Fibre Reinforced Lightweight Concrete using Pumice Stone

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Fibre Reinforced Lightweight Concrete using Pumice Stone

  1. Karthik 1 , M. Shanmugam1, S. Maniselventhiran1, B. C. Jeya Dinesp, A. Abraham Francis 2,

    1UG Student., Department of Civil Engineering,

    Nadar Saraswathi College Of Engineeringand Technology.Theni

    2Assistant Professor., Department of Civil Engineering, Nadar Saraswathi College Of Engineering And Technology. Theni.

    Abstract – Lightweight aggregate concretes are widely incorporated in construction and development. This study, presents an experimental investigation on the properties of volcanic pumice lightweight concretes. Fibre reinforced lightweight concrete (F R L W C) is a composite material developed to reduce the brittleness of concrete and dramatically increases its flexural strength. Fibre reinforced lightweight concrete (FRLWC) is used reinforced column of structural member. Increasing utilization of lightweight materials in structural applications is making pumice stone a very popular raw material. More than the target means strength of Grade concrete is achieved with 20 & 40 per cent replacement of natural coarse aggregate by pumice aggregate and with 0.5, 1 & 1.5 per cent of polypropylene and glass fibre. Target mean strength of concrete is to be achieved. The compressive strength of Light weight concrete is to be studied with various percentage replacements of pumice stones and also to increasing the characters of concrete various percentage of using Glass Fibres and polypropylene.

    1. INTRODUCTION

      Structural lightweight aggregate concrete is defined as concrete which has a compressive strength in excess of (17.2 MPa) at 28 days of age and has an equilibrium weight not exceeding (1842 kg/m3). The low density lead to reduce dead load obtained by use of lightweight concrete and that reducing not only result in a decrease in cross section of columns, beams, walls and foundations, but also decrease the induced seismic loads and reduce the risk of earthquake damages to structures since, the earthquake loads influencing the structures and buildings are proportional to the mass of those structures and buildings. Structural lightweight concrete mixtures can be designed to achieve similar strengths as normal weight concrete. The same is true for other mechanical and durability performance requirements.

    2. PUMICE AGGREGATES

      The name Pumice is a generic term for a range of porous vesicular materials produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. Pumice is essentially composed of solidified frothy lava which is generally rhyolite in composition, but can also be produced in a less acidic form.

      Aggregate strength ranges from very weak and porous, to stronger and less porous. The principal requirements for pumice to be considered a desirable aggregate for use in structural lightweight concrete are a low density and relatively high strength.

      A, PROPERTIES

      Pumice is composed of highly micro vesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin, translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. It is commonly, but not exclusively of silicic or felsic to intermediate in composition but basaltic and other compositions are known.

      Scoria differs from pumice in being denser. With larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls, it sinks rapidly. The difference is the result of the lower viscosity of the magma that forms scoria. When larger amounts of gas are present, the result is a finer-grained variety of pumice known as pumices.

      FIGURE-1

      A 15 centimetre (6 inches) piece of pumice its very low density.

    3. PUMICE CONCRETE PRODUCTS AND

      APPLICATIONS

      Lightweight pumice concretes are ideally suited in applications where 3500 psi or less is acceptable and where thermal and lightweight properties are desired.

      commercial buildingsespecially those located in extreme temperature locationsbenefit from the inherent insulates properties (4x R-value; reduced or eliminated moisture condensation) and resistance to freeze/thaw cycles afforded by pumice aggregate concrete.

    4. GLASS FIBERS

      This is the most versatile industrial materials known today. .All glass fibres described in this article are derived from compositions containing silica. They exhibit useful bulk properties such as hardness, transparency, resistance to chemical attack, stability, and inertness, as well as desirable fibre properties such as strength, flexibility, and stiffness.

    5. POLYPROPYLENE FIBER

      High performance short (12mm) polypropylene fibre was used in this investigation. This fibre shows a micro reinforcement manufactured form (100%) polypropylene. It was brought form Fosroc Company for construction chemicals. It was stored under cover away from heat sources.

    6. TEST RESULTS OF MATERIALS:

      A. CEMENT

      D.COARSE AGGREGATE (PUMICE)

      Table-4

      Coarse Aggregate Test(Pumice)

      Actual Result

      Specific Gravity

      0.79

      Water Absorption

      4.6%

      Impact Test

      43%

      Bulk Density

      0.372 kg/litre

    7. M40 MIX DESIGN Table-5

      CEMENT

      FA

      CA

      W/C

      1

      1.584

      2.02

      0.40

      492.5

      780

      992.76

      197

    8. COMPRESSIVESTRENGTH

      Values of compressive strength for all mixes are shown in Table (8) and Figure (1) at 7 and 28 days, results demonstrated that in general, all concrete specimens exhibited an increase in compressive strength with increase the per cent of steel fibres. The per cent of increasing in compressive strength at 7 days about (27.18%, 30.32%, and 22.6%) for (0%, 0.5%, and 1%)

      polypropylene respectively. While in 28 days, adding (0%, 0.5%, and 1%) polypropylene lead to increasing in compressive strength by about (30.33%,33.79%, and 0%) respectively. It can be seen that the increase in compressive strength of light weight polypropylene concrete at 28 days was greater than their corresponding compressive strength.

      Table-1

      Cement Test

      Actual Result

      Fineness of Cement

      4.50%

      Initial & Final Setting Time

      Initial-30 min Final-600min

      Fine Aggregate Test

      Actual Result

      Specific Gravity

      1.48

      Water Absorption

      0.33%

      C.COARSE AGGREGATE

      14 DAYS

      (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS

      (N/MM2)

      28 DAYS

      (N/MM2)

      28 DAYS

      (N/MM2)

      POLYPROPYLENE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      POLYPROPYLENE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      Table-3

      Table-6

      50

      45

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      50

      45

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Compressive Strength-Polypropylene:

      Polypropylene

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/Mm2)

      0.5

      31.2

      35.5

      47.4

      1

      31.4

      35.7

      47.4

      1.5

      30.1

      34.1

      45.5

      Series1

      Series1

      Coarse Aggregate Test

      Actual Result

      Specific Gravity

      2.62

      Water Absorption

      1.62%

      Impact Test

      43.60%

      Table-7

      Compressive Strength-Glass Fibre:

      Glass Fibre

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28days (N/mm2)

      0.5

      30.1

      34.2

      45.7

      1

      29.5

      33.6

      44.8

      1.5

      28.3

      32.1

      42.9

      GLASS FIBRE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS (N/MM2)

      28 DAYS (N/MM2)

      COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      Table-8

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      Polypropylene

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/mm2)

      0

      28

      27.2

      36.3

      0.5

      24

      26.7

      35.7

      1

      25.5

      25.4

      33.9

      1.5

      22.3

      24.9

      33.2

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      Polypropylene

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/mm2)

      0

      28

      27.2

      36.3

      0.5

      24

      26.7

      35.7

      1

      25.5

      25.4

      33.9

      1.5

      22.3

      24.9

      33.2

      Compressive Strength-Polypropylene With 20% Pumice:

      Table-9

      Compressive Strength-Glass Fibre With 20% Pumice:

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      Glass Fibre

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/mm2)

      0

      22.6

      25.7

      34.3

      0.5

      22.2

      25.2

      33.7

      1

      21

      24.9

      31.9

      1.5

      20.5

      24.7

      31.2

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      Series4

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series4

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series2

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series2

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series3

      Series3

      COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      Table-10

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      40

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      Series1

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series4

      Series4

      20% Pumice Aggregate C&OMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      POLYPROPYLENE

      20% Pumice Aggregate C&OMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      POLYPROPYLENE

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series4

      Series4

      Compressive Strength-Polypropylene With 40% Pumice:

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      Polypropylene

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/mm2)

      0

      20.6

      23.4

      31.3

      0.5

      19.54

      22.2

      29.6

      1

      18.5

      21

      28.1

      1.5

      20.7

      21.47

      28.6

      40% Pumice Aggregate C&OMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      POLYPROPYLENE

      40% Pumice Aggregate C&OMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      POLYPROPYLENE

      Table-11

      Compressive Strength-Glass Fibre With 40% Pumice:

      40%

      Pumice Aggregate &

      Glass Fibre

      Compressive Strength

      7 Days (N/mm2)

      14 Days (N/mm2)

      28 Days (N/mm2)

      0

      19.3

      21.9

      29.3

      0.5

      19

      21.5

      27.6

      1

      18.8

      21

      26.1

      1.5

      19

      20.7

      26.6

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      35

      30

      25

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      Series1

      Series4

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series4

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series2

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series2

      7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS (N/mm2) (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series3

      Series3

      COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

      COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    9. SPLITTING TENSILESTRENGTH

      The test results of the flexural strength are reported. The results indicated that in general, all types of concrete specimens exhibited continued increase in flexural strength with increasing in polypropylenes. The increase in flexural strength for light weight concrete with steel fibre relative to reference concrete mix were 29.25%, and 54.24%for light weight concrete with 0%, 0.5%, and 1%steel fibre by volume of concrete respectively. This behaviour is mainly attributed to the role of steel fibre in releasing fracture energy around crack tips which is required to extent crack growing by transferring stress from one side to another side. Also this behaviour is due to the increase in crack resistance of the composite and the ability of fibres to resist forces after the concrete matrix has cracked.

      POLYPROPYLENE Split Tensile

      POLYPROPYLENE Split Tensile

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series1

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Table-13

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Split Tensile-Glass Fibre:

      Glass Fibre

      Split Tensile

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0.5

      2.8

      3.7

      5.7

      1

      3

      3.9

      6.1

      1.5

      3.4

      4.3

      6.5

      GLASS FIBRE Split Tensile

      GLASS FIBRE Split Tensile

      Series1

      Series1

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Series2

      Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Table-14

      Compressive Strength-Polypropylene With 20% PUMICE:

      20% Pumice Aggregate & Polypropylene

      SPLIT TENSILE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0

      2.6

      4.3

      4.9

      0.5

      3.1

      4.6

      5.7

      1

      3.5

      5

      6.1

      1.5

      3.9

      5.4

      6.7

      20% Pumice Aggregate & Polypropylene

      SPLIT TENSILE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0

      2.6

      4.3

      4.9

      0.5

      3.1

      4.6

      5.7

      1

      3.5

      5

      6.1

      1.5

      3.9

      5.4

      6.7

      Table-12

      Split Tensile-Polypropylene:

      Polypropylene

      SPLIT TENSILE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0.5

      3.2

      5.1

      6.8

      1

      3.5

      4.6

      6.4

      1.5

      3.8

      4.4

      5.8

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      20% Pumice Aggregate & Split Tensile

      POLYPROPYLENE

      40% Pumice Aggregate & Split Tensile

      POLYPROPYLENE

      20% Pumice Aggregate & Split Tensile

      POLYPROPYLENE

      40% Pumice Aggregate & Split Tensile

      POLYPROPYLENE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series4

      Series4

      Table-15

      Compressive Strength-Glass Fibre With 20% Pumice:

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      Glass Fibre

      SPLIT TENSILE

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0

      2.2

      3.6

      4.6

      0.5

      2.7

      4

      5.2

      1

      3

      4.2

      6.1

      1.5

      3.7

      5.1

      7

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series4

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series4

      20% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series2

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Series2

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series3

      Series3

      Split Tensile

      Split Tensile

      Table-16

      Compressive Strength-Polypropylene With 40% PUMICE:

      40% Pumice Aggregate & Polypropylene

      Split Tensile

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28

      DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0

      3.4

      4.2

      5.6

      0.5

      3.6

      4.9

      6.3

      1

      4.3

      5.5

      6.9

      1.5

      4.4

      6

      7.2

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      Series1

      Series2 Series3

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series4

      Series4

      Table-17

      Compressive Strength-Glass Fibre With 40% Pumice:

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      Glass Fibre

      Split Tensile

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      28 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      0

      2.5

      3.8

      4.5

      0.5

      2.9

      4.6

      4.8

      1

      3.2

      5

      5.6

      1.5

      4

      5.2

      6.5

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      0

      Series1

      Series4

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series4

      40% Pumice Aggregate &

      GLASS FIBRE

      Series2

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      Series2

      7 DAYS

      (N/mm2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      14 DAYS 28 DAYS

      (N/MM2) (N/MM2)

      Series3

      Series3

      Split Tensile

      Split Tensile

    10. CONCLUSION:

      From the literature review, we can conclude the pumice stones can be successively replaced for light weight concrete main fact using pumice stones has good compressive strength like as ordinary aggregate, when replaced in particular percentage while fibres like glass fibre and polypropylene is added with the light weight concrete its improve the characters of the concrete. The workability of light weight concrete is similar to ordinate mix concrete. Concrete cube, cylinders have to be made for the various replacement of coarse aggregate by using pumice stones. The replacement percentage should be 20 and 40%. Additionally the concrete is to be strengthening by glass fibre and polypropylene. The fibres will be added 0.5, 1, 1.5% for 20 & 40% aggregate replacement. Further test results of compressive strength, split tensile and flexural strength of the various percentage of pumice stones. Result has to be discussed.

    11. REFERANCES:

[1].Balguru, P. and Foden, A.,Properties of fibre reinforced structural lightweight concrete, ACI Structural Journal 93(1) (1996) 62-77.

[2].Balaguru, P.; and Ramakrishna, V. Properties of lightweight fibre reinforced concrete, Fibre Reinforced concrete-Properties and applications, SP105, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan, 1987.pp. 305-322

[3].Campion, G.,Mindless, S. and Zing one, G., compressive stress-strain behaviour of normal and high- strength Carbone-fibre concrete reinforced with steel spirals. ACI Materials Journal 96 (1) (1999) 27-

34.

[4].G. Campione, Calogero, C., L. la Mendolaand, M. papia. Experimental investigation on local bond-slip behaviour in lightweight fibre reinforced concrete under cyclic actions 13th World conference on earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada. August 1-6, 2004, paper No. 2087

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