 Open Access
 Authors : Pruthviraj S R, Maruthi T, Yajnodbhavi H M, Ravi Kumar C M
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV10IS11019
 Volume & Issue : ICEI – 2022 (Volume 10 – Issue 11)
 Published (First Online): 18082022
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Experimental Studies On Fiber Reinforced High Stregth M80Grade Concrete
Pruthviraj S R
Department of Studies in Civil Engineering University B. D.T College of Engineering Davangere, India
Maruthi T
Civil Engineering Department Jain Institute of Technology Davanagere, India
Yajnodbhavi H M
PES Institute of Technology and Management Shivamogga, India
Ravi Kumar C M Department of Studies in Civil Engineering University B. D.T College of Engineering
Davangere, India
Abstract High strength concrete is one that aids in all aspects of overcoming practical obstacles as well as other functionality of any structure. Concrete pavements, highrise buildings, longspan bridges, hydraulic systems, and other applications all benefit from the use of High strength concrete. With the addition of fibres to the concrete mix, the qualities of the concrete improve dramatically. Many research projects are currently underway to make High strength concrete more cost effective and durable by including supplemental cementation ingredients and alternative replacement aggregates. This experimental Investigation is to find the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced High strength concrete by substituting foundry sand (FS) and crushed concrete waste (CCW) for fine and coarse aggregate, respectively. Every 5% interval, the percentage replacement of foundry sand ranges from 0% to 40%, and every 10% interval, the percentage replacement of crushed concrete waste varies from 0% to 40%. Mechanical parameters of High strength concrete were tested, including compressive strength, flexure, tensile, shear strength, and impact strength. For the preparation of High strength concrete, M80 Mpa concrete is used. The IRC44:2017 rules and recommendations were followed during the mix design process. Polypropylene fibres weighing 0.3 percent of the cement weight were employed in this study. Mechanical qualities were determined by producing certain mould sizes for specific tests, which were cured for standard curing periods, with the results tallied and explained for each day.
Keywords HSC, PPF, IRC, Mechanical strength properties.

INTRODUCTION

General
HSC will become an essential concrete material than the normal conventional concrete in the coming years. HSCs with a strength equal to or more than M80 MPa are used in a wide range of construction applications, taking into account their performance and role in each application. Different types of steel or polymer based fibres are employed in HSC to increase tensile strength, ductility, and toughness, resulting in fibre reinforced concrete. The Permeability criteria are also reduced by the HSC. Proper concrete mix design is critical in achieving the desired concrete in the construction business. Concrete becomes more workable and durable when the W/C ratio is maintained properly. By limiting the W/C ratio to an exceptionally low percentage, additional strength can be achieved in terms of plasticizers and superplasticizers.

Scope of HSC
HSC is required in all concrete fields and construction projects that have concrete components that must resistance against high crushing loads. HSC is applicable in tall structures where the grade of concrete is higher there by reducing the total density of the member. It has been used in components of the framed structures such as vertical members especially on bottom stories loads is greater, retaining walls and footing sections. HSC with fibres are also largely used in construction of heavy bridges having long spans as well. HSC is also used in the construction of culverts and highway pavements. HSC also largely used in prestressed concrete girders.

Classification of HSC

Based on Characteristic Strength
Based on28days of curing, the been suggested by below table.
Table1.1: Classification of concrete based on Characteristic Strength
Sl
Classification of Concrete
Compressive strengthin Mpa for 28 days
1
Ordinary Concrete
10 to 20 MPa.
2
Standard/Normal Concrete
25 to 55 MPa.
3
HighStrength Concrete
60 to 100 MPa.
4
Exceptional Concrete
> 150 MPa.

Classification of materials as per IRC 442017:

Cement:

OPC, 43 Grade & 53 Grade, IS: 269.

PPC, IS: 1489, Part1.

Portland Slag cement, IS: 456.

Composite Cement, IS: 16415.
1.3.2.2. Admixtures
Mineral Admixtures and Chemical admixtures:
Guidelines: Retarders, plasticizers and super plasticizers conforming to IS: 9103 can be used as 0.5, 1 and 2 percent by mass of cementitious materials respectively.
1.3.2.3. Fibers
Fibers can be added to concrete to improve its properties, according to IRC: SP: 46 and IS: 456. The fibres can be carbon, steel, or polymeric synthetic fibres, and they must be uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.
1.3.2.4. Aggregates
Except for grading and any other particular requirements specified in IRC: 15, aggregates for pavement concrete should comply with IS: 383.



Guidelines for fine aggregates:
Fine aggregates must be free from impurities and soft particles, clay, mica, organic and other foreign matter, according to the IRC442017 guidelines. Table2 of IRC44 2017, 3.4.2 clause, shall be followed for fine aggregate requirements.

Guidelines for Coarse aggregates:
Coarse aggregates must be made up of clean, firm, sturdy, compact, nonporous, and longlasting crushed stone or crushed gravel with no flaky or elongated particles. The total flakiness and elongation index must not exceed 35 percent, and the overall impact value must not exceed 30%. Table1 of IRC44 2017, 3.4.1.1 clause, specifies the size and grading of coarse aggregates.

Water
Water used for concrete must be free of oil, salt, acid, vegetable debris, and other contaminants that could harm the concrete.

Requirements for the mix proportion of concrete as per IRC442017.
Following are the requirements for the preparation of mix design

Type of binding agent

Max nominal size of the aggregate

Min cement/ cementitious materials content.

Workability required at the time of placement.

Time duration from mixing to placement.

Method of transporting and placing.

Degree of supervision (good)

Type of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.

Whether a mineral admixture shall or shall not be used and the type of chemical admixture and extent of use.


MATERIAL SELECTION
Table2.1: Properties of Cement

Fine aggregate

River Sand and Foundry Sand

Clean and Dry river sand is used an available locally available material.
Figure 1: River Sand and Foundry Sand Table 2.2. Properties of0Fine Aggregate

Cement

OPC of 53 Grade


Fine Aggregate

River Sand

Foundry Sand


Course Aggregate

Crushed Stone


Portable Water

Super plasticizer

Plypropylene fibers

Physical Properties

CementFor this experimental investigation, OPC53 grade ultratech cement was used.

Environmental Condition during Test, Temperature= 27+/ 2 Degree Centigrade

Coarse aggregate

Natural Aggregate and CCW
All specimens are crushed granite aggregate with a specific gravity of 2.60, passing through a 20 mm screen and being maintained on a 12.5 mm sieve, as specified in IS: 383 – 1970.
The following classifications are used for the purposes of this report.
Figure2: Natural aggregate and CCW Table 2.3. Properties of Coarse Aggregate


Water
The concrete examples were cast and cured with potable water. The water used to make concrete should be free of dirt and organic matter.

Super Plasticizer
Super plasticizers are used to increase the workability of concrete. Poly carboxylic ether is used in this. Superplasticizers, also known as high range water reducers, are chemical additives used in applications that require well dispersed particle suspension.

Conplast Sp430 CONPLAST SP430 shall meet BIS: 91031999, BS: 5075part30, and ASTM C494 requirements.
The oppositely charged superplasticizer molecules and cement grains repel each other.
Table2.4: Properties of Super Plasticiser
SL
Properties
Value
1
Specific Gravity
1.08
2
Colour
Dark Brown

Setting out the dosage of superplasticizer using MarshCone Test (Flowability Test).
Marsh cone is a conical brass vessel, which has a smooth aperture at the bottom of diameter 5mm. to conduct this experiment by taking 2 Kg of cement sample and by maintaining the W/C ratio of 0.50.
Figure 3: Marsh Cone apparatus for Cement & mortar (5mm and 12mm diameter mouth)
2.1.6. Polypropylene Fibers
Polypropylene's starting material is monomeric C3H6, a completely hydrocarbon compound. Its mode of polymerization, its high molecular weight and the way it is processed into fibres combine to give PPF very useful properties as mentioned in below table:
Table2.5: Properties of PolyPropylene Fibers

Methodology

A collection of highquality materials that are locally available.

Physical and chemical properties of materials are tested at a basic level.

Aggregate proportioning using the maximum density technique and its gradations

Calculations for mix design for a specific cementitious concentration to achieve excellent performance.

Using different experiments to determine the water content of a specific combination.

Fine aggregate percentage calculation

Using the maximum density approach, fix the percent of various coarse aggregate sizes (i.e. 20 10, 10 – 4.75mm).

Perform trial mixes to obtain the desired slump and homogeneous concrete mix free of honeycombing and segregation.

Samples are cast.

Samples were tested at 7 and 28 days old.

Discussions and conclusions



EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY

Cube Casting
Cubes were constructed with a concrete mixture that did not contain discarded foundry sand as fine aggregate and CCW as coarse aggregate. With varied percentages of discarded foundry sand as fine aggregate and CCW as coarse aggregate in the HSC (Foundry sand 10% , 20% , 30% and 40% , CCW5 % , 10% ,
15% and 20% ).

Concrete Cube Curing
All test specimens were maintained at room temperature in the casting chamber after casting. After 24 hours, they were de moulded and placed in a watercuring tank for 7, 14, and 28 days at room temperature.

Mix design:
Mix Design is a method of selecting appropriate constituent materials for the creation of concrete and determining their relative proportions as efficiently as feasible in order to achieve the desired qualities of both fresh and hardened concrete. The IRC 442017 mix design procedure is employed in this inquiry.
Table3.1: Material requirements and mix proportion of M80grade concrete
Requirement
Ceme nt
Fine aggreg ate
Coarse
aggrega te
Water
Super plastici zer
Weight of materials in Kg/m3
450
kg/m3
564
kg/m3
1329
kg/m3
123 Lt
6.0
Mix proport ion
1
1.25
2.95
W/C= 0.27
0.0052

Experimental Observations:

Tests for fresh concrete:

Slump test
Slump test for the fresh concrete was carried for every mix to define the workability of the concrete mix. Proper workability of concrete by maintaining the w/c ratio to get the good compressive strength. Slump values were recorded for every mix.
Figure 4: Slump Cone

Compaction factor test


Compaction factor test for fresh concrete was carried to determine the workability of concrete by determining the compaction factor of different proportion of concrete and compaction factors values are recorded for regular tests. This test is very much helpful for the concrete having very low workability.
Figure5: Compaction factor testing equipment

Test for hardened concrete

Compressive strength
A compressive strength test determines how much compression load the specific dimension of the concrete cube can handle. A compression test setup can be used to cure and test the cube, which can be made to a standard size of 150mmx150mmx150mm. The compressive strength of the cube can be calculated using the compression load applied to the area of the specimen for various curing durations. P/A= Compressive strength, Where P be the failure loads, A is the specimen's surface area.

Split Tensile Strength
Samples of desired mix grade concrete was prepared for required mould dimension and once the concrete gets hardened for certain curing periods, the tensile taking capacity of the concrete mix can be determined by conducting split tensile strength. Cylindrical cube of 150mm diameter and 300mm length test specimen was prepared for this test.
The mould was properly positioned on the flat form, and the load after crushing was measured and used to calculate the concrete's split tensile strength. The formula was created using IS: 058161970 standards.
Ft = 2P/DL
Where P = Crushing load on the cylinder
L = Length of the cylinder D = Diameter of the cylinder

Flexural strength test
A flexural strength test can be performed using one or two point loads without supports. The 100mmx100mmx500mm
mould was prepared and cured for the proper curing times. This test can be used to determine the concrete's toughness properties as well as analyse its flexural behaviour in post cracking stages. The formula below can be used to calculate flexural strength.
Flexural strength= (PL/bd2) x100
Where, P=critical load in KN, L= Effective length of beam=400mm
b= Beam width100mm d=Beam depth=100mm

Impact test (Dropping Weight test)
Figure 6: Impact strength testing machine Computation of the impact strength was as follows, Impact
strength= (Wight of hammer * height * n) in Nm Where, W= Weight of hammer
H=Height of hammer, N=Number of blows.

Shear Strength Test of Concrete (As Per IS: 516 195)

Shear strength test is carried to test the shear taking capacity of the mix by preparing the specimen in the shape of L and the suitable arrangement was made in compressive strength testing machine to test the shear strength of the concrete.
Formula:
Shear Strength = (Load / Area) Ã— 1000
Where, P = Failure load in kN, A = Area of shear surface.


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Tests on Super Plasticizer

Marsh Cone test results
Time taken in seconds are recorded for each dosage andrespective W/C ratio are tabulated bellow
Table4.1: Recorded time corresponding to the Dosage
Sl.
Dosage in %
W/C ratio
Time in sec
1
0
0.50
(By maintaining Constant W/C ratio)
37.70
2
0.25
27.50
3
0.5
25.65
4
0.75
25.50
5
1.0
24.50
6
1.25
22.56
7
1.50
22.90
8
1.75
22.90
9
2.0
22.10
Chart was made on super plasticizer Dosage in percentage in Xdirection V/S Marsh Cone time in seconds in Y direction:
Figure 7: Marsh Cone Test graph

Workability test results
SL
Concrete Type
W/C Ratio
Slump In mm
Without Fibre
With Fibre
Conventional M80
Grade
0.27
22
12
2
M80 concrete with 10% CCW
8
5
3
M80 concrete with 20% CCW
0
0
4
M80 concrete with 30% CCW
0
0
5
M80 concrete with 40% CCW
0
0
6
M80 concrete with 5% FS
12
5
7
M80 concrete with 10% FS
9
0
8
M80 concrete with 15% FS
0
0
9
M80 concrete with 20% FS
0
0

Slump test results as per IS 1199:1959 Table4.2: Slump values of the concrete
Figure 8: Graphical representation of slump test results
SL
Concrete Type
Compaction Factor
Without Fibre
With Fibre
1
Conventional M80 Grade
0.84
0.67
2
M80 concrete with 10% CCW
0.73
0.63
3
M80 concrete with 20% CCW
0.69
0.62
4
M80 concrete with 30% CCW
0.65
0.58
5
M80 concrete with 40% CCW
0.62
0.58
6
M80 concrete with 5% FS
0.81
0.65
7
M80 concrete with 10% FS
0.76
0.63
8
M80 concrete with 15% FS
0.71
0.62
9
M80 concrete with 20% FS
0.72
0.62

Compaction factor test as per 1199:1959 Table4.3: Compaction factor values of the concrete
Figure 9: Compaction Factor Test results


Trength Test Results

Compressive strength test results
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressi ve strength Mpa
without
with
1
Normal M80
61.92
64.14
2
CCW
10%
61.48
63.55
3
CCW
20%
59.70
60.59
4
CCW
30%
59.11
60.59
5
CCW
40%
56.44
60.00
Table4.4: Crushed Concrete Waste for 7 Days of curing
Figure 10: Graph showing compressive strength results for7 days curing
Table4.5: Compressive strength result of Crushed Concrete Waste for 14 Days of curing
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressive strength Mp
a
without
with
1
Normal M80
85.33
86.81
2
CCW
10%
84.44
86.37
3
CCW
20%
83.85
84.88
4
CCW
30%
82.81
82.37
5
CCW
40%
78.96
80.44
Figure 11: Graphical representation of compressive strengthof CCW for 14 days curing
Table4.6: Compressive strength result of Crushed Concrete Waste for 28 Days of curing
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressiv e strength Mpa
without
with
1
Normal M80
96.74
101.03
2
CCW
10%
95.11
101.03
3
CCW
20%
93.92
99.40
4
CCW
30%
93.18
97.33
5
CCW
40%
92.00
92.88
Figure 12: Graph showing compressive strength of CCW for 28 days curing
Table4.7: Compressive strength rsult of Foundry Sand for 7 Days of curing
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressiv
e strength Mpa
without
with
1
Normal M80
61.92
65.33
2
FS5%
62.07
63.55
3
FS10%
64.00
65.92
4
FS15%
65.62
67.25
5
FS20%
57.18
66.66
Figure 13: Graph showing Compressive strength results of FS for 7 days curing
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressiv e strength Mpa
without
with
1
Normal M80
85.33
86.81
2
FS5%
85.03
87.25
3
FS10%
86.07
88.59
4
FS15%
87.70
91.20
5
FS20%
86.61
87.25
Table4.8: Compressive strength result of Foundry Sand for 14 Days of curing
Table4.9: Compressive strength result of Foundry Sand for 28 Days of curing
SL
Replacement Material
Arg. Compressiv e strength Mpa
without
with
1
Normal M80
96.74
101.03
2
FS5%
97.48
102.81
3
FS10%
98.07
104.59
4
FS15%
101.14
106.22
5
FS20%
89.33
95.84
Figure 14: Graph of Compressive strength results of FS for 14 days curing
Figure15: Graph showing Compressive strength results of FS for 28 days curing

Percentage contribution of replaced aggregate in HSC
Table4.10:Percentage contribution in the compressivestrength with respect to normal concrete
SL
Percentage of r
eplacement
Total Percentage
Without
With
1
Normal
0
0
2
10% CCW
1.69
0
3
20% CCW
1.25
1.62
4
30% CCW
0.79
2.08
5
40% CCW
1.27
4.57
6
5% FS
5.95
10.69
7
10% FS
0.60
1.73
8
15% FS
2.11
1.56
9
20% FS
10.8
9.78

Fibre contribution in achieving Compressive strength
Table4.11:Percentage increase or decrease in the compressive strength with fibres
Figure 16: Graph showing of Flexural strength results

Split tensile strength test results
SAMPLE
7 days i
n Mpa
28 days i
n Mpa
Conventional M80 With fibre
4.10
6.65
10% CCW
With fibre
3.68
6.08
15% FS
With fibre
3.54
6.50
Table4.14: Split tensile Strength test results for 7 and 28days of curing
SL
Percentage of replacement
Compressive strength In Mpa
for 28days
Total %
Without
fibres
With
fibres
1
Normal
96.74
101.03
4.43
2
10% CCW
95.11
101.03
6.22
3
20% CCW
93.92
99.40
5.83
4
30% CCW
93.18
97.33
4.45
5
40% CCW
92.00
92.88
0.96
6
5% FS
97.48
102.81
5.47
7
10% FS
98.07
104.59
6.65
8
15% FS
100.14
106.22
6.07
9
20% FS
89.33
95.84
7.29
SL
Percentage of repla cement
Split tensil strength in Mpa
Total
%
1
Conventional M80 With fibre
6.65
0
2
10% CCW
6.08
8.50
3
15% FS
With fibre
6.50
2.13
Table4.15: Percentage increase or decrease in the splittensile strength with addition of fibres



Flexural strength test results

Table4.12: Flexural Strength test results for 7 and 28 daysof curing
SAMPLE
7 days i
n Mpa
28 days i
n Mpa
Conventional M80 With fibre
8.5
13.0
10% CCW
With fibre
7.5
12.0
15% FS
With fibre
8.0
12.5
SL
SAMPLE
28 days
in Mpa
Total
%
1
Conventional
M80 With fibre
13.00
0
2
10% CCW
With fibre
12.00
7.70
3
15% FS
With fibre
12.50
3.85
Table4.13: Percentage increase or decrease in the Flexural strength with adding the fibres
Figure 17: Graph showing Split tensile strength results

Impact strength test results
Table4.16: Impact strength test results for 7 and 28 Days of Curing
Sl
Sample
Number of bl ows for final
Crack
Impact value in kN/m2
7
Days
28
Days
7
Days
28
Days
1
Conventional M 80 Grade concrete (Without Fi
bre)
356
946
7.12
19.45
2
Normal M80 C oncrete (With fi bre)
1623
3107
32.46
63.89
3
15%Foundry sa nd
1603
3058
32.06
62.88
4
10% Crushed concrete waste
1526
2963
30.52
60.93
Table4.17: Percentage increase or decrease in the impactstrength with addition of fibres
Sl
Percentage of replacement
Impact strength in Mpa 28 days
Total%
1
Conventional M80 With fibre
19.45
0
2
Conventional M80 Without fibre
63.89
229
3
15% FS With fibre
62.88
224
4
10% CCW with fib re
60.93
213.3
Figure 18: Graphshowing impact test values

Shear strength test results
Table4.18: Shear Strength test results for 7 and 28 days of curing
SAMPLE
7 days i
n Mpa
28 days
in Mpa
Conventional M80 With fibre
27.78
51.12
10% CCW
With fibre
25.56
45.56
15% FS
With fibre
31.12
54.45
Sl
Percentage of repla cement
Shear strength Mpa for 28d
Total Perce ntage
1
Conventional M80 With fibre
460
0
2
10% CCW
410
10.87
3
15% FS
With fibre
490
6.52
Table4.19: Percentage increase or decrease in the Shear strength with adding the fibres
Figure 19: Graph showing Shear strength results


CONCLUSIONS

The FRHSC's workability quality reduces the slump value when replaced, and the similar effect is seen in fibered concrete. However, in this scenario, the compaction factor remained below 1 (Compaction factor 1). In this study, shear slump was found for all types of HSC.

For 28 days of curing, the optimal value of compressive strength of HSC compared to replaced concrete is given as follows: Compressive strength of Conventional HSC without fibre=96.74 Mpa Compressive strength of Conventional HSC with fibre=101.03 Mpa Optimum value of compressive strength of foundry sand without fibre=100.14 Mpa

Optimum value of foundry sand compressive strength with fibre=106.22 Mpa

Compressive strength of crushed concrete waste without fibre at optimum=95.11 Mpa

Compressive strength of crushed concrete waste with fibre=101.03 Mpa optimum value

The maximum replacement of foundry sand in compressive strength with and without adding fibre is 15%, and crushed concrete waste is 10%.

The best replacements were chosen based on compressive strength after 280 days of curing, and the Flexural strength of the concrete was tested on those concrete mixtures.

The flexural strength of typical concrete after 280 days of curing is 13 Mpa.

Flexural0strength of 10% CCW achieved after 280 days of curing=12.0 Mpa

Flexural strength of 15% foundry sand obtained after 280 days of curing= 12.5 MpaThere is a substantial increase in the Flexural strength of the HSC by providing the polypropylene fibres of dosage about 0.3% by volume of cementitious material for both conventional and replaced concrete.

The impact strength of HSC will be doubled when polypropylene fibre is added, as shown in the test results. The impact value of the FRHSC was found to be 229 percent higher than that of standard concrete in this study.

The split tensile strength of the fibre reinforced HSC for 10 percent CCW and 15 percent FS was notable at
6.08 Mpa and 6.50 Mpa, respectively.

In comparison to typical M80 grade concrete, shear strength of fibre reinforced HSC increases with 15% replacement of foundry sand and decreases with 10% replacement of CCW. Strength values for 15 percent FS and 10% CCW are 54.45 Mpa and 45.56 Mpa, respectively.

Flexural strength of 15% foundry sand obtained after 280 days of curing= 12.5 Mpa
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