Evaluation Study of Sustainable Recycling for Solid Waste Materials: A Case Study

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Evaluation Study of Sustainable Recycling for Solid Waste Materials: A Case Study

Monaem Elmnifi Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Bright Star University Libya

Hazim Moria

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology

Yanbu Industrial College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah City, 41912 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Abdulmula Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Malaysia

Shahid Hussain Abro

NED University of Engineering and Technology

Department of Materials Engineering Pakistan

Mohammed N. Alghamdi Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology

Yanbu Industrial College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah City, 41912 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

A.M. Elbreki

College of Electrical and Electronic Technology-Benghazi Libya

AbstractSolid-waste recycling in Libya is helpful, relying almost entirely on oil production, preserving its natural reserves, and boosting its economy. Many are still hesitant due to the lack of understanding of the economic feasibility and environmental benefits of solid waste recycling in Libya, which needs to rebuild its entire infrastructure. This research focuses on the economic and ecological potential of recycling solid waste, according to Libyan plans 2012-2030. The estimation indicated that by 2030, 268,000 tons of waste paper would be recovered in Libya. Expected benefits of solid waste include increasing the country's GDP by about USD 734,000, creating new jobs about 1,134, and a lower value of 0.57 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions during 2012-2030.

KeywordsLibya State; Solid-waste recycling; economic feasibility; Environment Conservation.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Libya is located in northern Africa, between 18º to 33º north latitude and 9º to 25º east longitude. It is the eighth largest oil-producing country in the world. The Libyan economy is based on the oil sector funded too socially and economically over the past forty years. Migration rural to urban areas internally and increasing the number of workers from outside the country have increased the urban population. For the last 35 years, Libya's population growth at a rate of 2.2% annually. Approximately the total population is 5,8 million in 2012 [1]. Most people's concentration in cities increases Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in major cities, which created a major environmental and health problem, as there are no real solutions to get rid of it [1,2]. This paper aims to focus on the possibilities on the economic and ecological potential of recycling the solid waste in Libya to benefit from it in generating electricity or any other industries that contribute to the increase of the country's GDP according to the Libyan plan 2012-2030.

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is known as a vital recycling material and energy source. The MSW is beneficial for an immense and unquestionable like Libya and other oil- producing countries, saving their natural reserves in different oil-producing states [2]. In Libya, the MSW practices solve the landfill site conflict by the waste should not be dumped on

    land. The recycling program is done on low-cost land because this accomplishment is unachievable [2-4]. The recycling process currently works as a label metals collector and trash sorters cardboard through a rubbish container on a large scale. It produces about 2.4 million tons per year with a usual quantity of 1.3 kg/day; the MSW data is shown in Table 1. The wastes production in Libya include organic materials 56.3%, paper13.5%, plastics 10%, mineral 3.7%, glass 2.6%, wood 2.8%, textile 10.8% [7]. The average production rate is due to the lack of community-wide environmental awareness programs that help minimize MSW production and enhance recycling. WTE technology is a vital source of a renewable form of electricity that is much eco-friendly than other US EPA sources [8]. WTE minimizes 80% reduction in mass and 90% reduction in volume, as MSW amount deposited at landfill areas [9]. Incineration reduces the odor emission of methane and leachate formation. According to global warming, perspective 21 times methane more harmful than carbon dioxide (CO2) [10-11]. The waste deposited areas fully occupy most of the Libyan land. With an additional dumping area, the number of undesirable by-products like leachate, sludge, methane, and other odor emissions and all health hazards increasing [12].

    TABLE I. LIBYA'S POTENTIAL DATA FOR MSW

    Years

    Citizen (pears)

    Waste Indicators (kg/pres/day)

    Waste Quantity (kg/pres/day)

    Waste Quantity (ton/year)

    Waste Cumulative Amount

    2012

    5878100

    1.3

    7641530

    2789158

    2789158

    2015

    6759815

    1.3

    8787759

    3207532

    5996690

    2020

    7773787

    1.3

    10105923

    3688325

    9685015

    2025

    8939855

    1.3

    11621812

    4241665

    13926680

    2030

    10280833

    1.3

    13365083

    4878225

    18804905

    Recycling in Libya is nearly insignificant, and non- governmental and private sectors rule recycling in Libya. It is found that neither national nor local government had the official accounts that legalize the private recycling sector; not even the companies allowed guaranteeing their compliance with health and environmental regulations. As a result, this

    provides a low recycling rate as compared to the generation of recyclables. Table 2 shows that the recycling process in Libyan cities, which is summarized in a simple concept. It mainly focuses on removing impurities, then cutting and pressing after packing or selecting production-based, as shown in Figure 1. Then what is manufactured and shipped to recycling firms in Libya is genuinely concentrated on recyclable materials. It is used as a raw material for other manufacturing industries, very cheap as non-recyclable raw materials. As it turns out, some recycling factories primarily deal with different plastic materials like plastic bags, sheets, and bottles, having second priority to processed cardboard, paper, and metal cans.

    TABLE II. RECOVERABLE POTENTIAL RATE OF RECYCLING MATERIALS

    Description

    Recovery Rate %

    Tissues

    30

    Plastic

    60

    Paper and cardboard

    60

    Metal

    85

    Glass

    50

  2. METHODOLOGY

    Forecasting the MSW recycling faces many variables, which are challenges that affect forecasting accuracies, such as growing population, urbanization rate, public awareness, living standards, legal and organized outline, and the country's monetary conditions. The plan 2012-2030 has considered that the countrys population growth is increasing at a rate of 2.2% every year. This rate's choice reflects the average population growth for five decades and the probabilistic financial development that will result from the country's 2030 plan. The expected average rate of local solid waste generation percapita was 1.3 kg daily. Recycling waste can generate significant financial assistance for the Libyan state if properly succeeded and well used.

    Fig. 1. Process of preparing materials for recycling [2]

    Fig. 1. Process of preparing materials for recycling [2]

    Papers are the most usable and popular materials used in packaging, come in different shapes and colors, and are referred to as grooved boards. The materials are recyclable from different factories like cartoon packaging instead of dumping the recycling process to save money. Recycling paper is the reuse of solid multi-layer papers or thicker boards that are known as waste. Cardboards are made up of recyclable products, including cartons and waste printing paper and boxes. Further analysis was made of the potential for the recovery of waste paper to estimate recycling's economic viability. The study was identifying the cost of paper recycling in Libya [13]. The information calculated the profitable benefits of recovering paper waste in Libya, as illustrated in Tables 3 and 4. The paper waste generation tables' predictable data was used to acknowledge the employment opportunities in the recovered paper industry, the total market paper waste value, and its contribution to Libyan domestic income up to 2030. The annual average waste paper recovery rate is 75%, with the expectation that the prices of recovered paper will increase annually at a rate of 2%. Waste paper recovery gives high environmental benefits over the life of the paper. The presented data in Table 5 acknowledged the functions of the recycled industry in Libya.

    TABLE III. COST OF WORKERS IN PAPER RECYCLING FOR ONE SITE

    Job Description

    Job Requirements

    Number

    Salary ($)

    Total Salary ($)

    Production Supervisor

    Supervision & Control

    1

    1100

    1100

    Labor Operation

    Production & Processing

    5

    800

    4000

    Production Manager

    Project Management

    1

    1500

    1500

    Total per year

    6600 dollars/month

    TABLE IV. MATERIALS COST FOR A LIBYAN CITY

    Material description

    Quantity

    Unit ($)

    Cost ($/20 ton)

    Chemicals & Reagents

    40 kg

    0.83

    33.2

    Abiotic Acid

    0.36 ton

    363

    130.68

    Paper-Making Additives (pulp)

    3.6 ton

    272

    979.2

    Mixed Cardboard

    16 ton

    70

    1120

    Total per year

    2263.08 dollars/year

    TABLE V. ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF REUSING THE PAPER INSTEAD OF RAW MATERIALS FOR NEW PAPER PRODUCTION [14,15]

    Parameter

    2012

    2015

    2020

    2025

    2030

    Recycled paper

    Saving

    Wood use, trees

    9.6

    11

    12.7

    14.6

    16.8

    0

    16.8

    Total energy, oil barrel

    3.1

    3.6

    4.1

    4.7

    5.4

    3.8

    1.6

    GHG, million ton of CO2 equivalent per year

    1.1

    1.2

    1.4

    1.7

    1.9

    1.33

    0.57

    Water usage, m3

    23

    26

    30

    35

    40

    28

    12

    Solid waste, kg

    445

    512

    588

    677

    778

    544

    234

  3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    1. Waste Recycling Possibility

      Fig. 2. Recycling potential materials from 2012 to 2030

      Fig. 2. Recycling potential materials from 2012 to 2030

      The potential recycling results forecast four materials, such as textiles, plastic, glass, and paper, to all parts from 2012- 2030. The total recyclable waste materials produced in Libya in 2012 were about 2.7 million tons. It is expected to be reached nearly 4.8 million tons in 2030, as shown in Figure 2. The glass waste production for the year 2012 was estimated at 380 thousand tons and is expected to reach 646 Thousand tons in 2030. Textiles production was about five Thousand tons in 2012, and it is estimated to reach nine Thousand tons in 2030. Plastic waste was around 11.5 Thousand tons in 2012 and is expected to reach 20.1 Thousand tons in 2030. Paper waste was estimated at 153.4 Thousand tons in 2012, and it is expected to reach 268.3 Thousand tons in 2030.

      Recovered materials have great benefits if utilized well, originate significant GDP revenues, and provide excellent employment opportunities. According to research and studies, recycling in Libya is almost non-existent [2]. From recyclable waste, Libya is losing its economic opportunities. Moreover, waste recycling has a significant influence on environmental impacts. It can drastically reduce the adverse ecological effects of municipal solid waste [16-17]. As paper recovery can significantly contribute to a country's GDP growth, it provides more job opportunities and opens up surplus economic investment occasions. Table 6 shows the direct financial potential profits of paper recovery in Libya by 2030.

      TABLE VI. POTENTIAL ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM PAPER RECYCLING FROM 2012 TO 2030

      Parameter

      2012

      2030

      Collected paper value, $

      10.7 million

      18.7 million

      contribution to the country GDP, $

      238520

      734867

      The number of jobs in the paper industry

      653

      1143

    2. Challenges in Recycling Waste

      The MSW management process in Libya faces problems in integrated management and the lack of suitable recycling systems. Probably a small proportion of MSW recycling, and the rest is disposed of landfills. Moreover, the country is losing opportunities to invest in the recycling and reuse of waste. Among the difficulties facing paper recycling in Libya:

      • The policy of exporting recycled materials needs legislation from the government.

      • There is no sorting of municipal solid waste from the population and lack of community awareness programs to reduce industrial to household-level waste.

      • Waste disposal in landfills is difficult to sort and reduce waste by waste producers.

      • The mechanism for collecting and exhuming waste in landfills is a usual practice, and along with substantial risks to health and safety.

  4. CONCLUSION

Managing MSW that converts waste into energy in Libya to solve disposal problems and balance the deficit in electricity. If the paper is recycled in the country, it could contribute about 734 thousand US dollars to Libya's economy and creating new job opportunities of about 1134. An amount of 1.6 million barrels of crude oil and 0.57 million tons of carbon dioxide could be saved from greenhouse gas emissions from 2012 to 2030. However, waste recycling, paper recycling industries, and energy generation from waste are still almost non-existent in Libya. It requires effective measures and well-organized plans to support, enhance, and protect the recycling industries.

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