Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement and Coarse Aggregate by China Clay and Ceramic Tile

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Experimental Investigation on Partial Replacement of Cement and Coarse Aggregate by China Clay and Ceramic Tile

Simla Zakkeer

PG student

Dept. of Civil engineering

Younus College of Engineering and Technology, Kollam, Kerala

Neethu Chandran

Assistant professor Dept. of Civil engineering

Younus College of Engineering and Technology Kollam , Kerala

Abstract – Concrete, as a constructive material, has been used in construction industry for about two centuries. Therefore, doing research about using modern technologies in production concrete is of great importance. Furthermore, one of the most critical problems of the world has been related to remove the wastage and reusing of it. If some of the waste materials are found suitable in concrete making, not only cost of construction can be cut down, but also safe disposal of waste material can be achieved. So this paper aims at utilization of waste from china clay and ceramic industry. Using ceramic tile in concrete not only it will be cost effective, but also provide considerable strength to the concrete . China clay waste is the spoil resulting from the production of china clay with charateristics similar to that of cement .This thesis work aims to study the mechanical and durability properties so as to obtain an economical mix using china clay in different percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 % and ceramic tile in a constant percentage of 30 to replace cement and coarse aggregate respectively.

  1. INRODUCTION

    Concrete is the most widely consumed material in the world, after water. Nowadays, most of the construction of buildings and infrastructures are using concrete as a construction material. It is construction material composed of cement as well as other cementations materials such as slag cement, aggregate, water, and chemical admixtures. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together eventually creating a stone- like material. As it gives benefit to the construction field, it also give environmental problem. Cement and aggregate, which are the most important constituents used in concrete production, are the vital materials needed for the construction industry. This inevitably led to a continuous and increasing demand of natural materials used for their production. Parallel to the need for the utilization of the natural resources emerges a growing concern for protecting the environment and a need to preserve natural resources, such as aggregate, by using alternative materials that are either recycled or discarded as a waste. If some of the waste materials are found suitable in concrete making not only cost of construction can be cut down, but also safe

    disposal of waste material can be achieved. The cement of high strength concrete is generally high which often leads to higher shrinkage and greater evaluation of neat of hydration besides increase in cost. A partial substitution of cement by an industrial waste is not only economical but also improves the properties of fresh and hardened concrete and enhance the durability characteristics besides the safe disposal of waste material thereby protecting the environment form pollution

    Waste material from china clay industry procured from the local china clay products industry was used as partial replacement for river sand.The size of the material used is

    4.75 mm and down size.The ceramic wastes are obtained from a local building that has been demolished. The waste ceramics are crushed into pieces with crushing machine in laboratory. The aggregates passing through IS sieve 20mm and retained on 12.5mm are taken. The specific gravity of tile aggregates is 2.27 and fineness modulus of 5.64.

    Objectives of study are:

    1. To determine the workability of concrete

    2. To determine the compressive strength of concrete

    3. To determine the flexural strength of concrete

    4. To determine the splitting tensile strength of concrete

    5. To determine the durability of concrete

    6. To study the flexural and shear properties of RC beams.

    7. Comparison of results

    1. Materials Used

      • Ordinary Portland cement (53 grade)

      • Waste from china clay industry

      • Ceramic waste

      • Fine aggregate: Locally available sand with 4.75 mm maximum size will be used as fine aggregate

      • Coarse aggregate: Crushed stone with 1220 mm size will be used as coarse aggregate

      • Potable water

      • Admixture

    2. Methodology

      • Raw materials procurement from available sources.

      • Determination of material properties.

      • Development of mix design.

      • Workability study of developed mixes.

      • Casting the specimens.

      • Testing the specimens.

      • Comparison of results to arrive at conclusion.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    The properties of the materials used for the preparation of concrete plays a vital role in fresh as well as a hardened properties of concrete. Tests were conducted on each material for getting their properties. Experimental investigations were carried out to determine the strength characteristics of concrete with different percentages of concrete by replacement of china clay for cement and ceramic tile for coarse aggregate and therby to arrive at the optimum replacement percentage of cement and coarse aggregate and also to study the durability of concrete

    1. Test On Constituent Materials

      Cement: Ordinary Portland Cement of 53 grade, conforming to IS: 12269-1987 was used. Different laboratory tests were conducted on cement to determine standard consistency, initial and final setting time and compressive strength as per IS: 4031-1988.

      China clay: A fine usually white clay formed by the weathering of aluminous minerals, Al2Si2O5(OH)4 (as feldspar); used in ceramics and as an absorbent and as a filler (e.g., in paper)

      Fig 1 China clay

      Fine Aggregate: Commercially available river sand passing through 4.75mm IS sieve and conforming to grading zone II of IS: 383-1970 was used for experiment. Sieve analysis was done to determine the fineness modulus and grain size distribution of river sand.

      Crushed ceramic tile: Cracked pieces of ceramic tiles were crushed manually using hammer. The ground ceramic preparation process is shown in Figure 3.5. The gradation of aggregates affects both fresh and hardened concretes. The sieve analysis of this crushed aggregates have been performed according to IS specifications. Ceramic

      aggregates were sieved in such a way that their grading are exactly compatible with the natural used aggregate in concrete, this compatibility causes that the error created by the grading differences in the properties of concrete become minimized. The diagram of grading of ceramic aggregates and natural ones should be exactly compatible.

      Fig 2. Crushed ceramic tile

      Superplasticiser : In order to achieve the desired workability, poly carboxylate ether based new range water reducing admixture, Cera Hyperplast XRW40 was used as the superplasticiser. Cera Hyperplast XRW40 is available in liquid, which is dispensed into the concrete along with mixing water. It is desirable to add the admixture after adding about 50% of the mixing water into the mixture.

      Coarse aggregates used for this study consists of locally supplied granite type coarse aggregate ofnominal size 12.5 mm. As per IS: 2386 (part III) 1963, laboratory tests were conducted on coarse aggregate to determine the different physical properties. As per IS: 383-1970 gradation curves were drawn.

      Water: Potable water was used in concrete.Water from lakes and streams that contain marine life also. usually is suitable. Hence water available in the college water supply system was used for casting as well as curing of the test specimens.

      Sl.

      No.

      Property

      Specimen

      Size (mm)

      No. of specimens

      1

      Compressive strength

      Cube

      150x150x

      150

      45

      2

      Split tensile strength

      Cylinder

      150

      diameter &300

      height

      9

      3

      Flexural strength

      Beam

      500x100x

      100

      9

      4

      Durability

      i. Acid resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      ii. Alkali resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      iii. Sulphur resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      iv. Sea water resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      Sl.

      No.

      Property

      Specimen

      Size (mm)

      No. of specimens

      1

      Compressive strength

      Cube

      150x150x

      150

      45

      2

      Split tensile strength

      Cylinder

      150

      diameter &300

      height

      9

      3

      Flexural strength

      Beam

      500x100x

      100

      9

      4

      Durability

      i. Acid resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      ii. Alkali resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      iii. Sulphur resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      iv. Sea water resistant test

      Cube

      100x100x

      100

      30

      TABLE.1. NUMBER OF SPECIMEN

    2. Mix Design

      M25 mix was designed as per IS10262:2009 and mix proportion was obtained as 1: 1.35 : 2.29. Water-cement ratio was 0.4. Five mixes were made namely CC0 ,CC1

      ,CC2 ,CC3 CC4 to determine mechanical properties. CC0 with 0% china clay and ceramic tiles considered as control mix. Other mixes are obtained by adding china clay by 5%

      ,10% ,15%,and 20% . In these ceramic tile were added at a constant percentage of 30%

      B.Tests On Specimens

      The specimens after casting and curing were subjected to testing. Testing the specimens determines the strength and also the quality of concrete. Tests were performed on th concrete both in fresh and hardened states for getting workability , strength and durability of concrte with partial replacement of cement with china clay and coarse aggregate with ceramic tile. The tests performed were

      1. Test On Fresh Concrete: SlumpTest

    Compaction Factor Test

    1. Test On Hardened Concrete

      Cube Compressive Strength Test FlexuralStrengthofConcrete Splitting Strength of Cylinders

    2. Durability Tests

    Acid Attack Test Alkali Attack Test Sulphate Attack Test Sea Water Attack Test

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    A .Properties Of Fresh Concrete

    The consistency and workability of CC mix was evaluated using slump flow tests. The results as given in Table 4.1 shows that the concrete was complying with the requirements found in the literature. For all mixes with various percentage of china clay, even though the slump flow was increasing with increase in china clay, slump flow was observed to be between 50 and 100, and that of compaction factor was less than 1, thus satisfying the standard specifications .So, all mixes with different china clay content hold good for filling ability as well as compaction characteristics required for concrete to be CC mix . Fig 4.1 and 4.2 shows the test results for slump flow and compaction factor tests.

    50

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    50

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    0

    10

    20

    30

    0

    10

    20

    30

    % of china clay

    % of china clay

    Compaction factor

    Compaction factor

    Slump value(mm)

    Slump value(mm)

    Fig 3. Slump flow results

    0.8

    0.75

    0.7

    0.65

    0.6

    0

    10

    20

    30

    0.8

    0.75

    0.7

    0.65

    0.6

    0

    10

    20

    30

    % of china clay

    % of china clay

    Mix designation

    Slump value (mm)

    Compaction factor

    CC0

    48

    0.80

    CC1

    42

    0.76

    CC2

    37

    0.71

    CC3

    30

    0.68

    CC4

    22

    0.64

    Mix designation

    Slump value (mm)

    Compaction factor

    CC0

    48

    0.80

    CC1

    42

    0.76

    CC2

    37

    0.71

    CC3

    30

    0.68

    CC4

    22

    0.64

    Fig 4. Compaction factor results TABLE 2 : FRESH PROPERTIES OF CC

    Property

    CC0

    CC1

    CC2

    CC3

    CC4

    7 days Cube Compressive Strength

    18.7

    21.1

    20.9

    19.8

    10.4

    14 days Cube compressive stren

    gtp0.9

    22.7

    21.8

    20.7

    12.2

    28 days Cube compressive strength

    24.6

    30.7

    25.6

    21.6

    15.6

    Splitting tensile strength

    3.54

    2.97

    2.54

    2.12

    1.91

    Flexural strength

    5

    5.5

    4.5

    3.75

    2.5

    Property

    CC0

    CC1

    CC2

    CC3

    CC4

    7 days Cube Compressive Strength

    18.7

    21.1

    20.9

    19.8

    10.4

    14 days Cube compressive stren

    gtp0.9

    22.7

    21.8

    20.7

    12.2

    28 days Cube compressive strength

    24.6

    30.7

    25.6

    21.6

    15.6

    Splitting tensile strength

    3.54

    2.97

    2.54

    2.12

    1.91

    Flexural strength

    5

    5.5

    4.5

    3.75

    2.5

    TABLE 3 HARDENED PROPERTIES OF CC

    B. Properties Of Hardened Concrete

    Compressive strength: Cube Compressive strength test is one of the most important properties of concrete, as it will affect many other properties of hardened concrete. According to the results, there is an increase in compressive strength by the addition of china clay at 5% and 30% ceramic tile , after which it shows a reduction in strength . Thus CC1 is considered at the optimum mix with an increase in compressive strength of 22.8% with respect to control mix (CC0).The average reduction in cube compressive strength for CC0, CC2, CC3 and CC4 with respect to optimum mix was around 19.9%, 16.6%, 29.64% and 49.2% for control mix and china clay contents of 10%, 15% and 20% (with 30 % of ceramic tile) respectively

    . The reason for decrease in strength after the addition of increased percentages of china clay ( 10 ,15 , 20 %) is due to the presence of aluminious minerals in china clay because increased percentage of aluminium particles weakens the cement property of imparting strength.

    Flexural strength test was found out by testing prisms under two point loading. The load was applied until failure of the cylinder along the vertical diameter. The results of splitting tensile strength are also given in Table 4.2 and represented as a graph in Fig. 4.4. The variation of splitting tensile strength of CC mix is also similar to that of cube compressive strength & splitting tensile strength .The decrease in split tensile strength of CC mix could be attributed to the same factors that reduced the compressive strength.

    6

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2)

    Flexural Strength (N/mm2)

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    0

    Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

    Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

    CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

    7 day

    14 day

    28 day

    7 day

    14 day

    28 day

    5

    0

    5

    0

    CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

    CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

    Fig.5: Cube Compressive strength of CC mix

    Splitting tensile

    strength (N/mm2)

    Splitting tensile

    strength (N/mm2)

    Splitting tensile strength test was carried out on cylindrical specimens placed horizontally between the loading surfaces of the compression testing machine. On addition of china clay and ceramic tile there is a gradual decrease in splitting tensile strength of 16.1, 28.2, 40.1, 46.04% with respect to optimum mix . The variations in splitting tensile strength are shown in Fig. 4.4

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

    Fig. 6: Splitting tensile strength of CC mix

    Fig. 7 . Flexural strength of CC mi

    3. Durability Test Results

    1. Acid Resistant Test

      % loss in compressive

      strength

      % loss in compressive

      strength

      From the results it was clear that the concrete mix has moderate durability in acid. It was noted that as the amount of china clay increases the weight loss decreases and correspondingly compressive strength increases. The reaction of acids on concrete is the conversion of calcium compounds into calcium salts of the attacking acid. These replacement of cement with china clay and coarse aggregate with ceramic tile is found to have increased durability against acid attack. The amount of silica in china clay and ceramic tile is greater which combines with calcium hydroxide and reduces the amount susceptible to acid attack.

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      56 days

      90 days

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      56 days

      90 days

      Mixes

      Mixes

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3

      CC4

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3

      CC4

      Fig 8: Percentage loss in compressive strength in acid solution

      15

      10

      5

      56 days

      90days

      8

      6

      4

      2

      15

      10

      5

      56 days

      90days

      8

      6

      4

      2

      0

      0

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      56 days

      90 days

      56 days

      90 days

      0

      0

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      % loss in compressive strength

      % loss in compressive strength

      % loss in weight

      % loss in weight

      % loss in weight

      % loss in weight

      Fig 9: Percentage loss in weight in acid solution

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      56 days

      90 days

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      56 days

      90 days

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      0

      0

      % loss in weight

      % loss in weight

      Fig 10: Percentage loss in in compressive strength alkali solution

      8

      6

      4

      2

      56 days

      90 days

      8

      6

      4

      2

      56 days

      90 days

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      CC0 CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Mixes

      0

      0

      % loss in compressive strength

      % loss in compressive strength

      Fig 11: Percentage loss in weight in sea water

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      56 dsays

      90 days

      20

      15

      10

      5

      0

      56 dsays

      90 days

      CC0CC1CC2CC3CC4

      Mixes

      CC0CC1CC2CC3CC4

      Mixes

      Fig 12: Percentage loss in compressive strength in sea water

      Fig 13: Percentage loss in weight in Sulphate solution

      40

      20

      0

      56 days

      90 days

      40

      20

      0

      56 days

      90 days

      Mixes

      Mixes

      % loss in compressive strength

      % loss in compressive strength

      CC0

      CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      CC0

      CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4

      Fig 14: Percentage loss in compressive strength in Sulphate solution

  4. CONCLUSION

The major conclusions of my thesis work are the following:

  • Replacement of cement with china clay and ceramic tile with coarse aggregate has an effect on the workability of concrete to a certain limit. There is a decrease in the workability of the mix as the percentage of china clay increases. Thus the workability of the mix is increased to the required consistency by the addition of Superplasticizer Cera hyperplast.

  • Compresssive strength of concrete mix upto 5 % replacement of cement by china clay and 30% coarse aggregate by ceramic tile is greater than conventional concrete mix. Maximum compressive strength was obtained was 30.7 N/mm2. This results are by considering water cured specimens.

  • Optimum mix got higher flexural strength than control mix. But final mix got less flexural strength than control mix and optimum mix. This means replacement of cement beyond a limit decreases the flexural strength.

  • Optimum mix got higher splitting tensile strength than control mix. But final mix got less splitting tensile strength than control mix and optimum mix. This means replacement of cement beyond a limit decreases the flexural strength

  • The Chloride permeability of concrete mixes decrease with percentage increase of china clay. So Chloride permeability of all concrete mixes with china clay is lower than that of conventional concrete.

  • Durability of china clay mix increases with increase in china clay percentage. This result is obtained by

    considering acid attack , alkali attack, Sulphate attack and sea water attack.

  • From the above observations, it was understood that concrete mix with 5 % china clay replacement of cement is suitable with respect to strength and that of final mix is durable than other mixes.

REFERENCES

    1. Veera Reddy.M (2010), Investigations on stone dust and ceramic scrap as aggregate replacement in concrete, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering,

      Volume 1, no 3, 2010

    2. B. J. Odero, R. N. Mutuku and C. K. Kabubo (2010), A review on mechanical characteristics of normal concrete partially replaced with recycled ceramics aggregates ,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

    3. Dr. T. Sekar N (2011),.Studies on strength characteristics on utilization of waste materials as coarse aggregate in concrete ,

      International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

    4. K.R.Jayavelu(2012) ,Experimental investigation on concrete with partial replacement of coarse aggregate , International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 2,

      Issue 2,Mar-Apr 2012, pp.322-327

    5. G.Murali (2012) , Properties of concrete with partial replacement of coarse aggregate , International journal for emerging trends in engineering and development Issue 2 ,Vol.4

    6. B. Krishna Rao(2012) , Reuse of Solid Waste from Building Demolition for the Replacement of Natural Aggregates , International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Volume-2, Issue-1

    7. A. Heidari (2012) , Properties of concretes produced with waste ceramic tile aggregate , Asian journal of civil engineering (bhrc) vol. 14, no. 3 (2013) pages 369-382

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