Forest Fire-A Case Study on the Four National Park of Uttarakhand

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Forest Fire-A Case Study on the Four National Park of Uttarakhand

Muchkund Pant Department of Civil Engineering, Uttaranchal University,Dehradun

Vinay Purohit Department of Civil Engineering, Uttrakhand Technincal University

Abstract:- Forest fire is not a new concept in present era but now a days the threat of forest fire looms large over the vast cover of green vegetation. As the global temperature is rising, increasing incidents of forest fires are increasing the temperature of earth. The forests are prone to the wildfire because of large spell of winter in which the precipitation is scanty. Every year India witnesses many incidents of forest fire in a vast geographical area. This is one of the biggest threat to our biodiversity and wild life. Every year many animals lost their life in wild fire. India has 104 national parks and more than 500 wild life sanctuary. These national parks and wild life sanctuary are under the great threat of wild fire

.Uttrakhand is a Himalayan state which holds a large number of species of wild flora and fauna. Some of these wild animals and plants holds a great importance in our environment. Every year uttarakhand witnesses a large number of wild fires. Being an ecologically sensitive zone, these wild fires damages a large geographical area of state.Uttarakhand has 45.32% of its geographical area under the forest cover. It is the only north Indian state to have more than 33% of area under forest cover. When we include permanently snowbound landscapes and alpine pastures as forests, the total area recorded as forests is as high as 71.05%.

The present study is about the forest fire analysis in the four national parks of Uttarakhand. These national parks are: Jim Corbett National Park, Govind wildlife sanctuary and national park, Nandadevi forest division, Rajaji Tiger reserve. From 2005 to 2015, in last ten years, total 601 incidents were reported in these four national parks and wild life sanctuaries. Among these the Rajaji National Park witnessed most of the fire incidents about 66.39% percent of the total reported fire incidents.

1 INTRODUCTION

Uttrakhand has witnessed a number of fire incidents in the past. Being a Himalayan state, the ecology of uttarakhand is quite sensitive. Uttrakhand has a large area under its forest cover. It has highest number of forest cover in the northern states. Uttarakhand also an abode of many flora and fauna which are protected by national park, sanctuaries and bio-sphere reserve. Some of these flora and fauna are even listed in IUCN (International Union of Conservation and Nature) as critically endangered and endangered. Forest fire increases the rate of extinction of species. As per FSI Uttarakhand forest are divided in the following types:

  1. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest

  2. Tropical Dry deciduous Forest

  3. Subtropical Pine Forest

  4. Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest

  5. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest

  6. Plantation/Trees Outside Forest

These forests are prone to forest fires. The duration of forest fire in state is from February to June. The peak fire incidents are reported in the May and June. The forest fire in state is categorised in three types:

  1. Ground fires

  2. Surface fires

  3. Crown fires

    Ground fire spread on the top of organic matter. It mostly consume matter like duff, musk or peat present beneath the surface litter of the forest floor. Surface fire spread very rapidly and mostly survive upon the small vegetation and surface litter. The Crown fire burns the top trees and shrubs without having any close link with surface fire. These are the mainly three types of fire which occurs in forests and natural parks of forests. The study about four national park and occurrence of fire incidents are as follow:

    1. CORBETT NATIONAL PARK:

      The park is located between 29°25' to 29°39'N latitude and between 78°44' to 79°07'E longitude. Park is covered area 1318.54 km². The altitude of the region ranges between 360 m to 1,040 m. The park has total of 488 different species of plants have been recorded in the park. Total tree basal cover is greater in Sal dominated areas of woody vegetation.The park has more than 586 species of resident and migratory birds crested serpent eagle, blossom headed parakeet and red jungle fowl. 33 species of reptiles, seven species of amphibians, seven species of fish and 36 species of dragonflies have also been recorded. Leopards, barking deer, sambar deer, hog deer, Himalayan black bear etc. are found.From 2005 to 2015, Corbett Tiger National park, witnessed 196 incidents, which are 32.61% of the total number of the forest fire witnessed in this duration. The map showing fire sensitive areas in the Corbett National Park is as follow:

      Figure 2.1: Map of sensitive areas in Corbett National Park

      (Source: Forest Fire Mitigation Measure Report)

      Table 2.1 Fire Sensitive Compartments in Corbett Tiger Reserve

      Range

      BEAT

      Compartment

      Number of Fire Incidences 2005-2015

      Fire Sensitivity

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-III

      4

      8

      Highly Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-III

      5

      10

      Highly Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-II

      5

      11

      Highly Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-II

      6

      4

      Highly Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-I

      1

      7

      Mod. Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-I

      2

      6

      Mod. Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-II

      3

      4

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-I

      4

      2

      Mod. Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela-II

      7

      8

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-I

      7

      6

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-III

      9

      2

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-III

      10

      12

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-IV

      11

      6

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jamunagwad South-IV

      12

      2

      Mod. Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Jamunagwad North-I

      14

      2

      Mod. Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Jamunagwad North-I

      15

      6

      Mod. Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Bhumkia

      17

      3

      Mod. Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Bhumkia

      18

      5

      Mod. Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Bhumkia

      19

      1

      Mod. Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Bhumkia

      20

      5

      Mod. Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Jhirna West

      3

      2

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Chaur

      4

      2

      Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Laldhang

      5

      2

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Malani West

      6

      4

      Sensitive

      JHIRNA RANGE

      Machhiakhal

      6

      4

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Malani East

      8

      1

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela East

      8

      2

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Bijrani West

      9

      2

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Dhela West

      11

      1

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Gaujpani-II

      12

      2

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Gaujpani-II

      13

      1

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Dhara South-II

      14

      2

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Dhara North-I

      15

      4

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Bijrani Middle

      16

      1

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Khinanauli

      16

      2

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Jamunagwad North-II

      17

      4

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Dhara North-I

      18

      5

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Jamunagwad North-III

      18

      4

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Sarpduli

      21

      4

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Barsauti

      23

      2

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Barsauti

      24

      2

      Sensitive

      DHIKALA RANGE

      Dhikala East-I

      10 Part

      1

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Seldhar

      1

      2

      Sensitive

      KALAGARH RANGE

      Nalkhatta-I

      1

      1

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Seldhar

      2

      1

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Sawaldeh West

      4

      2

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Pathruva East-I

      5

      2

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Aamdanda

      6

      1

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Pathruva East-II

      6

      1

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Dhangari Buffer

      8

      2

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Panod

      10

      2

      Sensitive

      SARPDULI RANGE

      Gajiria

      12

      7

      Sensitive

      BIJRANI RANGE

      Ratapani

      19

      2

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      Phika

      1b

      3

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      SAWELDEH M

      SAWELDEH M

      3

      Sensitive

      DHELA RANGE

      SAWELDEH S

      SAWELDEH S

      4

      Sensitive

    2. GOVIND WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND NATIONAL PARK

      The park is located between 31.10°N latitude 78.29°E longitude.Park is covered area 958 km². The altitude of the region ranges1400m to 6323m.Trees present in the lower parts of the sanctuary include chir pine, deodar,oak etc. At altitudes over about 2,600 m common species include conifers such as blue pine,silver fir, yew and other species such as oak, maple, walnut, horse chestnut, hazel and rhododendron.In the park about fifteen species of large mammal and one hundred and fifty species of birds. The mammals found in the sanctuary include the Asian black bear, the brown bear, the common leopard, the musk deer, the Himalayan tahr and the serow, Indian

      crested porcupine, European otter, goral, civet, hedgehog, Himalayan field rat. Birds found here include several endangered species such as the golden eagle, the steppe eagle and the black eagle, the bearded vulture, the Himalayan snowcock, the Himalayan monal pheasant.Govind wild life sanctuary and National park witnessed less number of the wild fire in duration between 2005 to 2015. Total 4 incidents were reported in this time period, which is 0.665% of total number of incidents. The main reason behind the less number of fire incidents is high altitude and less inhabitatedby villages. The ground holds sufficient amount of moisture because of this , it is not prone to wildfire as compared to other national parks.

      Figure 3.1 Map showing sensitive areas in Govind wildlife Sanctuary and National Park

      (Source: Forest Fire Mitigation Measure Report)

      Table 3.1 Fire Sensitive Compartments in Govind Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park

      Fire Sensitive Compartments in Range

      BEAT

      Compartment

      Number of Fire Incidences 2005-2015

      Fire Sensitivity

      Supin

      Saur

      1

      2

      Sensitive

      Rupin

      Pujeli

      4

      2

      Sensitive

    3. NANDA DEVI FOREST DIVISION:

The park is located between 30°257N latitude 79°5059E longitude.Park is covered area 630.33 km². The altitude of the region ranges 6000m to 7500m. This park is also part of UNESCO World Heritage Site. The park is home to a wide variety of flora. The park has 312 floral species that include 17 rare species have been found here. Fir, birch, rhododendron, and juniper are the main flora. Vegetation is scarce in the inner sanctuary due to the dryness of the conditions. One will not find vegetation near

Nanda Devi Glacier. Ramani, alpine, prone mosses and lichens are other notable floral species found here. Common larger mammals are Himalayan musk deer, mainland serow, Himalayan tahr, snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, brown bear, Langurs are found within the park and total no of 114 bird species were recognized. In between 2005 to 2015, Nanda Devi National park witnessed least number of fire incidents. High altitude and less moisture in ground through out the year is main reason because of this less number of forest fires are reported in region.

Figure 4.1 Map showing sensitive areas in Nanda Devi National Park

(Source: Forest Fire Mitigation Measure Report)

<>Table 4.1 Fire Sensitive Compartments in Nanda Devi Forest Division

Range

BEAT

Compartment

Number of Fire Incidences 2005-2015

Fire Sensitivity

VALLEY OF FLOWERS RANGE

Pandukeshwar Forest Panchayat

Forest Pan

2

Sensitive

5.0 RAJAJI NATIONAL PARK:

The park is located between29°52' to 30°15'N latitude and between 78°57' to 78°23'E longitude. Park is covered area

820.42 km². The altitude of the region ranges 360m to 860m.The Park has deciduous forests, riverine vegetation, scrubland, grasslands and pine forests form the range of flora in this park. The under-wood is light and often absent, consisting of rohini,shisham, Sal, palash, arjun, khairetc. The Park is predominantly formed from dense green jungles, and this environment forms a habitat for a number of animals. Here we found sambar, barking deer, hog deer, nilgai, wild pigs, sloth bears, leopard cat, jungle cat,

civet etc. Over 315 species of birds are found in the park, whereas the wider region has over 500 species of birds, including both residents and migrants. The most prominent avian species include pea fowl, vultures, woodpeckers, pheasants, kingfishers etc.Rajaji National Park witnessed highest numbers of forest fires about 399. The main reason behind the highest number of fire incidents are :Deciduous nature of forest because of this biomass accumulated in large quantity. The villages which are in surrounding of national parks follow the practice of burning of agricultural residue, sometimes the fires escapes agricultural fields and reaches into national park.

Figure 5.1 Map showing sensitive areas in Rajaji National Park

(Source: Forest Fire Mitigation Measure Report)

Table 5.1 Fire Sensitive Compartments in RajajiNational Park

Range

BEAT

Compartment

Number of Fire Incidences 2005-2015

Fire Sensitivity

Haridwar Range

Ranipur West Beat

2a (Part)

15

Highly Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Ranipur West Beat

2b (Part)

7

Highly Sensitive

Beribara Range

Bam Beat

1

1

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Gholna Beat

1

2

Mod. Sensitive

Chilla Range

Pulani Beat

1

3

Mod. Sensitive

Gohri Range

Gohri Beat

2

1

Mod. Sensitive

Gohri Range

Gohri Beat

3

2

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

3

1

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

4

2

Mod. Sensitive

Gohri Range

Gohri Beat

5

4

Mod. Sensitive

Gohri Range

Gohri Beat

8

4

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

8

6

Mod. Sensitive

Chilla Range

Pulani Beat

9

5

Mod. Sensitive

Chilla Range

Pulani Beat

11

3

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

14

1

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

10b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

11a

2

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

11a

2

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

11b

1

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

11b

3

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

11b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

12a

5

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

12a

1

Mod. Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bullawala Beat

12b

1

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

15a

2

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Gholna Beat

2a

4

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Harnol Beat

2a

8

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Rawali Beat

2a

11

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Chirrak West Beat

2a (Part)

9

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Ranipur East Beat

2a (Part)

4

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Gholna Beat

2b

7

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Harnol Beat

2b

3

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Rawali Beat

2b

3

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Chirrak West Beat

2b (Part)

4

Mod. Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Ranipur East Beat

2b (Part)

8

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Bam Beat

3a

1

Mod. Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Sukh Beat

3a

9

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Bam Beat

3b

8

Mod. Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Sukh Beat

3b

6

Mod. Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Gaj Beat

4a

10

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

4a

3

Mod. Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Gaj Beat

4b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

4b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

5a

3

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

5b

4

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

6b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

7b

2

Mod. Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Bulindawala Beat

9b

3

Mod. Sensitive

Beribara Range

Sendhli Beat

1

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Kasan Beat

1

1

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Rasulpur Beat

1

1

Sensitive

Gohri

Maral

1

2

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Laxmanjhula North Beat

1

4

Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Mayapur West Beat

1

1

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jamunkhata Beat

1

1

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Khara Beat

2

6

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jamunkhata Beat

2

4

Sensitive

Motichur Range

GularPadawa West Beat

3

2

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Amsot Beat

3

3

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Rasulpur Beat

4

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Phandowala Beat

4

1

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

5

4

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Rasulpur Beat

5

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Phandowala Beat

5

3

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

6

5

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Ganjarban Beat

6

1

Sensitive

Gohri

Palelgaon

6

3

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Kunao Beat

6

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

7

10

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Ganjarban Beat

7

4

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Bidasani Beat

7

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Danda Beat

7

4

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Ramgarh Beat

7

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura West Beat

8

2

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

8

4

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Ramgarh Beat

8

4

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Bidasani Beat

9

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

10

3

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Kunao Beat

12

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

13

1

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Bidasani Beat

15

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

18

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

19

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

20

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura East Beat

10a

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura East Beat

10b

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

11a

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Luni Beat

12b

3

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Luni Beat

16a

2

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

17a

2

Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Lalwala Beat

1a

2

Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Kharkhari North Beat

1a

1

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jamunkhata Beat

1a

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Danda Beat

1a

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

1a

3

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Teera Beat

1a(i)

2

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Teera Beat

1a(i)

7

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Teera Beat

1b

6

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Amsot Beat

1b

2

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

1b

1

Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Chirrak East Beat

2a (Part)

2

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Betban Beat

2b

1

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Sendhli Beat

2b

3

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bahera Beat

2b

1

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Asarori Beat

2b

1

Sensitive

Haridwar Range

Chirrak East Beat

2b (Part)

2

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Sendhli Beat

2c

1

Sensitive

Chilla Range

Rawasan Beat

3a

1

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Dholkhand Beat

3a

1

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Dholkhand Beat

3a

3

Sensitive

Beribara Range

Sendhli Beat

3a (Part)

2

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Dholkhand Beat

3b

3

Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Mohand East Beat

3b(Part)

3

Sensitive

Dholkhand Range

Ganjarban Beat

4a

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura East Beat

4a

2

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Amsot Beat

4a

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura East Beat

4b

3

Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Andheri Beat

5a

2

Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Chillawali Beat

5a

2

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jhabarawala Beat

5a

1

Sensitive

Chillawali Range

Chillawali Beat

5b

8

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jhabarawala Beat

5b

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

6a

2

Sensitive

Ramgarh Range

Ramgarh Beat

6a

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

6b

4

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jhabarawala Beat

7b

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

8a

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Koelpura East Beat

8b

2

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

8b

1

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jhabarawala Beat

9a

1

Sensitive

Motichur Range

Motichur Beat

9a

1

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Bahera Beat

9b

1

Sensitive

Kans Rao Range

Jhabarawala Beat

9c

2

Sensitive

Gohri Range

Kunao Beat

KunaoChaur Block

2

Sensitive

Table 5.2 Total Number of fire Incidents in Four National Park

Nationa Park and wild life sancturies

Fire Incidents

Percentage

Corbett National Park

196

32.61%

Govind Wildlife Santury and National Park

4

0.605%

Nanda Devi National Park

2

0.332%

Rajaji National Park

399

66.39%

Total

601

Figure 5.2 : Fire Incidents reported in Nantional Parks reported in between 2005-15

Fire Incidents reported in National parks reported between 2005-15

Carbett National Park Govind Wildlife Senctury Nanda Devi National Park Rajaji National Park

33%

66%

1%

0%

6 REASONS FOR FOREST FIRE:

1 Lack of Rain and moisture in the forests: Uttrakhand receives a good amount of precipitation but it is

concentrated in mostly in the monsoon months and leave a long spell of nine months without rain. In this long spell the deciduous forests become vulnerable to forest fire. The rain and snow is important to maintain the moisture in the

ground which helps in preventing the forest fire. If winter do not get sufficient amount of rain, it makes the forests floor and biomass too dry and extremely vulnerable to fire.

  1. Uttarakhand is in the lap of Himalayas and villages in uttarakhand are in the middle of forests of Himalayas. Uttarakhandhave large expense of chir pine forest. As a traditional practices the people are burning there near places to reduce the slippery chir pine needle and to ensure a fresh green grass for their live stocks. When the ground has sufficient moisture, the fire remain control but if the there is no winter rain, it can go out of control.

  2. Burning of agricultural biomass in agricultural fields is very common in entire north India. Sometime the fire escapes from the fields and reaches into forests and national parks

  3. A large area of uttarakhand is hilly terrain which makes it very difficult to control forest fire. To reach a site which is often away from road head is difficult. Many places in national parks and forests have no foot track and bridge path to reach site.

  4. Technology has helped in the detection of fires in but there are still a lot of challenges like mobilisation of department of workforce on a particle site because of less number of vehicle and fire extinguishing equipment.

7 FOREST FIRE MITIGATION MEASURES:

1:The national park authorities and forest department officials have to create awareness generation programsin the villages which are surroundings of the national parks and wild life santucuries.

2:The national park authorities must follow rotational burning/controlled burning of forest floor so that the litter and bio mass would not accumulate in an areas.

3: During the peak season of the forest fire burning national park authorities can create master control room to monitor the situation.

4: The forest department and national park official must create watch towers in the surroundings of national parks- 5: The forest department can create a crew stations for tackling the situation immediately so that the forest fire can be control easily in its initial phases.

6: All ground crew stations must be connected to the wireless communication network so that they can get proper information from master control room

7: The forest department official and other persons must be equipped with efficient firefighting tools.

8: The national park authorities must adopt a suitable techniques to reduce fuel load onforest floor:

9:The national park authorities must continue their awareness campaign about forest fire and its impact on wild life.

REFERENCES

  1. Malik Tahir, RabbaniGhulam, Farooq Majid Forest Fire Risk Zonation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology in Kansrao Forest Range of Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand, India is an Cloud Publications International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS accepted on 8 April 2013

  2. Kaur Tajinder, Gupta Sudhanshu Forest Fire Vulnerability analysis in India-A Case Study of Uttarakhand State is an International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research Accepted March. April. 2016

  3. Dr.Negi M.S., Kumar Atul ASSESSMENT OF INCREASING THREAT OF FOREST FIRES IN UTTARAKHAND, USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TCHNIQUES is an Global Journal of advance research accepted on 30 june 2016

  4. Ahmad Firoz ,GoparajuLaxmi, Qayum Abdul and Quli S. M. S. Forest fire trend analysis and effect of environmental parameters: A study in Jharkhand State of India using Geospatial Technology is an International Journal of Accepted 20 November 2017 world scientific news Accepted on 20 November 2017

  5. SaklaniPravesh Forest Fire Risk Zonation,A case study PauriGarhwal, Uttarakhand, INDIA Is an International Journal of Science accepted January 2008

  6. Forest fire mitigation measures a report by information technology and geoinformatic centre.

  7. A Crsis management plan 2016 at state level, forest department Uttarakhnad

  8. www.wikipedia.org

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