Experimental Investigation and Comparison of Fatigue Behavior of E-Glass, Corbon Fiber and Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite used as Implants

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Experimental Investigation and Comparison of Fatigue Behavior of E-Glass, Corbon Fiber and Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite used as Implants

Shivanand N Pujar1

1Research Scholar,

Lecturer, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic Hubli, India

Dr. K. R Dinesp

2Principal and Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

Government Engineering College, Raichur, India

Dr. Jagadish S P3

3Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

RYMEC, Ballari, India

Dr. ShivaKumar Gouda4

4Assosiate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Deputy Dean CIII, SDMCE-Dharwad,, India.

AbstractThis research paper constitutes the Fatigue behavior of E-glass fiber corbon and jute fibre reinforced polymer composite and study of 10% weight fraction E-glass fiber corbon and jute fibre reinforced polymer composite fabricated by using Hand Layup fabrication technique According to the ASTM Standard Fatigue test was conducted ie ASTM D3479 / D3479M – 19 and ASTM D-3039 Standard the specimen is fabricated by using the Epoxy resin- LY556 as the matrix material and the Hardener-HY 951 with the 10% E-glass fiber corbon and jute fibre as the reinforcement material with fiber weight fraction, 0+/- 900 fiber orientation. By using the Hand Layup fabrication technique the specimens are prepared and the fatigue tests conducted on E- glass fiber, carbon and jute fibre polymer composites fatigue strength evaluated. The tests are conducted under static tension and cyclic tension with mean fatigue stress equal to 10% of the E- glass fiber, corbon and jute fibre polymer composites tensile strength. The experimental results show the Gradually the cyclic load is applied for the 10% E-GFRP carbon and jute fibre Specimen, From the experimental results the cyclic load

@40243 CYCLES witp82.4MPa the E-Glass fibre polymer Composite at Failure ie 100% amount of E-Glass fibre cracks/delimitation takes place or fibre At Failure. Similarly Jute polymer Composite Fails at 23809 Cycles with 19.86 MPa and Carbon Fibre Composites Fails At 106cyclic Load witp100 MPa and compare with human Tebia bone.

Keywords Tension-Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, E-GFRP, corbon and jute fibre, tibia bone.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The development of composite materials and related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Many composites also exhibit great resistance to Fatigue loading. Fatigue is the Phenomena of material failure or it may be structural damage

    occurs when subjected to reparative loading or cyclic loading. In this paper elaborative study is done on the failure behavior of Carbon /E-glass/Jute fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites by tensile-tensile fatigue tests under a sinusoidal waveform loading at two different loading frequencies, 5 and 30 Hz, using a load amplitude control mode, and a ratio between minimum and maximum stress (R) of 0.1.

    The research is carried out to predict the fatigue life of the patients lower leg bones along with identifying the regions of the bones which are weaker in terms of strength of Tibia and Fibula bones of a patient suffering from lower leg pain [2]. Failure phenomena occur with increasing stress levels and duration, which can lead to material damage or degradation. The Mean Stress, Amplitude and orientation of the varying load with respect to fiber direction decide the characteristic of fibre cracks/delimitation[3]. The stress- controlled tensile fatigue behavior at a stress ratio of R = 0.1 were performed on GFRP composites, The fatigue life of the GFRP composite was increased by about three to four times due to the silica nanoparticles[4] .The influence of compressive, zero, and tensile mean strains on fatigue life and on the stress train histories during fatigue were examined on cortical bone specimen from human femora, The total number of cycles to fatigue failure was influenced only by the total strain range and was not affected by mean strain[5]. Fatigue failure of hybrid polymer which is prepared with the mixture of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) resin and polyester resin was analyzed to optimize the composition parameters and for the improvement of biocompatibility [6]. The effect of load interruptions on the fatigue behavior of (±45)2s angle-ply glass/epoxy composite laminates was investigated. Constant amplitude fatigue experiments were performed at different stress levels,The specimens loaded under interrupted fatigue exhibited longer fatigue live than those continuously loaded until failure [7]. The experimental results of the influence of water ageing on Glass fiber and Kevlar-fiber composites

    shows that the residual stiffness and residual strength decreased when the immersion time and cycle number of fatigue increased, indicating that the studied composites have experienced some forms of mechanical damage[8]. It was observed that moisture saturation has a detrimental stress-dependent effect on the fatigue strength of the epoxy/E-glass composite .The stiffness during the fatigue cycles was similar for both dry and water-saturated coupons [9]. Tension- Tension fatigue tests were performed on woven jute fibres with epoxy matrix composites with a constant fatigue stress ratio (R=0.1) and results obtained from the tests were used to plot S-N Curve [10].

  2. MATERIALS AND TEST METHODS

This chapter describes the details of processing of the composites and the experimental procedures followed for their characterization and fatigue evaluation. The raw materials used in this work are: E-glass fiber, corbon ,jute fibre and Epoxy resin.

    1. METHODOLOGY

      Characterization is carried out using Epoxy resin -LY556 as a matrix material, hardener -HY 951 and (a)10% Carbon fibres as the reinforcement material (with fiber weight fraction, 0±900 orientation ie orthotropic material) (b)10% Jute fibres as the reinforcement material (with fiber weight fraction, 0±900 orientation ie orthotropic material) (c)10% E-Glass fibres as the reinforcement material (with fiber weight fraction, 0±900 orientation ie orthotropic material by using Hand lay up technique.

      Figure: 2.1 Hand Lay Up Method

    2. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study is:

  1. To study the Fatigue behaviour E-GFRP, corbon and jute fibre composites implants.

  2. To report Fatigue behaviour with cyclic loads results.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

      1. PROPERTIES OF jute fibre Table 3.1: Properties of jute fibre

        Table 3.1: Physical and mechanical properties of Natural Fibers [60-61]

      2. PROPERTIES OF E-GFRP3.1.

    Fig:3.1 E-glass fibers

    Table 3.2: Mechanical properties of E-GLASS FIBER

    PROPERTY

    E-GLASS FIBER

    Density [g/cm3]

    2.58

    Tensile strength [N/mm2]

    1950 -2050

    Compression Strength [N/mm2]

    4000-5000

    Youngs modulus in N/mm2

    73

    Poissons ratio

    0.21

    Shear modulus in N/mm2

    5600

    Table 3.3: Mechanical properties of Carbon Fiber

    Density [g/cm3]

    PROPERTY

    CARBON FIBER

    1.298

    Tensile strength [N/mm2]

    600

    Compression Strength [N/mm2]

    570

    Youngs modulus in N/mm2

    113.0

    Poissons ratio

    0.320

    Shear modulus in N/mm2

    3200

    3.4. Specimen preparation

    After fabrication of E-GFRP Laminates, jute fibre Laminates, carbon fibre Laminates,These laminates are cut according to ASTM D3039 Standards by using a Trotec Speed300® laser device in the fibre direction. – Specimens of 250 mm in length and 25 mm in width 2.5 mm in thickness were prepared for tensile monotonic and fatigue testing. These dimensions are in agreement with the ASTM D3039 recommendations. After surface preparation (sanding then cleaning with acetone), tabs made with the same composite materials (40 mm in length, 15 mm in width and 1 mm in thickness) were bonded to the test specimens used a Loctite Super Glue 3 Gel adhesive.

    Fig 3.2: Specification of the Tensile Test Specimens as Per the ASTM D- 3039 Standard.

    Fiber

    Density (g/cm3)

    Elongation (%)

    Tensile Strength (MPa)

    Elastic Modulus (MPa)

    Jute

    1.3

    1.5-1.8

    393-773

    26500

    Hemp

    1.47

    2-4

    690

    70000

    Sisal

    1.5

    2.0-2.5

    511-635

    9400-22000

    Banana

    1.3

    3-3.2

    540-549

    29000-

    32000

    3.5 Digital-Fatigue-Testing-MachinesFTG-8D:-

    This is rotating beam type machine in which load is applied in reversed bending fashion. The standard specimen is held in special holders at its ends and located such that it experiences a uniform bending moment. The specimen is rotated at 4200 rpm by a motor. A complete cycle of reversed stresses in all fibres of the specimen is produced during each revolution. The bending moment is applied with the lever system and can be easily changed by moving a weight over the lever. Total number of revolution at which the specimen fails is recorded by a mechanical counter.

    Fig3.3 universal hydraulic fatigue testing machine

    TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.MODEL FTG 8(D):-

    Maximum bending movement kg cm ;Bending movement adjustable kg cm ; Ranges I & II kg cm 25 200kg cm 125 200;Gripping dia of specimen mm 12;

    Testing dimension of specimen mm–250X25X3mm Rotating speed rpm 4200;Accuracy of applied bending movement;Digital counter No. of digits 8;Power required HP

    0.5 Main supply 3hp, 440,V,50 Hz, A.C;Overall size (approx) mm 1000L.X.;Weight ( approx) kg 120

      1. Procedure of Tensile Fatigue Tests:- The tensile-tensile fatigue tests were performed under a sinusoidal waveform loading at two different loading frequencies, 5 and 30 Hz,

        using a load amplitude control mode, and a ratio between minimum and maximum stress (R) of 0.1.

        The experimental configuration (loading machine, specimen shape and preparation) was similar to monotonic tensile tests. Fatigue tests were performed in the fibre direction. Six levels of maximum stress were applied. The levels were 100,150,200,250,and 280 N for three replicates were tested at each stress level. Tests were stopped at failure. At 30 Hz, A complete cycle also recorded with fatigue load

        Fig3.4(a),(b),(c) Flat Fixture to hold the specimen according to ASTM D- 3039 Standard and Fixing the Fixture for Flat Specimen.

        Fig3.5 (a)Jute fibre composite (b) E-Glass fibre composite (c) Corbon fibre composite as Per the ASTM D-3039 Standard

        A. Fig3.6 Fatigue Test On Jute polymer Composite —- Failure @23809

        Cycles

      2. Types of Tests with ASTM Standards:

    B.

    Fig3.7 Carbon Polymer Composites Slipped From Jaw @57646 CYCLES At Failure And Also Continued The Experiment The Corbon Fibre Composites Fails At 106cyclic Load.

    Fig3.8Fatigue test on JUTE polymer composite @40243 CYCLES At Failure

    Fatigue experiments were performed by applying two types of loading patterns.

    1. Constant amplitude fatigue experiments were performed at different stress levels to derive base line fatigue data.

    2. In addition, interrupted-fatigue experiments were performed by removing the cyclic loading for two hours repetitively 3.After cycling for 20% of the fatigue life achieved under continuous loading at the same maximum cyclic stress level. The specimens loaded under interrupted fatigue exhibited longer fatigue live than those continuously loaded until failure.

    Table 3.4: Tensile -Tensile fatigue test Results.

    specime n

    stress

    Various cyclic load

    Status of Fibre delamination property

    Conclusion

    Jute polymer Compos ite (S1)

    19.86

    MPa

    Failure @23809 Cycles

    100% amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place or fibre At Failure

    100%Failure

    E-Glass fibre polymer Compos ite(S2)

    182.4

    MPa

    cyclic load Starting Point@00000 CYCLES

    Zero amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place

    0%Failure

    Cyclic load

    @10220

    CYCLES

    little amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place

    40%Failure

    Cyclic load

    @30388

    CYCLES

    80% amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place

    80%Failure

    Cyclic load

    @40243

    CYCLES fibre At Failure

    100% amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place or fibre At Failure

    100%Failure

    Carbon Polymer Compos ites(S3)

    1100

    MPa

    Carbon Polymer Composites Slipped From Jaw

    @57646

    CYCLES At

    Failure And Also Continued The Experiment The Corbon Fibre Composites Fails At 106cyclic Load

    100% amount of fibre cracks/delamination takes place or fibre At Failure

    100%Failure

    Table 3.4: Consolidated Tensile -Tensile fatigue test Stress, No of Cycles compared with Tibia Bone Fatigue Strength

    Material Properties

    Experimental In No of Cycles

    Stress

    Tibia Bone Fatigue Strength [2]

    Jute /Epoxy(S1)

    23809

    19.86 MPa

    18593

    Cycles of life for Diseased

    E-glass /Epoxy(S2)

    40243

    182.4MPa

    Carbon /Epoxy(S3)

    >106

    1100 MPa

    Experimental No of Cycles Numerical No of Cycles

    Experimental No of Cycles Numerical No of Cycles

    Experimental No of Cycles (x104)

    Experimental No of Cycles (x104)

    S1 S2 S3

    Composites

    Graph 3.1:-.shows Composites vs No of Cycles.

    Stress

    Stress

    1200

    1000

    800

    Stress (MPa)

    Stress (MPa)

    600

    400

    200

    0

    2.3809 4.0243 100

    No of Cycles (x104)

    Graph.3.2:shows Stress vs No of Cycles.

    Composites

    Composites

    S3

    Composites

    Composites

    S2

    S1

    2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

    No of Cycles (x104)

    Graph.3.3:shows Composites vs No of Cycles

  4. CONCLUSION

  1. According to experimental results, 10% Carbon fiers Polymer Composite Material of Fatigue test has Fatigue strength of 1100 MPa for specimen S3

    ,10% E-Glass fibers Polymer Composite Material of Fatigue strength of 182.4MPa for specimen S2 and 10% Jute fibers Polymer Composite Material of Fatigue strength of 19.86 MPa From these results it is found that Tebia Fatigue strength of 18593cycles of life for Deseaed.

  2. 10% Carbon fibers Polymer Composite Material of Highest Fatigue strength of 1100 MPa compare to other two specimen S1 and S2.Hence based on Fatigue strength recommending to the medical field.

  3. From the experimental results the cyclic load

    @40243 CYCLES witp82.4MPa the E-Glass fibre polymer Composite at Failure ie 100% amount of E- Glass fibre cracks/delamination takes place or fibre At Failure similarly. Jute polymer Composite Fails at 23809 Cycles with 19.86 MPa and Corbon Fibre Composites Fails At 106cyclic Load witp100 MPa and compare with human tebia bone ie 18593cycles of life for Deseaed.

  4. At Failure ie 100% amount of Jute fibre, E-Glass fibre, Corbon Fibre cracks/delamination takes place or fibre At Failure and also Under both loading patterns, failure was observed in the form of fiber pull-out; however, in specimens loaded continuously failure occurred with considerable necking. At low stress levels, failure with predominant fiber breakage under both loading patterns was observed the fiber stretching

REFERENCES

  1. www.Googlesearch.com

  2. ]FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF TIBIA AND FIBULA BONES USING FINITE ELEMENT METHODRishi Kumar Srivastava1, Syed Nizamulla2, J. Jagadesh Kumar3, G. Ravi Teja4 1,2Final Year B.Tech Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India 3Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidya Jyothi

    Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India 4Final Year M.Tech Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India.

  3. Evaluation and Modeling of the Fatigue Damage Behavior of Polymer Composites at Reversed Cyclic Loading Ilja Koch 1,_ , Gordon Just 1 , Martin Brod 2 , Jiuheng Chen 3 , Audrius Doblies 4 , Aamir Dean 2 , Maik Gude 1 , Raimund Rolfes 2 , Christian Hopmann 3 and Bodo Fiedler 4.

  4. The tensile fatigue behaviour of a silica nanoparticle-modified glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite C.M. Manjunatha , A.C. Taylor, A.J. Kinloch, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, U.K.

  5. Fatigue Behavior of Adult Cortical Bone: The Influence of Mean Strain and Strain Range Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica ISSN: 0001-6470 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/iort19 Dennis R. Carter, William

    E. Caler, Dan M. Spengler & Victor H. Frankel To cite this article: Dennis R. Carter, William E. Caler, Dan M. Spengler & Victor H. Frankel (1981) Fatigue Behavior of Adult Cortical Bone: The Influence of Mean Strain and Strain Range, Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 52:5, 481-490, DOI: 10.3109/17453678108992136 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.3109/17453678108992136Acta orthop. scand. 52, 481-490, 1981.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON FATIGUE STRENGTH OF THE JUTE FIBER REINFORCED HYBRID POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES P. Prabaharan GRACERAJ1, G. VENKATACHALAM2, A.Gautham SHANKAR3, Krishna KUMAR4U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 78, Iss. 1, 2016 ISSN 1454-2358.

  7. Effect of Loading Pattern on Fatigue Behavior of Laminated Composites Abdolvahid Movahedi-Rad, Thomas Keller and Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos *Composite Construction Laboratory (CCLab), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland; abdolvahid.movahedirad@epfl.ch (A.V.M.-R.); thomas.keller@epfl.ch (T.K.) * Correspondence: anastasios.vasilopoulos@epfl.ch; Tel.: +41-21-6936393 Presented at the 18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM18), Brussels, Belgium,15 July 2018. Published: 12 June 2018Proceedings 2018, 2, 438; doi:10.3390/ICEM18-05321 www.mdpi.com/journal/proceedings.

  8. Effect of Fatigue Testing and Aquatic Environment on the Tensile Properties of Glass and Kevlar Fibers Reinforced Epoxy Composites Menail Y1, Abderrahim EL Mahi2* and Assarar M3 1University of Badji Mokhtar, Sidi Ammar, LR3MI, BP 12, 23000, Annaba, Algeria 2University of Maine, LAUM, CNRS UMR 6613, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9, France 3University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, LISM, EA 4695, IUT de Troyes, 9 rue de Québec, 10026 Troyes Cedex, FranceJournal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering ISSN: 2168-9792 Menail et al., J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 2015, 4:3 DOI: 10.4172/2168- 9792.1000150

  9. Immersed Fatigue Performance of Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composites for Tidal Turbine Blade Applications R. Kennedy1,2

    S. B. Leen1,2 C. M. O ´ Bra´daigp Received.

  10. Fatigue Behaviour and Life Assessment of Jute-epoxy Composites under Tension-Tension Loading. Padmaraj N H1, Chethan K N1,Pavan1, Onkar Anand1 1Department of Aeronautical and Automobile Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal, India- 576104

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