Evaluation of Strength Characteristics of Steel Slag Concrete

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Evaluation of Strength Characteristics of Steel Slag Concrete




Hardeep Singh




Rajwinder Singh Bansal

PG Scholar, Dept of Civil Engineering, Ramgarhia Institute Engineering & Technology, Punjab, India.

Associate Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering, Ramgarhia Institute of Engineering & Technology, Punjab, India.

Abstract: In the present study tests are allotted in 2 phases. within the initial section of tests, the amount improvement of raw materials like ash and hydraulic lime is created therefore on get a best binding material that resembles the standard binder, the cement. the standard procedure followed to characterize the standard cement is adopted during this section of tests and best material composition was received. The lime content within the lime-fly ash combine was varied as 20, 35, 50,65, 80 and 100 percent. Mortar cubes were created with lime- ash mix (as mentioned above) and Ground granulated blast furnace slag as fine mixture within the proportions of 1:2 and 1:3. The compressive strengths of those cubes were determined once 3days, 7days 28 days and 60days of curing period. From the on top of series of tests the optimum combine was noticed. within the second section of tests, concrete specimens were ready with taking steel slag as coarse mixture, ground granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate and binder that's found to best performance from the take a look at of section one. two compositions of on top of raw materials were taken that's 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:4 and therefore the compressive strength, flexural strength and strength were determined adopting typical testing procedure. to search out out the result of curing period on the compressive strength, flexural tensile strength and split tensile strength the samples were cured for seven days and twenty eight days and tested. From the current study following conclusion were drawn: Initial setting time, final setting time and consistency of fly ash and lime powder (binder) are found to be more than the standard Portland cement. The compressive strength of mortar ready from lime, ash and GGBFS was low throughout early stages of activity, however it achieved virtually a similar strength as of traditional cement mortar when fifty six days.

KeywordsGGBFS, Mortar Cubes, Steel slag concrete.


    Concrete is that the most well-liked and also the single largest building material used by the construction industry. Concrete is essentially made from aggregates, each fine and coarse, pasted by a cement paste that is formed of cement and water. all of those constituents of concrete features a negative environmental impact and provides rise to completely different property problems. This concrete construction apply is unsustainable as a result of, not only it consumes huge quantities of stones, sand, and drink, however additionally one billion tons a year of cement, that isn't an setting friendly material. For production of cement large quantity of energy is required and regarding 8% of CO2 is free to atmosphere throughout cement production. In fact, several by- product

    and solid wastes is utilized in concrete mixes as aggregates or cement replacement, reckoning on their chemical and physical characterization, if adequately treated. The industry slag having fascinating qualities and might be used as coarse aggregates in concrete construction. Graf and Grube have reportable that the bottom coarse blast furnace slag cured properly has lower permeableness .

    The incorporation of ash and blast furnace slag in concrete results in several technical advantages. once two mineral admixtures are used along, higher results will continually attain. the utilization of such industrial by-product or waste matter having fascinating qualities may result in saving of energy and standard materials. With increase in population, the demand for construction of residential and public buildings is additionally increasing. The iron and industry produces very massive amounts of slag as by-product of the iron creating and steelmaking processes. As helpful recycled materials, iron and steel creating slag ar mainly utilized in fields associated with civil engineering, as an example, in cement, bed material, and concrete combination. Their exercise quantitative relation is about to 100%, creating a very important contribution to the creation of a recycling- oriented society. However, structure comes, that's powerfully associated with recycled fields, tend to be reduced recently and, moreover, alternative recycled materials, like reused bed materials and ash, become competition of slag in the fields. Thus, the event of latest application technologies has become an urgent matter.


    Prevent the exhaustion of natural resources and enhancing the usage of waste materials has become a main drawback of the fashionable world. Million loads of waste materials get being as results of among a year. A restricted variety of studies are done regarding the protection of natural resources, interference of environmental pollution and contribution to the economy by exploitation this waste product. as luck would have it we've got simply such a material – concrete, and most of the essential analysis has been done to modify concrete to fill this role. The use of Steel slag concrete as a replacement to standard concretes us of recent origin. It uses largely the waste product of industries additionally to it its production needs no burning of fossils fuels therefore no emission of polluting gasses like CO2 and SO2 etc. This chapter reviews the work done by prior investigator concerning the manufacture of Steel slag concrete and its properties.

    A.Steel Slag

    Extraction of iron from ores may be a complicated method requiring variety of different materials that are added as flux or catalysts. once creating steel these ingredients forming a matrix are to be periodically clean up. Removed in bulk, it's called steel slag. It consists of silicates and oxides. fashionable integrated steel plants turn out steel through basic chemical element method. Some steel plants use electric discharge chamber smelting to their size. within the case of former exploitation oxygen method, lime (CaO) and dolomite (CaO.Mgo) are charged into the device or chamber as flux. Lowering the launce, injection of upper pressurised oxygen is accomplished.


    Blast furnace slag may be a by-product from the manufacture of iron in a furnace. The liquid iron blast furnace is lighter in weight than the most product that is iron during a melted state. The furnace can naturally separate from the iron wherever it's collected and cooled with great amount of cold water. This extinguishing method leads to the transformation of liquid into tiny sized particles having amorphous particles structure. Following associate economical drying method, the particles ar ground to the required fineness and therefore the material gain a building material property. the most chemical composition of GGBFS is SiO2 Al2O3 and CaO. once GGBFS is additional to concrete in powered type it accelerates the pozzolanic reaction.

    C.Fly Ash

    In several disposal areas, fly ash is hauled from the plant and disposed loose by tailgating over the edge of fly ash slope. The resulting mound usually is unpleasant and expensive to remain steep fly ash slopes and lack of adequate drain often lead to slides, that intrude on ensuing properties, cause erosions and silts up close streams. In wet disposal system, 10 ash and bottom ash are mixed with adequate an also the ash suspension is sluiced into massive sized ponds known as ash ponds. This ash is termed pond ash

    or fly ash.


    In this present study a sequence of experiments are done to judge the characteristic strength of steel slag concrete. the target of this study is to stop the exhaustion of natural resources and enhancing the usage of waste materials, concern concerning world environmental problems, and a modification over from the mass-production, mass-consumption, mass- waste society to a zero-emission society. The physical and chemical properties of the raw materials are studied to characterize the raw materials. Additionally to the current tests are conducted in 2 phases. In 1st section of tests the optimum proportion of lime is set by testing mortar cubes ready from lime+ ash as binder and GGBFS as fine aggregate in magnitude relation of 1:2 and 1:3 with 20, 35, 50, 65, and80

    % lime within the binder. Within the second series of tests concrete specimens were ready by mix lime +fly ash binder, GGBFS and steel slag within the ratios of 1:1.5:3. The compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile

    strength of those samples were determined when 7 and 28 days.

    1,Fly ash: The ash utilized in this investigation was collected from Guru Gobind singh super thermal plant ropar. The ash had grey white color. The chemical, morphological, mineralogical and physical knowledge for the higher than ash is given as follows. The tests on ash were distributed as per IS: 1727-1967. the specific gravity of ash is 2.25 and fineness is 8 % (by dry sieving method).

    2.Chemical analysis: Fly ash consists of silicon dioxide, alumina, oxides of iron, Ca and magnesium and poisonous serious metals like lead, arsenic, cobalt, and copper. The chemical composition of ash is given within the Table 2. The permissible worth as per IS: 3812-1981 and ASTM normal additionally shown here

    Table1. Chemical composition of fly ash

    Fig1. Microstructure of fly ash.

    Fig2. Microstructure of fly ash.

    Fig2. Microstructure of fly ash.



    In this period, the results obtain from the testing of mortar ready from lime, ash and GGBFS and strengths of steel slag concrete are given. the traditional procedure followed to characterize the standard of cement is adopted within the 1st part of tests and best material composition was received. within the second phases, concrete specimens were ready with taking steel slag as coarse mixture ground granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate and binder that's found to best performance from the check of part one. The composition of higher than materials was varied to check the impact of raw material compositions on compressive strength, flexural strength and durability adopting typical testing procedure. The impact of solidifying amount on strength was additionally studied and reportable. Comparison is additionally created between the Steel slag concrete and therefore the typical concrete.

    Table3. Variation of Compressive strength of mortar Lime+ Fly ash: GGBS (1:3)


From the current studies following conclusions were drawn- The compressive strength of mortar that's lime: fly ash: GGBFS within the proportion of (35:65:300) was found to be

14.47 N/mm2 at 28 days, 40.51N/mm2 at 56 days.

The mortar proportion (35:65:200) it absolutely was found to be 14.47N/mm2 at twenty eight days,35.69 N/mm2 at fifty six days.Initial setting time, final setting time and consistency of ash and lime powder (binder) is about 30 minutes , twenty fifth and forty sixth over the cement.

The compressive strength of mortar Steel slag concrete was less throughout earlier stages of natural process, however it's achieved nearly same strength as traditional cement mortar when fifty six days.The twenty eight days compressive strength of concrete of Steel slag concrete is found to be but the traditional cement concrete.The compressive strength of Steel slag concrete when twenty eight days of natural process was found to vary from 9N/mm2 to 13N/mm2. However, alternative researchers have found the compressive strength of Steel slag concrete within the vary of 20 N/mm2 to 30 N/mm2 when twenty eight days of natural process.Flexural strength when 28days of Steel slag concrete is not up to normal concrete.

B.Setting time of fly ash+fly ash

Setting Time: The initial setting and final setting times of varied mixes of lime-fly ash is given in Table 10 . in general its determined that each the initial and final setting time of ash lime mixes are compareably over the standard concrete.

Table 2 Setting time and consistency lime+fly ash


  1. Akyuz .S and Oner. A (2007) , Experimental study on optimum usage of GGBS for the compressive strength of concrete, Cement & Concrete Composites Vol.29 ,pp. 505 514.

  2. Binici .H et al . (2007)Performance of ground blast furnace slag and ground basaltic pumice concrete against seawater attack, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.22,pp1515-1526.

  3. Dippenaar. R, (2005), Industrial uses of slagThe use and re-use of iron and steelmaking slags. VII International Conference on Molten Slags Fluxes and Salts, The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 32,pp. 35-46 .

  4. Fujii .T, Tayano.T and Sakata .K, (2007), Freezing and thawing Resistance of Steel making slag concrete Journal of Environmental Sciences for sustainsable society, Vol.1,pp.1-10.

  5. Coastal Development Institute of Technology. Coastal Development Institute of Technology Library. no. 16, Manual on Steel Slag Hydrated Matrix. 2003-03.

  6. Hisahiro.M et al.(2003) , Steelmaking Technologies Contributing to Steel Industries Concrete Jour , Vol. 41, pp.47

  7. Haruyoshi .T and Masayki N, (2003) Steelmaking Technologies Contributing to Steel Industries ,NKK Technical Review No.88 , pp18-

  8. http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/ssa1.htm

  9. http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/bfs1.htm

  10. Kyong .Y and Kyum Kimb.E (2005) ,An experimental study on corrosion resistance of concrete with ground granulate blast-furnace slag Cement and Concrete Research Vol. 35 .pp.1391-1399.

  11. Kimur .T & Otsuk.N. (2006), Study on applicability of Steel Slag Hydrated Matrix to steel reinforced members under marine

    environment Technical Report of International Development Engineering, ISSN 1880-8468.

  12. Matsunga et al. (2003) Steel making technologies contributing to steel industries, Concrete journal, Vol.41, pp47-54.

  13. Maslehuddi .M, (2003),Comparison of properties of steel slag crushed limestone aggregate concretes Construction and Building Materials,

    Vol. 17, pp105-112

  14. S.Diamond,(1986),Particle morphologies in fly ash, Cement. Concrete Research Vol.16 (4) , pp. 569579.

  15. T.Sowmya,S.RamanSankaranarayanan,(2004) Application of optical basicity parameter to foaming of slags, pp. 51 54

  16. Liu chulin, zha kunpeg and chen depeng, (2011) possibility of concrete prepared with steel slag as fine and coarse aggregate International conference on advanced in engineering(ICAE 2011)

  17. v. subathra devi and B.k Gnavel (2014) Properties of concrete manufactured using steel slag procedia engineering 95-104

  18. Mathur et al. (1999), Utilization of Industrial Wastes in Low-Volume Roads Transportation Reasearch Board of the National Academic, Vol.1652, pp.246-256.

  19. Moosberg-bustnes, H.(2004) Steel-slag as filler material in concrete. VII International Conference on Molten Slags Fluxes and Salts, The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Pp.384-392.

  20. Tatsuhito .T and Yabuta. K (2002) New Applications for Iron and Steel making Slag, NKK Technical Review no.87 , pp38-44.

  21. Yabuta.K, Tozaw. H and Takahashi .T (2004), New Applications of Iron and Steel making Slag Contributing to a Recycling-oriented Society ,JFE GIHO No. 6 , pp. 2429.

  22. J.Raj Kanth and I.J.L Prasanna(2017) Evaluation of strength characteristics of steel hydrated matrix International journal of advanced technology and innovative research vol 09, Issue 07

  23. jagdish malik (2010) Effect of silica fume on steel slag ACI materials journal technical(1992) (89)pp.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *