-free welds. In terms of the in the case

    1. Welds constructed using triangular pin shapes produced the most uneven and massive copper particles. Furthermore, holes, tunnels, fractures, and fragmental flaws were generated by polygonal pin profiles, regardless of their static and dynamic constant areas.

    2. Additionally, as the number of polygonal edges increased, faults reduced. The cylindrical tool pin profile has been reported to have a defect-free macro joint [25].

    pin tool, b) Screw type pin head.

    of screw type pins, these first studies resulted in defective welds, most likely owing to the screw's unique design or the welding settings used, which were not ideal.

    2)Micro-hardness measurements were made on specimen cross sections and associated with the establishment of FSP zones. The ideal parameters matched to welding zones that were free of flaws and other interruptions. In any event, the welding instrument suffered no damage as a result of the procedure [32].



    Mishra et al.

    AA 7075-T6

    Single pass FSPed zone of 0.3 m length

    traverse speed of 15 cm/min.

    Strain rate, Tensile tests

    1) The current findings show that friction stir processing may be used to create a microstructure in a commercial aluminum alloy that is susceptible to high strain rate superplasticity [33].



    García- Bernal et al.

    AA 5083

    produced by continuous strip casting with different Mn

    FSP tool of MP159 alloy.Mn and Cr dispersoid formers

    rotation rate -400

    rpm and 0.42 mm/s traverse speed

    Strain rate

    1) Increased Mn concentration increases ultimate and yield strength. The two alloys with the lowest Mn concentration had the highest elongation values (almost 800 percent) [34].



    et al.

    AA5083, 3

    mm thickness

    H13 tool steel tool was used

    rotational speeds – 430 and 850 rpm and traverse speed

    -90 mm/min

    Tensile tests andstrain rates

    I) The attributes of the DRX refined microstructure achieved in the 43990 FSP condition were far better to those of the 85090 FSP condition.



    Kandasam y.J, and Rajesham.


    6mm thick AA7075 and AA6061


    speed steel toolwith 10% cobalt

    Yield strength Tensile strengt

    %Elongation Hardness Shear strength Distribution Vickers micro hardness across the weld line



    Suresha. et al.


    of 5mm thickness

    square butt joints. Nonconsumable tools made of hot die steel

    4.99 mm)

    Tensile strength, joint efficiency



    Amini.S., and Amiri.M.,

    friction stir welding on aluminum 5083with dimensions of 120 mm×60

    mm×4 mm.

    Four tools of AISIH13 with 1)shoulder dia.-18 mm,

    Different shapes of tool pin were used

    (63,100 mm/min)

    vertical force and

    welding force

    1) The impact of an offset pin on vertical force and welding force reduction (between 50 and

    70 percent) is larger than the impact of a concentric pin with the tool shoulder axis on these forces.

    2) Tools with a half pin and an arching pin exert greater force than tools with an offset pin, but less force than tools with a concentric pin [38].


    Scialpi. et al.

    AA 6082 T6

    The tool made of 56NiCrMoV7-KU.

    The tool with pin

    1.7 mm dia. and 1.2 mm height.

    Mechanicaland Microstructural properties

    1. Demonstrated that reducing grain size increased ductility and reduced forming loads considerably.

    2. The presence of a rather high strain rate sensitivity shows that superplastic deformation is operating under these experimental conditions [35].

    1. Shoulder dia. (16mm)

    2. threaded Pin dia (6mm)

    3. length (5.8mm)

    1. Tool rotational speed (1400rpm)

    2. traverse speed (16mm/min)

    3. Axial force (6kN)

    1. The goal of the experiment is to reduce the temperature difference between bottom surfaces and the top of the plates as much as possible..

    2. The creation of Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 IMCs increases bond strength, according to analysis of the generated intermetallic compound (IMC)[36].

    1. Square tool

    2. conical tool

    1. Tool rotational speed (900,1120,1400RP M)

    2. Welding speed (40,50 and 63mm/min)

    3. Plunge depth (4.93,4.96 and

    1. The welded joints of the conical tool are more efficient than those of the square tool.

    2. ANOVA was used to determine the percentage contribution of these FSW process parameters, and it was observed that tool rotating speed, when compared to weld traverse speed and plunge depth, has a substantial contribution in both conical and square tools [37].

    1. pin dia.- 5.5 mm,

    2. angle – 9°

    3. pin height – 3.85 mm

    1. Rotational speed – (560,900,1120,140 0rpm)

    2. Translational speed-

    3. Tool tilt angle – (1.5°)

    1. Tool rotation speed – 1810 rpm

    2. traverse speed – 460 mm/min) tilt angle 2 & 0.1 mm plunge Shoulders with three different features1. scroll (TFS)2. cavity (TFC)3. fillet (TF)

    1. A study of three shoulder geometries was conducted in this study. The tool analysis was performed on 1.5 mm thick AA 6082 T6 sheets. The tool was rotated at 1810 rpm with a federate of 460 mm/min during the welding operation.

    2. The analysis revealed that the optimum junction for thin sheets was welded by a shoulder with fillet and cavity [39].



    h. et al


    Al-Cu alloy and AA5083.

    Squar- butt joint

    -1, 0, 1 ,2mm)



    Johannes et al


    High strength cobalt alloy (MP159) tool. shoulder – 25 mm Tool pin length –

    6.4 mm.

    25.4 mm/min

    Microstructure examination Tensile testing

    1) By modifying the size and distribution of component particles before to cold rolling, FSP assists in the reduction of post-recrystallization grain size. It was discovered that adding the FSP stage refined the recrystallized grain size, decreased flow stresses and enhanced elongations [41].




    M. E. and Ehab A.


    AA- 6082-

    T651 plates , 6mm thick

    Tool material Mo W tool steel

    mm /min


    Microstructural characteristics

    1) The results of the hardness and tensile tests showed that increasing the number of passes resulted in softening and a decrease in UTS, but increasing traverse speed enhanced strength and hardness.

    2). Multiple passes resulted in increased grain size, precipitate dissolution, and fragmentation of second phase particles due to the accumulated heat.[42].



    Deepati,et al.

    AA5083 and AA1100(T- 6-


    Tool made of H-13 tool steel

    2) Straight

    &tapered cylindrical pin tool





    ., et al.

    AA 5083 (T-


    Tool made of EN 42CrMo4


    FSW tool geometry was used with a threaded pin

    to 1250 r/min




    1) The microstructure was prepared for examination under a polarized light source using a light microscope. At an FPR of 0.35 mm/r, a set of ideal welding conditions was identified, allowing excellent welds to be formed with a small improvement in hardness and a 15% reduction in tensile strength [44].



    Jerome.S. et al

    AA5083 /TiC


    Tool made of EN 31 steelShoulder Dia.- 18 mm, Pin Dia. and length 6 mm and 2 mm, respectively

    1) Tool Rotation Speed-


    0 Rpm2) Traverse Speed – 16mm/min


    Microstructural Observations.2) Microhardness Details

    1) The microhardness profiles of the treated samples were assessed along the top surface and across the cross section. When compared to the base metal (88Hv), the average hardness along the top surface increased by 27.27 percent [45].



    Krishna et al

    AA6351 and AA5083

    High speed steel (HSS)

    Feed rate – 20 mm/min

    1) Rotational speed – 1000,


    400,1500 RPM

    Yield strength, Tensile strength and % elongation

    1. Rotation speed (400,800,1200,160 0,2000 rpm)

    2. Tool traverse speed (30 210 390 570 750 mm/min)

    3. Tool offset from joint line (-2,

    1. % El.

    2. Joint efficiency on UTS

    3. Failure location

    1. Using diverse methods such as macrostructural analysis and electron probe micro analysis, the impacts of process parameters and tool-offset on the degree of material intermixing and to reduce percent area of volumetric defects were investigated in detail.

    2. It is well established that the tool offset and welding settings have the greatest impact on the nugget zone mixing pattern and subsequent joint strength [40].

    1. Rotational rate – 600 rpm

    2. traverse speed –

    1. Tool rotational speed – 850 rpm

    2. Transverse speed- 90,140,224

    1. Second phase particles

    2. Mechanical characteristics

    1. Tool-rotation speed – 1000,1400

    2. welding speed – 56,80 mm/min

    1. Hardness

    2. Tensile Test

    1. Tool geometries have a substantial impact on dissimilar material FSW weld quality. In the case of taper cylindrical tools with the same process parameter, both hardness and tensile strength were greater.

    2. In dissimilar friction stir weldments, lower traverse rates combined with greater rotating speeds produce the highest tensile characteristics [43].

    1. tool-rotation speed -200 r/min

    2. welding speed – 71 mm/min to 450

    1. Hardness

    2. Tensile properties

    1. Describes the effect of an FSW process including butt joining of identical AA6351 and AA6351 combinations and dissimilar AA6351 and AA5083 combinations on tensile, hardness, and impact behaviour.

    2. When compared to different alloy combinations, the tensile, hardness, and impact characteristics of Aluminum alloys of comparable alloy combinations show better results [46-49].


The results of this investigation showed the proces factors employed during the welding of several aluminum alloys, as well as the impact of those parameters on the weld reactions. Process factors such as rotating speed, weld speed, tool pin shape, tool tilt angle, tool offset, and others were shown to have a substantial impact on the weld quality of friction stir welded aluminum alloys. The following findings may be taken from the preceding research.

  1. In compared to different aluminum alloy combinations, comparable aluminum alloy combinations have higher tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength.

  2. The final microstructures and mechanical characteristics of welded AA5083 alloy can be greatly influenced by work- hardened and annealed conditions.

  3. The creation of Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 IMCs by the interaction of AA6061 and AA7075 with copper in coating form increases bond strength, according to analysis of the generated intermetallic compound (IMC).

  4. ANOVA was used to evaluate the % contribution of these FSW process factors, and it was discovered that in the case of both square and conical tools during welding AA7075, tool rotating speed has a significant contribution compared to weld plunge depth and traverse speed.


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