Experimental Evaluation of Twisted Tube Solar Water Heater

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV12IS070041

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Experimental Evaluation of Twisted Tube Solar Water Heater

Anand Patel

Department of Mechanical Engineering LDRP- Institute of Technology & Research Gandhinagar, India

Abstract: Alternative energy sources are new option in the world to overcome energy crisis and pollution related issues. Solar energy, wind energy and biomass are three major sources and out of these three energy sources, solar energy is the easiest source to extract useful energy because wind energy can be useful, particularly in coastal areas where there is high wind velocity and energy extraction bio mass needs either chemical conversion or thermo chemical conversion process. Solar energy has wide applications in

solar heating, particular in water heating and air heating. The objective of present work is to design a new concept of solar water heater with twisted tubes and to evaluate its thermal performance using K type thermocouples.

KeywordsTwisted Tube Solar Water Heater, Alternative Energy, K type thermocoupl.


    Energy is the main driver of economic growth and essential to the survival of modern economies. Future economic growth will depend heavily on the long-term availability of energy from affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly technologies. A solar water heater or home solar water heater is a cheap and affordable way to bring hot water to your home. They use solar radiation or sunlight as fuel to heat water. This method of hot water heating is cheaper because you don't have to pay for heat from the sun. Solar water heaters are also called solar thermal systems. This device is used for energy addiction as most of our energy is generated by burning fossil fuels, causing many environmental problems. Harnessing solar energy requires a simple device to capture the heat of the sun. Solar hot water systems use this free energy to heat water. The boiled water can be used for various purposes such as bathing, cleaning, and washing. Installing a solar water heater will give you unlimited clean energy and lower your electricity bill.Chittireddy et al. [1] flat solar collector with AC cooler tested as a heat sink for a water heater with high density corrugated fins attached to the tubes. Kalogirou [2] studied the different types of solar collectors and their applications. Al-Madani [3] estimated that the thermal performance was comprehensively assessed in the months of March and April. Shivakumar et al.[4] performed experiments with an elliptical heat pipe solar collector designed, manufactured and tested for different mass flow rates and Lc/Le ratios.

    Mazron et al. [5] tested the feasibility of water heating with evacuated tube collectors at different operating temperatures. Ogie et al. [6] analyzed the design and construction of the HUW, in which water heats up and flows through the tank like a cooler.Rhushi Prasad et al. [7] compared the performance of a fixed plate water heater to a lag water heater by conducting experiments. Herrero Martin et al. [8] has developed an experimental test of side-by-side solar panels according to the requirements of the EN12975- 2 standard. Parent et al. [9] studied the operation of HX liners and hoses outside of a storage tank where fluid flow was induced by natural convection.Smith et al. [10] tested a coiled ribbon inserted into a tube to create a swirling flow. Shahidul Islam Khan et al. [11] collected year-round data on SWH performance for 100 liter and 200 liter capacities. Zohreh Rahimi-Ahar et al. [12] Flat-plate and concentrating solar collectors, integrated collection and storage systems, and solar water heaters combined with photovoltaic thermal modules, solar water heaters with solar-assisted solar heat pump, and solar water heaters with phase change materials are tested for their thermal efficiency, cost, energy efficiency, and exergy. Hussain Al-Madani [13] experimented with a cylindrical solar water heater and the efficiency of a cylindrical solar water heater was calculated.It was found that the maximum efficiency value during the experimental period was 41.8%. S. Rajasekaran focused in el[14] on the effects of different materials such as steel, copper and aluminum used for water pipes as part of a solar water heater. Jinesh APatel of El [15] developed a spiral solar water heater to evaluate thermal performance by increasing turbulence in the flow and comparing the results to a simple tubular solar water heater. PP Patil et al. [16] deal with the design of solar water heaters for domestic and industrial water heating applications.Hardik A. Parmar et al. [17] focused on the thermal efficiency of the solar water coil and also determined the variability of the efficiency values over time. Besma Chekchek et al. [18] built a solar water heater from plastic bottles and evaluated its thermal efficiency. Shivakumar et al. [19] studied the effect of the zigzag arrangement of existing distribution risers and the number of risers. Kulkarni et al. [20] studied the influence of piping on the overall performance of SWH. Ramasamy et al. [21] studied SWHs with rectangular and circular absorber fins. They attempted to improve heat transfer by increasing surface area while maintaining pressure relief and muzzle velocity. Sudhakar et al. [22] used four types of solar cell

    arrays and different forms of receivers to increase the efficiency of the SWH concentrator PV package. Mangesh,

    A. Pachkawade et al. [23] made a solar water heater from unconventional materials such as plastic side pipes, HDPE pipes, old glass wool, thermocol, plastic barrels, etc. and thermal performance rated.Prakash Kumar Sen et al. [24] focused on customer satisfaction with solar water heaters. From this study, it can be concluded that solar water heaters are the best due to the lack of electricity switching and environmental safety. JP Kesari et al. [25] discussed various methods to increase the efficiency of solar water heaters. Somasekhar T et al. [26] used Al2O3-H2O nanoparticles in a solar water heater to improve its thermal performance compared to a CuO nanofluid.H.I.Abu-Mulaweh [27] discussed the design and development of an experimental setup for a solar water heating system. A standardized test procedure is required to compare the effectiveness of different sensor types and to be able to design and select suitable devices. Sushil Tiwari et al. [28] reviewed various methods proposed by different researchers to increase the efficiency of a solar water heater.Ho et al. [29] performed an experimental and theoretical analysis of a recyclable flat solar water heater equipped with rectangular channels. D. Prakasz et al. Aluminum. [30] focused on the efficient use of solar energy by a new solar water heating system, where the heat flow in the internal structure is interrupted by appropriate ceiling insulation material.S. Sadishkumar et. al. [31] initiated a study on the possibility of using phase change materials (PCM) to store solar energy and use this energy at night to heat water for domestic needs. Ankit S Gujrathi et al. [32] attempted to use Ansys 15.0 Workbench software to model the parabolic trough collector and the PTC was designed for a concentration factor of 25. [33-36] Patel Anand et al. [37] HD Chaudhary et al. [38-46] Patel Anand et al. documents studies of various configuration of solar collector in solar air/water heater and solar cooker. Few other applications where solar energy utilized, and thermal performance enhancement was studies in [47-48] Patel Anand et. al for-Heat Exchanger. [49-53] heat transfer performance of solar water with twist tape inserts are evaluated using CFD. [54-63] includes research studies of combiation of twisted tabe within evacuated tubes of the solar water heater to enhance thermal performance of the system.


    Fig 1 CAD Model of Experimental Set up

    Plate 1 Twisted Tube

    Plate 2 Twisted Tubes with sand

    Plate 3 Twisted Tubes with Fixture

    Plate 4 Twisted Tubes Experimental Set Up

    In the present work using ½ copper pipes about 1 m length will be fabricated in pair and total 6 in numbers and fabricated with 0.5 m ½ diameter copper pipes at upper and lower ends after pipes are twisted for water entry and outlet, and whole assembly will be placed in the wooden box having dimensions of 1.1 m X 0.6m X 0.05 m and covered with 0.5 mm MS sheet at bottom as a absorber plate and 3 mm thick transparent glass cover at top To Twist the both pipes simultaneously pipes are filled with sand and using specially design fixture is used to twist pipes. The K type thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of water temperatures at inlet and outlet as well as body temperature too.



    Inlet water











    Temp Body

    Temperature Outlet


    11:00 11:01 11:50 12:00 12:30

    Fig 2 Variation in Temperature

    Time required to fill 1000 ml tank


    Mass Flow Rate Kg/s

    Qout kW

    Qin kW


























    Table 1 Result Table

    Figure 2 shows temperature variation of water inlet, water outlet and body with respect to time while Table 1 shows results of experimental work. Here due to twisted pipe and flow of water is divided in two pipes and as there is turbulence in the flow water flow rate is low and which enhances the temperature of water also water is divided in two pipes less quantity of water heater with more quantity of heat.


The best outcome the present work is that to enhance the thermal performance of solar water heater is that to create turbulence in the flow plays important role in improvement in thermal performance.




Qout = Heat gain by water, Qin = Heat incident upon solar water heater

I = Intensity of solar radiation, A= surface Area, m

= mass flow of water

Cp= Specific Heat of water, T = water outlet (T2)- water inlet Temperature (T1)

[1] Chittireddy V R, Elsawy A & Idem S, Study of a flat plate solar collector with an air conditioner radiator as a heat absorber for a domestic water Heater, Volume 1(16) 2018

[2] Kalogirou S A, Solar thermal collectors and applications, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Volume 30, 2004.

[3] Al-Madani H, The performance of a cylindrical solar water heater, Renewable Energy, Volume 31, 2006.

[4] Sivakumar K, Mohan N J & Sivaraman B, Performance analysis of elliptical heat pipe solar collector, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 4, 2011.

[5] Mazarrón F R, Porras-Prieto C J, García J L & Benavente M R, Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 113, 2016.

[6] Ogie N A, Oghogho I & Jesumirewhe J, Design and Construction of a Solar Water Heater Based on the Thermosyphon Principle, Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, Volume 3 2013.

[7] Potthuru R P, Byregowda H V & Gangavati P, Experiment analysis of flat plate collector and comparison of performance with tracking collector, European Journal of Scientific Research, Volume 40, 2010.

[8] Martin R H, Pinar A G & García J P, Experimental Heat Transfer Research in Enhanced Flat-Plate Solar Collectors, in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress 2011

[9] Taherian H, Rezania A, Sadeghi S & Ganji D D, Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 52, 2011

[10] Eiamsa-ard S & Promvonge P, Enhancement of heat transfer in a tube with regularly-spaced helical tape swirl generators, Solar Energy,

Volume 78 2005

[11] Shahidul Islam Khan, Asif Islam, Performance Analysis of Solar Water Heater, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Volume 2, 2011

[12] Zohreh RahimiAhar, Mehdi Khiadani Leile Rahimi Ahar, Abdellah

Shafieian, Performance evaluation of single stand and hybrid solar water heaters: a comprehensive review, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 2023.

[13] Hussain Al-Madani, The performance of a cylindrical solar water heater, Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 17511763

[14] S.Rajasekaran, M.Chandrasekar, T.Senthil Kumar, Performance Analysis Of Coated Solar Flat Plate Collector, International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies For Automobiles,

Special Issue 6: March 2015

[15] Jignesh A. Patel Tejendra B. Patel Dr. Sadanand Namjoshi, Comparative Study of Thermal Performance of Spiral Tube Solar Water Heater with Straight Tube Solar Water Heater, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Volume 3, 2015

[16] P. P.Patil, Dr. D. S. Deshmukh, Design Considerations for Flat Plate Solar Water Heater System Vol.3, No. 2, June 2015 ISSN (Print) 2277-7261

[17] Hardik A. Parmar, Ravi K. Dayata, Dr. Sadanand Namjoshi, Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance of Serpentine Solar Water Heater, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Volume. 3, 2015

[18] Besma Chekchek, Mohamed Salm, Abdelhakim Boursas, Giulio Lorenzini, Hijaz Ahmad, Younes Menni, Houari Ameur, Merzaqa Merrah, Djamal Fridja, Experimental Study of the Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Construction from Recycled Plastic Bottles , International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics , volume 16, 2021

[19] Sivakumar, P., Christraj, W., Sridharan, M., Jayamalathi, N, Performance improvement studies of solar water heating system.

ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., Volume 7,2012

[20] Kulkarni, M.M., Deshmukh, D, Design of experiment for solar water heater performance analysis. Pratibha, International Journal of Science, Spirituality, Business and Technology Volume 3, . 2015..

[21] Ramasamy, S., Balashanmugam, P. Thermal performance analysis of the solar water heater with circular and rectangular absorber fins. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 21, 2015.

[22] Sudhakar, M., Prasad, R., Ravinthiran, A., Dutt, P.,Chakaravarthi,

M.A , Performance improvement of trough concentrating photovoltaic thermal system: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 16, 2019

[23] Mangesh.A.Pachkawade, Pritam.R.Nimkar ,Balu.K.Chavhan, Design and Fabrication of Low Cost Solar Water Heater, International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development,

Volume 6, 2013

[24] Prakash Kumar Sen, Nishita Kispotta ,Shailendra Kumar Bohidar, Study on Solar Water Heater and Its System Performance, International Journal of Advance Research In Science And Engineering, Volume 4, 2015

[25] Dr. J.P Kesari, Siddharth Garg, Tanishq Gupta, Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems, International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science, Voume 3, 2021

[26] Somasekhar T, Naveen Kishore P, M.V. Kishore3, Design and Development of Solar Water Heater to Enhance Thermal Efficiency,

International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology, Volume 10, 2022

[27] H. I. Abu-Mulaweh, Design and development of solar water heating system experimental apparatus, Global Journal of Engineering Education, Volume 14, 2012.

[28] Sushil Tiwari, Dr. Himanshu Agrawal, A Review: Experimental performance study on solar water heating system for increasing heat transfer, IJARIIE, Volume 5, 2019

[29] Ho, C., Chen, T., and Tsai, C., Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Re-Cyclic Flat-Plate Solar Water Heaters Equipped With Rectangle Conduits, Renewable Energy, Volume 35, 2010

[30] D Prakash, Thermal analysis of building roof assisted with water heater and insulation material, Indian Academy of Sciences, 2018.

[31] S. Sadhishkumar, "Thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar Collector with and without phase change material", Indian Journal Sciences, 20(2), 193-201, 2018.

[32] Ankit S. Gujrathi, Sachin P. Ingale, Sudhir U. Patil, Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector using Ansys Fluent Software, Volume 5,2017.

[33] Anand Patel and Sadanand Namjoshi, Phase change material based solar water heater, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention., vol. 5, no. 8, August 2016.

[34] Anand Patel, Divyesh Patel, Sadanand Namjoshi (2018); Thermal Performance Evaluation of Spiral Solar Air Heater; Int J Sci Res Publ 5(9) (ISSN: 2250-3153). http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper- 0915.php?rp=P454598

[35] Patel A, Parmar H, Namjoshi S 2016 Comparative thermal performance studies of serpentine tube solar water heater with straight tube solar water heater. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) 13 7983.

[36] Patel, Anand et al."Thermal Performance Analysis of Fin Covered Solar Air Heater", "International Journal of Engineering Science and Futuristic Technology" (2017).

[37] HD Chaudhary, SA Namjoshi, A Patel, Effect of Strip Insertion on Thermal Performance Evaluation in Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater with Different Inner Tube Diameter REVISTA GEINTEC- GESTAO INOVACAO E TECNOLOGIAS, Volume 11, Issue 3,

Page- 1842-1847

[38] Anand Patel. "Effect of Inclination on the Performance of Solar Water Heater." International Journal for Scientific Research and Development 11.3 (2023): 413-416.

[39] Patel, Anand. "The Performance Investigation of Square Tube Solar Water Heater", International Journal of Science & Engineering Development Research (www.ijsdr.org), ISSN:2455-2631, Vol.8, Issue 6, page no.872 – 878, June-2023, Available


[40] Anand Patel. ""Comparative Thermal Performance Investigation of Box Typed Solar Air heater with V Trough Solar Air Heater"".

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention

[41] (IJESI), Vol. 12(6), 2023, PP 45-51. Journal DOI- 10.35629/6734"

[42] Patel, Anand, et al. Comparative Thermal Performance Evaluation of U Tube and Straight Tube Solar Water Heater. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES), vol. 11, no. 6, June 2023, pp. 34652. www.ijres.org/index.html.

[43] Patel, A., Namjoshi, Dr. S., & Singh, S. K. (2023). Comparative Experimental Investigation of Simple and V-Shaped Rib Solar Air Heater. International Journal of All Research Education and Scientific Methods (IJARESM), 11(6), 24556211.

http://www.ijaresm.com/uploaded_files/document_file/Anand_PatelY Hv7.pdf.

[44] Anand Patel, "Comparative Thermal Performance Analysis of Circular and Triangular Embossed Trapezium Solar Cooker with and without Heat Storage Medium", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 12 Issue 7, July 2023, pp. 376-380, https://www.ijsr.net/getabstract.php?paperid=SR23612004356

[45] Patel, Anand. Experimental Investigation of Oval Tube Solar Water Heater With Fin Cover Absorber Plate. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science, Technology & Engineering, vol. 12, issue no. 7, July 2023, pp. 1926, doi:10.55948/IJERSTE.2023.0704.

[46] Patel, Anand. Comparative Thermal Performance Evaluation of V- shaped Rib and WShape Rib Solar Air Heater. International Journal

of Research Publication and Reviews, vol. 14, issue no. 7, July 2023, pp. 103339.

[47] Patel, Anand. Comparative Thermal Performance Analysis of Box Type and Hexagonal Solar Cooker", International Journal of Science

& Engineering Development Research (www.ijsdr.org), ISSN:2455- 2631, Vol.8, Issue 7, page no.610 – 615, July-2023, Available: http://www.ijsdr.org/papers/IJSDR2307089.pdf.

[48] Patel, AK, & Zhao, W. "Heat Transfer Analysis of Graphite Foam Embedded Vapor Chamber for Cooling of Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles." Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Heat Transfer Summer Conference. Volume 1: Aerospace Heat Transfer; Computational Heat Transfer; Education; Environmental Heat Transfer; Fire and Combustion Systems; Gas Turbine Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment; Heat Transfer in Energy Systems. Bellevue, Washington, USA. July 912, 2017.

V001T09A003. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT2017-4731

[49] Anand Patel, "Thermal Performance Investigation of Twisted Tube Heat Exchanger", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 12 Issue 6, June 2023, pp. 350-353, https://www.ijsr.net/getabstract.php?paperid=SR23524161312, DOI: 10.21275/SR23524161312

[50] Keguang Yao, Tong Li, Hanzhong Tao, Jiajie Wei, Ke Feng, Performance Evaluation of All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater with Twist Tape Inserts Using CFD, Energy Procedia, Volume 70,2015, Pages 332-339, ISSN 1876-6102,

[51] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.131. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S18766102150025 32).

[52] J. Ananth, S. Jaisankar, Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heating system fitted with regularly spaced twistd tape with rod and spacer, Energy Conversion and Management, 73 (2013), pp. 207-213.

[53] R.S. Tang, W.F. Gao, Y.M. Yu, H. Chen, Optimal tilt-angles of all- glass evacuated tube solar collectors, Energy, 34 (2009), pp. 1387- 1395.

[54] S. Jaisankar, T.K. Radhakrishnan, K.N. Sheeba, S. Suresh, Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of Left-Right twisted tapes, Energy Conversion and Management, 50 (2009), pp. 2638-2649.

[55] A. Kumar, B.N. Prasad, Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters-heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results, Renew Energy, 19 (2000), pp. 379-398.

[56] N. Gunasekaran, P. Manoj Kumar, S. Raja, S. Sharavanan, K. Avinas,

P. Aakash Kannan, S. Gokul, Investigation on ETC solar water heater using twisted tape inserts, Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 47, Part 15, 2021, Pages 5011-5016, ISSN 2214-7853, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.04.586. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S22147853210351 24).

[57] P.M. Kumar, S. Arunthathi, S.J. Prasanth, T. Aswin, A.A. Antony, D. Daniel, D. Mohankumar, P.N. Babu, Investigation on a desiccant based solar water recuperator for generating water from atmospheric air, Mater. Today-Proc. (2021), 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.506.

[58] V.S. Chandrika, A. Karthick, N.M. Kumar, P.M. Kumar, B. Stalin, M. Ravichandran, Experimental analysis of solar concrete collector for residential buildings, Int. J. Green. Energy., 18 (2021), pp. 615-623, 10.1080/15435075.2021.1875468.

[59] P.M. Kumar, K. Mylsamy

[60] Experimental investigation of solar water heater integrated with a nanocomposite phase change material, J. Therm. Anal. Calrim., 136 (1) (2019), pp. 121-132, 10.1007/s10973-018-7937-9.

[61] D.A. Redpath, A. Abdollahi, Thermal characteristics analysis of a phase change material under the influence of nanoparticles, Mater. Today-Proc. (2021), 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.505.

[62] P. Gang, L. Guiqiang, Z. Xi, J. Jie, S. Yuehong, Investigating thermal properties of Nanoparticle Dispersed Paraffin (NDP) as phase change material for thermal energy storage, Sol. Energy., 56 (2016), pp. 80- 96, 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.800.

[63] P.M. Kumar, K. Mylsamy, A comprehensive study on thermal storage characteristics of nano-CeO2 embedded phase change material and its influence on the performance of evacuated tube solar water heater,

Renew. Energ., 162 (2020), pp. 662-676, 10.1016/j.renene.2020.08.122.

[64] A. Arabkoohsar, M. Khosravi, A.S. Alsagri, Effect of various twisted- tape designs on the thermal and environmental performance of line- heaters in city gate stations, Inter. J. Heat. Mass. Trans., 148 (2020), Article 119123.

[65] G.L. Morrison, I. Budihardjo, M. Behnia, Investigations on an evacuated tube solar water heater using hybrid-nano based organic Phase Change Material, Int. J. Green. Energy., 17 (13) (2020), pp. 872-883, 10.1080/15435075.2020.1809426.