Failure Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade

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Failure Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade

NCRAIME-2015 Conference Proceedings

Adildev. K P#1, Rajaneesh. S#2, Rizwan Wahid#3,Veeramani. S*4

#UG Students,*Asst.Proffessor

Department of Aeronautical engineering, Excel engineering college, Komarapalayam,Namakkal, Tamilnadu-637303

Abstract This thesis presents the failure analysis of the gas turbine blade. Here we designed the turbine blade by modeling software Pro-E and analysed by ansys software. Because of change in temperature, the failure of the blade will occurs.there is a pressing need for a unified treatment of the causes, failure modes, and troubleshooting to assist plant engineers in tackling blade failure problems. So we have took two materials for analysing, Nickel super alloy and Incoloy A- 286.

KeywordsHelicopter rotor spar design, Composite material, Finite element analysis, Metal matrix composite.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    A turbine blade is the individual component which makes up the turbine section of a gas turbine. The blades are responsible for extracting energy from the high temperature, high pressure gas produced by the combustor. The turbine blades are often the limiting component of gas turbines. To survive in this difficult environment, turbine blades often use exotic materials like superalloys and many different methods of cooling, such as internal air channels, boundary layer cooling, and thermal barrier coatings. Blades of wind turbines and water turbines are designed to operate in different conditions, which typically involve lower rotational speeds and temperatures. The temperature will be increase and decrease suddenly in the turbine blades and it will cause problems to the blades.

    Fig 1.1 Gas Turbine Blade

    The fig 1.1 is the diagram of a gas turbine blade. In a gas turbine engine, a single turbine section is made up of a disk or hub that holds many turbine blades. That turbine section is connected to a compressor section via a shaft (or "spool"), and that compressor section can either be axial or centrifugal. Air is compressed, raising the

    pressure and temperature, through the compressor stages of the engine. The temperature is then greatly increased by combustion of fuel inside the combustor, which sits between the compressor stages and the turbine stages. The high temperature and high pressure exhaust gases then pass through the turbine stages. The turbine stages extract energy from this flow, lowering the pressure and temperature of the air and transfer the kinetic energy to the compressor stages along the spool. This process is very similar to how an axial compressor works, only in reverse.

    1. Failures in gas turbine blade

      Turbine blades are subjected to very strenuous environments inside a gas turbine. They face high temperatures, high stresses, and a potential environment of high vibration. All three of these factors can lead to blade failures, potentially destroying the engine, therefore turbine blades are carefully designed to resist these conditions.

      Fig 1.2: Failed Stator Blades

      Turbine blades are subjected to stress from centrifugal force (turbine stages can rotate at tens of thousands of revolutions per minute (RPM)) and fluid forces that can cause fracture, yielding, or creep failures. Additionally, the first stage (the stage directly following the combustor) of a modern turbine faces temperatures around 2,500 °F (1,370

      °C), up from temperatures around 1,500 °F (820 °C) in early gas turbines. Modern military jet engines, like the Snecma M88, can see turbine temperatures of 2,900 °F (1,590 °C). Those high temperatures weaken the blades and make them more susceptible to creep failures. The high temperatures can also make the blades susceptible to corrosion failures. Finally, vibrations from the engine and the turbine itself (see blade pass frequency) can cause fatigue failures

  2. ANSYS

    is an engineering simulation software provider founded by software engineer John Swanson. It develops general-purpose finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics software. While ANSYS has developed a range of computer-aided engineering (CAE) products, it is perhaps best known for its ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Multiphysics products.

    ANSYS Mechanical and ANSYS Multiphysics software are non exportable analysis tools incorporating pre-processing (geometry creation, meshing), solver and post-processing modules in a graphical user interface. These are general-purpose finite element modeling packages for numerically solving mechanical problems, including static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.

    ANSYS Mechanical technology incorporates both structural and material non-linearities. ANSYS Multiphysics software includes solvers for thermal, structural, CFD, electromagnetics, and acoustics and can sometimes couple these separate physics together in order to address multidisciplinary applications. ANSYS software can also be used in civil engineering, electrical engineering, physics and chemistry.

    ANSYS, Inc. acquired the CFX computational fluid dynamics code in 2003 and Fluent, Inc. in 2006. The CFD packages from ANSYS are used for engineering simulations. In 2008, ANSYS acquired Ansoft Corporation, a leading developer of high-performance electronic design automation (EDA) software, and added a suite of products designed to simulate high-performance electronics designs found in mobile communication and Internet devices, broadband networking components and systems, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards, and electromechanical systems. The acquisition allowed ANSYS to address the continuing convergence of the mechanical and electrical worlds across a whole range of industry sectors.

  3. ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

      • The 3D model of the blade is designed by using pro-e software and it is converted as IGES format.

      • The IGES (Initial Graphic Exchange System) format is suitable to import in the ANSYS Workbench for analyzing

      • Open the ANSYS workbench

      • Create new geometryFile import external geometry file generate

        NCRAIME-2015 Conference Proceedings

        Fig 2.1 :Geometric view of model in workbench

        • Project new mesh

        • Defaults physical preference mechanical

        • Advanced relevance center fine

        • Project convert to simulation yes

        • Select the all solid in geometry tree

        • Definition material new material

        • New material right click rename Nickel super alloy

        • Enter the value of the youngs modulus, poisons ratio, density, thermal

        • conductivity and specific heat etc.

        • New analysis transient thermal

        • Transient thermal right click insert temperature

        • Select the faces

        • Geometry apply

        • Temperature in°c

        • Solution insert the temperature and total heat flux,

        • Repeat the above steps for incoloy A 286

        • Right click the solution icon in the tree solve

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    The model designed in Pro-E is analysed using the Ansys v11.The analysing is carried out with the Nickel super alloy and the Incoloy A-286. The table 4.1 and

    4.2 shows the material property of bothmaterial taken here.

    Thermal conductivity

    11.1 w/mk

    Coefficient of Expansion

    /td>

    12.8 m/moc

    Density

    8190 kg/m3

    Specific heat

    435 J/Kgk

    Electrical Resistivity

    128.9 microhm-cm

    Table 4.1: mechanical properties of Nickel Super Alloy

    NCRAIME-2015 Conference Proceedings

    Thermal conductivity

    12.7 w/mk

    Coefficient of Expansion

    16.4 m/moc

    Density

    2870 kg/m3

    Specific heat

    419 J/Kgk

    Electrical Resistivity

    910 microhm-cm

    Table 4.2: mechanical properties of Incoloy A-286

  5. ANALYSIS OF NICKEL SUPER ALLOY

5.1.1 LOADING CONDITIONS

Fig 5.1: Loading Conditions for Nickel Super Alloy

Fig 5.2: Temperature Distribution for Nickel Super Alloy

Fig 5.3: Temperature Distribution for Nickel Super Alloy

Fig 5.4: Total Heat Flux for Nickel Super Alloy

Fig 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 shows the analysis of the Nickel super alloy by various temperature

ANALYSIS OF INOLOY A-286

The material properties are applied in the software while doing the analysis of the materials.

Fig 5.5: Temperature Distribution for Incoloy A-286

Fig 5.6: Temperature Distribution for Incoloy A-286

NICKEL SUPER ALLOY

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

TEMPERATURE 0C

-536.95

1350

TOTAL HEAT FLUX

(W/mm2)

0

2.62

NICKEL SUPER ALLOY

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

TEMPERATURE 0C

-536.95

1350

TOTAL HEAT FLUX

(W/mm2)

0

2.62

Fig 5.7: Total Heat Flux for Incoloy A-286 RESULTS FOR NICKEL SUPER ALLOY

Table 5.1results for Nickel super alloy RESULTS FOR INCOLOY A-286

INCOLOY A-286

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

TEMPERATURE 0C

-281.22

1350

TOTAL HEAT FLUX

(W/mm2)

0

3.06

Table 5.2 results for Incoloy A-286

By changing the temperature of both of the material it is found that the properties of the both material is different and the Incoloy A-286 is better than the Nickel super alloy.the value obtained from the analysis is plotted in the above table (Table no 5.1 and 5.2).

CONCLUSION

Here we study about the heat and mass transfer concept preferably gets knowledge about heat transformation. Analyzing results from testing the gas turbine blade under temperature are listed in the Table. Analysis has been carried out by nickel super alloy and incoloy A 286. The results such as temperature distribution

and total heat fluxNCfoRrAeIMacEh-2m01a5teCrioanlfearreencedePtreorcmeeindeindg. s Comparing the materials, incoloy A 286 material has good temperature distribution and total heat flux values. Hence it is concluded that incoloy A 286material is suitable for the gas turbine blade.

The project carried out by us will make an impressing mark in the industrial field. This project we are study about the turbine blade.

While carrying out this project we are able to study about the 3Dmodelling software (PRO-E) and Study about the analyzing software (ansys) to develop our basic knowledge to know about the design

FUTURE WORK

Created 3D model of gas turbine blade has been analyzed using nickel super alloy and another material with the help of ANSYS workbench software to find deformation, stress and strain values. To know about the most suitable material to make the turbine blade which is having the good heat flux over the whole body profile of the turbine blade. To analyse that if there is any deformation occur in the blade root if it has been made of different materials. That is the root and the blade profile is made up of two different material then analyzing to know if there is any deformation will occur to the root and tip.

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  8. V. NagaBhushana Rao1, I. N. Niranjan Kumar2, N. Madhulata3 and A. Abhijeet4 1(Department of Marine Engineering, Andhra University College of Engineering, India) 2(Department of Marine Engineering, Andhra University College of Engineering, India) 3(Department of Marine Engineering, PRIME Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, India) 4(Department of Mechanical Engineering, Raghu Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, India)

  9. V. Vijaya Kumar1, R. Lalitha Narayana2, Ch. Srinivas3 M.Tech Student Department of Mechanical Engineering A.S.R. College of Engineering Tanuku Head of the Department Department of Mechanical Engineering A.S.R. College of Engineering Tanuku Associate professor Department of Mechanical Engineering A.S.R. College of Engineering Tanuku

  10. Yeon-Sun Choi1, and Kyu-Hwa Lee2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangahn-gu, Suwon, Korea 2Korea Failure Investigation CenterSamduck B/D, 131 Dadong, Junggu, Seoul, Korea

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