Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR): An Effective Technique for NOx Emission Reduction of Waste Cooking-Oil Biodiesel

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Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR): An Effective Technique for NOx Emission Reduction of Waste Cooking-Oil Biodiesel

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*Hosam Maher Abdelnabi1, Mostafa Fathy Abdelkhalek2, Mahmoud Mohamed Kamal3, Adham Mohamed Abdelkader4 1,4Department of Automotive Engineering,

2,3Department of Mechanical Power Engineering -Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. Cairo. Egypt.

Abstract:- Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly alternative diesel fuel. In the present study, biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was prepared using the usual transesterification process. Experiments performed on a single cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fueled with different mixed concentrations of biodiesel and diesel fuel, including B0, B10, B20 and B30.

The effect of a water cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates as 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% on diesel engine performance characteristics and exhaust emission were investigated.

The results show that with increase of % EGR rates, value of CO emissions increases but values of NOx and EGT decrease. Whereas 25% EGR exhibited reduction in both of NOx emission and BSFC by 71% and 45% respectively, 30% EGR demonstrated a slight reduction in both of NOx emission and BSFC as 72% and 23% respectively with respect to the pure petroleum diesel.

The recommended EGR is 25% which exhibited highest reduction in BSFC and NOx emission.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Exhaust gas recirculation, NOx emission


In the recent past decades, many experts expect that the coming conflicts and wars between countries will revolve greatly around crude oil energy because of its limitation and cost, therefore exploring new clean energy resources instead of petroleum- based products has become more important and necessary than ever. Biodiesel is considered as an alternative energy resource in place of traditional fuel diesel as it is characterized with its renewability, inhibition of soot formation and potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions [1] [2].

Biodiesel fuel could be obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats such as soybeans, Jatropha, sunflowers, palm and waste cooking oil (WCO) [3]. One of many biodiesel derived from various resources, biodiesel from (WCO) started to attract significant attention of researchers, governments and industries because of its economical preparation using usual transesterification process and reduction of waste oil disposal which considered as a valuable recycling process [4]. Whereas the biodiesel are typically associated with low CO and HC emission, the NOx emission is high according to the environmental law [5]. The most widely accepted mechanism of NOx formation was investigated by Zeldovich [1]. It is reported that the two main toxic pollutants (NO and NO2) are emitted together as NOx and directly affected with the operating temperature [6]. An effective technique for NOx reduction in the exhaust gases is the usage of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This technique was initially presented at the University of Birmingham [7] which based on recirculation a part of exhaust gases to the engine then blending the fresh intake air with the recirculated exhaust gas leading to lowering the excess oxygen and reduction of the adiabatic flame temperature.

Many researches were conducted with EGR by various approaches like: the variations in the engine geometry, less reaction time, compression ratio and temperature associated with the biodiesel [8] [9]. EGR classification was based on the temperature as hot, partly and fully cooled EGR [10]. In this work, a fully cooled EGR is conducted and its effects on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a DI Diesel engine were investigated.

Formation of NOX in Diesel EngineEFFECTS OF THE OXIDES OF NITROGEN2.1 Fuel materials2.2 Instrument setup3.1 NOx emissions3.2 CO emissions3.3 Exhaust Gas TemperatureB0 B10 B20 B30Tex (K)3.5 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC)4.1 Conclusion:4.2 Recommendations:4.3 Future work:

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