Experimental Study on Bituminous Mix using LDPE, Crumb Rubber and Mild Steel Chips in the Construction of Flexible Pavement


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Experimental Study on Bituminous Mix using LDPE, Crumb Rubber and Mild Steel Chips in the Construction of Flexible Pavement

Teerthananda Sagar C S

Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dr. T. Thimmaiah Institute of Technology,

KGF, Karnataka, India.

Yashashwini M S, Ravichandra N, Architha N, Nikil V

UG Students, Civil Engineering

Dr. T. Thimmaiah Institute of Technology, KGF, Karnataka, India.

Abstract In recent years, the use of plastic (LDPE), rubber from squandering to modify the mechanical possessions of bituminous fusions has become progressively important in highway engineering. There is presently much research devoted to the influence of this waste substantial on mix performance. This paper presents a study of the incorporation of plastic and crumb rubber. The results obtained show that plastic and crumb rubber improved the stiffness and stability of mixes. A part from the evident environmental benefits, adding this waste to asphalt mixes improves the long-term performance of road surfaces because it reduces the effect of traffic loads on the pavement. In this paper we are improving bitumen possessions and diminish cost of construction and mainly plastic and rubber disposal so that environment expansion can attain and its eco- friendly and also here we are profitable to diverge LDPE and crumb rubber content from 10% to 50%to increase the Marshall stability strength of the road and we have utilized mild steel as an admixture to increase the Marshall stability in rubber replacement. By the experimental analysis we got 20% and 20% optimum values for LDPE and Crumb Rubber respectively.

Keywords:- (Urbanization, Bituminous Mix, Eco-Friendly, Non-Biodegradable, Deformation)

  1. INTRODUCTION

    India is a blooming country where conveyance shows a significant role. In India conveyance chiefly depends on the road network which as a road length of 5.6 million kilometers and stands as the second largest road network in the world. Discarded valorization has turn out to be crucial to a more efficient and sustainable development in the world in the present day. The reuse and reinsertion of waste substantial in the production chain reduces the consumption of basic commodities and, in many cases, even prevents the depletion of valuable natural resources. Moreover, it also alleviates the accumulation of waste at landfills, which is now a serious problem. Consequently, great efforts are currently being made to reuse waste material in production systems. As they are non-biodegradable, positioning them is a serious issue. Improper discarding of these waste plastic and tires causes harmful effects on the environment and human life. One of the temporary methods of disposing the waste plastic and tires is burning which releases the toxic harmful gases such as carbon di-oxide and carbon monoxide which results in the air pollution. Therefore, by partially replacing the bitumen with waste plastic and crumb rubber to certain extend the properties of flexible pavement like durability, solidity and strength can

    be increased. When crumb rubber is added to the hot bituminous mix, it adequately increases the viscosity, lowers the penetration and increases the softening point of the bitumen. Carbon which is present in the rubber acts as an anti- oxidant and prevents the bitumen from aging and oxidation. The main objective of this study is to find the optimum percentage of waste plastic, crumb rubber and mild steel chips that can be partially replaced for bitumen to strengthen the surface course and reduce the cost of construction and also to provide an alternative solution for the disposal problem of waste plastic and crumb rubber.

  2. OBJECTIVES

    1. To reduce the bitumen content by the addition of waste plastic and crumb rubber in the hot bituminous mix.

    2. To know the stability of the modified bituminous pavement by conducting Marshall Stability test.

    3. To minimize the cost of construction of the flexible pavement.

    4. To reduce the environmental impacts, that arises during the disposal of waste tires.

  3. MATERIALS USED

      1. BITUMEN:

        In the construction of flexible pavement, bitumen plays an important role in binding the aggregates together. Various grades of bitumen are 30/40, 50/60, 60/70, 80/100.

        Desirable properties are,

        • Bitumen provides a good resistance to surface wear.

        • Reduces the surface water infiltration.

        • Provides smooth and readable finish.

        • Also provides structural support to the wheel loads.

      2. COARSE AGGREGATES:

        The aggregates bind together with the help of binding materials such as bitumen. Aggregate are the major constituents of the pavement that should have high strength, durability, toughness, hardness etc. Aggregates used are of sieve size 16mm, 12mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 4.75mm, 2.36mm and stone dust.

      3. LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE [LDPE]:

        Low density polyethylene is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. It was the first grade of polyethylene.

        LDPE is sometime recycled and tends to be both durable and flexible. It can withstand temperature of 80°C continuously and 95°C for short time. The use of LDPE will not only strengthen the pavement but also increases its durability.

      4. CRUMB RUBBER:

        Crumb rubber is the shredded form of waste tires which is obtained from the truck and automobiles tires (or) crumb rubber are the recycled rubber obtained by grinding up whole scarp tires and other waste products.

      5. MILD STEEL CHIPS:

    Mild steel chips are obtained from the process of cutting the mild steel (turning, filing) by mechanical means using the tools such as, lathes, saws and milling cutters. These chips are the debris or waste that is obtained from the machining or material removing process. Mild steel chips contains approximately 0.05-0.2% of carbon which makes it malleable and ductile. Also it has relatively low tensile strength. By using the waste mild steel chips in the construction of flexible pavements, the stability can be relatively increased.

  4. METHODOLOGY

    1. ABRASION TEST

    2. IMPACT TEST

    1. ABRASION TEST

    2. IMPACT TEST

    TESTS

    TESTS

    AGGEGATES

    AGGEGATES

    1.

    DUCTILITY TEST

    2.

    SOFTENING TEST

    3.

    MARSHALL STABILITY TEST

    1.

    DUCTILITY TEST

    2.

    SOFTENING TEST

    3.

    MARSHALL STABILITY TEST

    BITUMEN

    BITUMEN

    1. SEGREGATION

    2. CLEANING

    3. SHREDDING

    4. COLLECTION

    1. SEGREGATION

    2. CLEANING

    3. SHREDDING

    4. COLLECTION

    MATERIALS

    LDPE, MILD STEEL CHIPS, CRUMB RUBBER WASTE

    LDPE, MILD STEEL CHIPS, CRUMB RUBBER WASTE

    PROCESS

    PROCESS

  5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND

DISCUSSION

  1. TESTS ON AGGREGATES

    Aggregates are tested according to IRC codes and examined it with standard acceptable values

    TABLE I: SHOWS TEST ON AGGREGATE

    Sl.No

    Experiments

    Results obtained

    Acceptable Range

    1

    Impact Value (%)

    25

    10-20(Strong) 20-30(Good)

    2

    Los-Angeles Abrasion Test (%)

    26

    <30%

    3

    Flakiness(%)

    10.3

    <35%

    4

    Elongation (%)

    33.60

    <35%

    5

    Specific Gravity

    2.6

    2.5-3

  2. TESTS ON BITUMEN

    Bitumen is tested according to IRC codes and examined it with standard acceptable values.

    TABLE II: TESTS ON BITUMEN

    Sl.No

    Experiments

    Results obtained

    Acceptance Range

    1.

    Ductility

    58

    40cm(Min)

    2.

    Ring & Ball Test

    54

    47°C(Min)

  3. TESTS ON WASTE COATED AGGREGATES

    Aggregates are coated with plastic at 100C as acts anti stripping agent on aggregate

    RUBBER

    RUBBER

    R%=10, 20,

    30, 40, 50.

    R%=10, 20,

    30, 40, 50.

    RUBBER AND MILD

    RUBBER AND MILD

    R+MS%=10

    , 20, 30, 40,

    50.

    R+MS%=10

    , 20, 30, 40,

    50.

    Test on Aggregates

    Natural Aggregate

    LDPE

    Aggregate

    Rubber Aggregate

    Los Angeles Abrasion test

    26

    24

    23.4

    Impact test

    25

    14.75

    16.94

    Test on Aggregates

    Natural Aggregate

    LDPE

    Aggregate

    Rubber Aggregate

    Los Angeles Abrasion test

    26

    24

    23.4

    Impact test

    25

    14.75

    16.94

    TABLE III: TESTS ON WASTE COATED AGGREGATES

    PLASTIC

    LDPE%=10, 20,30,40,50.

    REPLACEMENT PROPORTIONS

    PLASTIC

    LDPE%=10, 20,30,40,50.

    REPLACEMENT PROPORTIONS

    30

    26

    30

    26

    20

    16.94

    20

    16.94

    15

    10

    5

    0

    15

    10

    5

    0

    Los Angeles Impact test

    Abrasion (%) test (%)

    Natural Aggregate LDPE Aggregate Rubber Aggregate

    Los Angeles Impact test

    Abrasion (%) test (%)

    Natural Aggregate LDPE Aggregate Rubber Aggregate

    25

    25

    24 23.4

    24 23.4

    25

    25

    14.75

    14.75

    Chart 1: Tests on Coated Aggregates

  4. TESTS ON REPLACED BITUMEN

The bitumen test is lead and the analyses were tabularized. For the evaluations gained the following graphs are strategized compared to Bitumen and various parameters

  1. LDPE REPLACEMENT

    LDPE is switched with bitumen in innumerable magnitudes like 10%-50%. Marshall Stability test where conceded out for every single replacement of plastic magnitudes and annotation down the readings correspondingly.

    LDPE (%)

    Stability (kN)

    Flow value (mm)

    Bitumen

    35.5

    4.5

    10

    73.39

    3

    20

    100.30

    2.5

    30

    51.36

    3.5

    40

    45.93

    4

    50

    39.2

    4.5

    LDPE (%)

    Stability (kN)

    Flow value (mm)

    Bitumen

    35.5

    4.5

    10

    73.39

    3

    20

    100.30

    2.5

    30

    51.36

    3.5

    40

    45.93

    4

    50

    39.2

    4.5

    TABLE IV: MARSHAL STABILITY TEST FOR LDPE REPLACEMENT

    Stability kN

    Stability kN

    150

    150

    0

    0

    0% 10% 20% 30%

    Stability kN

    40% 50%

    0% 10% 20% 30%

    Stability kN

    40% 50%

    100.3

    100.3

    100

    100

    73.39

    35.5

    73.39

    35.5

    50

    50

    51.36

    45.93 39.2

    51.36

    45.93 39.2

    4

    4

    4

    4

    3

    3

    Chart -2: Stability Graph for LDPE replacement

    FLOW in mm

    FLOW in mm

    5

    4.5

    3.5

    4.5

    5

    4.5

    3.5

    4.5

    3

    2

    1

    0

    2.5

    3

    2

    1

    0

    2.5

    0% 10% 20% 30%

    FLOW

    40%

    50%

    0% 10% 20% 30%

    FLOW

    40%

    50%

    Chart -3: Flow Graph for LDPE replacement

  2. CRUMB RUBBER REPLACEMENT

    CRUMB RUBBER is switched with bitumen in innumerable magnitudes like 10%-50% Marshall Stability test where conceded out for every single replacement of plastic magnitudes and annotation down the readings correspondingly.

    TABLE V: MARSHAL STABILITY TEST FOR CRUMB RUBBER REPLACEMENT

    Crumb Rubber (%)

    Stability (kN)

    Flow value (mm)

    Bitumen

    35.5

    4.5

    10

    58.9

    4.0

    20

    69.5

    3.5

    30

    77.3

    3.0

    40

    59.6

    3.5

    50

    52.2

    4.0

    40

    20

    0

    40

    20

    0

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    Stability kN

    Stability kN

    80

    80

    Stability kN

    77.3

    69.5

    58.9

    Stability kN

    77.3

    69.5

    58.9

    60

    60

    59.6

    35.5 52.2

    59.6

    35.5 52.2

    3.5

    3.5

    Chart -4: Stability Graph for crumb rubber replacement

    4.5

    FLOW in mm

    4.5

    FLOW in mm

    4.5

    4

    3.5

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    4

    3.5

    3

    4

    4.5

    4

    3.5

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    4

    3.5

    3

    4

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    FLOW

    FLOW

    Chart -5: Flow Graph for CRUMB RUBBER replacement

  3. CRUMB RUBBER REPLACEMENT WITH MILD STEEL AS ADMIXTURE

    Crumb rubber is switched with bitumen in innumerable magnitudes like 10%-50%. We got the 30% as optimum value, on this result we have added mild steel to increase the strength. Marshall Stability test where conceded out for every single replacement of crumb rubber magnitudes and annotation down the readings correspondingly.

    TABLE V: MARSHAL STABILITY TEST FOR CRUMB RUBBER AND MILD STEEL REPLACEMENT

    Sl. No

    % Of Bitume n

    % Of Crumb Rubber + Mild Steel Chips

    Stability Value (kN)

    Flow Value (mm)

    1

    70

    30 + 0

    77.3

    3.0

    2

    70

    27

    3

    86.07

    2.5

    3

    70

    24

    6

    88

    2.5

    4

    70

    21

    9

    104.49

    2.0

    5

    /td>

    70

    18

    12

    93.71

    3.0

    6

    70

    15

    15

    80.2

    3.5

    80

    80.2

    80

    80.2

    60

    40

    20

    0

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Stability kN

    Stability kN

    120

    120

    Stability kN

    Stability kN

    100

    100

    86.07

    77.3 88

    86.07

    77.3 88

    104.49

    104.49

    93.71

    93.71

    3

    3

    3

    3

    Chart -6: Stability Graph for crumb rubber and mild steel replacement.

    Flow in mm

    Flow in mm

    4

    3

    2.5

    2.5

    3.5

    4

    3

    2.5

    2.5

    3.5

    2

    2

    2

    2

    1

    0

    1

    0

    30+0 27+3 24+6

    21+9 18+12 15+15

    30+0 27+3 24+6

    21+9 18+12 15+15

    FLOW mm

    FLOW mm

    Chart -7: Flow graph for crumb rubber replacement

    MATERIAL NEEDED

    PLAIN BITUMEN PROCESS

    LDPE- BITUMEN ROAD

    RUBBER- BITUMEN ROAD

    RUBBER- MILD STEEL CHIPS BITUMEN ROAD

    60/70

    BITUMEN

    15.4 tonnes

    12.32 tonnes

    10.78 tonnes

    10.78 tonnes

    WASTE

    ————-

    3.08 tonnes

    4.62 tonnes

    4.61 tonnes

    COST RS.

    1494000

    948700

    908660

    914100

    COST REDUCED

    NIL

    545300

    585340

    579900

    COST REDUCTION

    0%

    36.49%

    39.17%

    38.81%

    STABILITY KN

    35.50

    100.30

    77.3

    104.49

    STABILITY INCREASED BY

    4.5

    2.5

    3

    2

    FLOW VALUE DECREASED BY

    0 times

    2.82 times

    2.17 times

    3 times

    MATERIAL NEEDED

    PLAIN BITUMEN PROCESS

    LDPE- BITUMEN ROAD

    RUBBER- BITUMEN ROAD

    RUBBER- MILD STEEL CHIPS BITUMEN ROAD

    60/70

    BITUMEN

    15.4 tonnes

    12.32 tonnes

    10.78 tonnes

    10.78 tonnes

    WASTE

    ————-

    3.08 tonnes

    4.62 tonnes

    4.61 tonnes

    COST RS.

    1494000

    948700

    908660

    914100

    COST REDUCED

    NIL

    545300

    585340

    579900

    COST REDUCTION

    0%

    36.49%

    39.17%

    38.81%

    STABILITY KN

    35.50

    100.30

    77.3

    104.49

    STABILITY INCREASED BY

    4.5

    2.5

    3

    2

    FLOW VALUE DECREASED BY

    0 times

    2.82 times

    2.17 times

    3 times

    TABLE VII: ESTIMATION AND COMPARISION

    CONCLUSION

    1. The graph illustrate about assorted content of bitumen and properties of behavior of Marshall stability moulds shown positive outcome at 20% of waste LDPE and 30% of crumb rubber. Hence we can conclude that among 10% -50%, 20% and 30% is optimum value for waste LDPE and crumb rubber respectively.

    2. Due to reduction in ductility value water penetration, stripping and rutting are nullified.

    3. The bitumen modifier increases the stability and density of mix which is suggested for surface course.

    4. The thickness of pavement may decreases to half of normal thickness which results in economy of cost by reducing quantity of materials and by achieving the work in less duration of time with better quality.

    5. From the optimum values obtained, 20% and 30% of bitumen can reduces for waste LDPE and crumb rubber. Hence total cost of bitumen can be reduced and reduces same quantity of waste LDPE and crumb rubber from environment in useful way and protects nature from harmful effects.

    6. Due to use of waste materials the cost reduction is up to 36.5% (Rs.545300), 40%(Rs.585340) and 38.81% (plastic, rubber, rubber and mild steel chips respectively) when compare to ordinary bitumen.

REFERENCES

[1]. Vishal Rasal, Experimental Study On Modified Bituminous Mix Using Waste High Density Polyethylene And Crumb Rubber, IJIRSET 2018 ISSN (print) 2347-6710, ISSN (online) 2319-

8753.[2018] [2]. R. Manju, Use Plastic Waste In Bituminous Pavement, IJCRGG 2017 ISSN: 0974-4290.[2017] [3]. G. Ramesh Kumar, Partial Replacement Of Bitumen By Waste Plastic And Polypropylene In Road Construction, IJCESR 2017 ISSN (print) 2393-8374, (online):2394-0697.[2017] [4]. Huda Shafiq, Plastic Roads: A Recent Advancement In Waste Management, IJERT 2016 ISSN2278-0181.[2016] [5]. SasenaNeha. B, Application of Waste Plastic as an Effective Construction Material In Flexible Pavements , IJRIT 2015 e- ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN2395-0072. [2015] ISSN2395-0072.

[2015] [6]. MinakshiSinghal, YudhvirYadavUse Of Modified Bitumen In Highway Construction Volume 2, Issue 12, ISSN (online): 2349-6010 International journal for innovative research in science and technology(IJIRST). May 2016.

[7]. Niraj D. BaraiyaUse Of Waste Rubber Tyres In Construction Of Bituminious Roads An Overview Volume 2, Issue 7, International journal of application n or innovation in engineering and management (IJAIEM). July 2013.

[8]. Chethankumar N T, Jayaram R Partial Replacement Of Bitumen By Waste Plastic In Road Construction Volume 3, issue 6, IJSART June 2017.

[9]. DeshmukhNitu. H, Kshirsagar D. Utilization Of Rubber Waste In Construction Of Flexible Pavement Volume 2,,Issue 7, International journel of advance research and development.[2017].

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