 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 84
 Authors : Preeti Sharma, Nisheeth Saxena
 Paper ID : IJERTV6IS040623
 Volume & Issue : Volume 06, Issue 04 (April 2017)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV6IS040623
 Published (First Online): 27042017
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Elliptic Curves and their Applications in Cryptography
Preeti Sharma Nisheeth Saxena
M.Tech Student Assistant Professor
Mody University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh
Mody University of Science and Technology, Lakshmangarh
Abstract This paper gives an introduction to elliptic curves. The basic operations of elliptic curves and Elliptic curve arithmetic are described further. How Elliptic curves are useful for Elliptic curve cryptography is also discussed. Various algorithm of ECC are mentioned. The paper also discusses the basics of prime and binary field arithmetic.
Keywords: Elliptic Curves, Discrete Logarithm Problem, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography.

INTRODUCTION
In an open network such as internet, Data security is very important. The data transferred from the one system to the over public network can be secure by the method of encryption. Various cryptographic technologies are already present to protect data during transmission over the internet. Public key cryptography system are based on sound mathematical foundations that are designed to make the problem hard for an intruder to break into the system. Various public key algorithm are DH, RSA, DSA, ECDH and ECDSA.
The use of elliptic curves in public key cryptography was indenpendently proposed by Koblitz and Miller in 1985 [1] and up till now enormous amount of work has been done.
Elliptic curves cryptography (ECC) is a newer approach to publickey cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields, with a novelty of low key size for the user, and hard exponential time challenge for an intruder to break into the system, In the ECC a 160 bits key, provides the same security as the RSA 1024 bits key, thus the lower computer power is required. The advantage of the elliptic curve cryptosystem is the absence of the sub exponential time of algorithms, for attack.
The principal attraction of the ECC, compared to the RSA is that it appears to offer equal security for a smaller key size, thus reducing the processing overhead.

ELLIPTIC CURVES
The Elliptic curves are not ellipses [2]. They are named as the Elliptic curves because they are described by the cubic equations, and equations with highest degree three. An elliptic curve is a smooth and projective algebraic curve, on which there is a specified point of O, which called as point at infinity and ZERO POINT. An elliptic curve E in its standard form is described as the
Y2 = X3 + AX + B
This is a cubic equation as highest degree of this equation is three. Where, the values of A and B are predefined and the 4A3 + 27B2 0.where all the calculations are performed modulo p. Every value of the A and B gives a different elliptic curve. All the points of (X, Y) which satisfies the above equation of plus a point at infinity lies on the elliptic curve.
The variables and coefficients of the elliptic curve equation are restricted to the elements in a finite field, which results in the definition of the finite Abelian group.

ABELIAN GROUPS
An abelian group is a set, A, together through an operation * that combines any of the two elements a and b to form of another element of denoted a * b. The symbol * is a general place holder for a concretely given operation. To qualify as an abelian group, the set and operation, (A, *), must satisfy five requirements known as the Abelian group of axioms:
Closure: For all the, b in A, the result of the operation a * b is also in A.
Associativity: For all a, b and c in A, the equation (a * b)

c = a * (b * c) holds.
Identity element: There exists an elements e in A, such that for all the elements a in A, then the e * a = a * e = a holds.
Inverse element: For each a in A, there exists an the element b in A,as a * b = b * a = e, e is the identity element.
Commutativity: For all a, b in A, a * b = b * a. The Discrete logarithm problem:
Consider the equation Q = kP, where the Q,P belong to the E p (a, b) and k < p:

If k and p are given, it is very easy to compute Q.

But if the P and Q are given, it is comparatively hard to determine the k, if k is sufficiently large.
This is the Discrete logarithm Problem for the Elliptic Curve
[2] and due to the complexity of the Discrete logarithm Problem Elliptic curve cryptography is hard to break.



ELLIPTIC CURVE OVER REAL NUMBERS
The Elliptic curves are defined over the real numbers. In the equation:
Y2= X3 + AX + B
A and B are the real numbers, X and Y take on the values in real numbers. When the values of A and B are given, the plot consists of both positive and negative values of Y for each value of X. Thus each curve is symmetric about Y=0.

BASIC OPERATIONS ON ELLIPTIC CURVES

Point Multiplication
The basic operations of elliptic curve involve point multiplication which is achieved by point addition and point doubling. In the point multiplication a point on the Elliptic Curve say the P is multiplied with a positive integer to obtain the another point of Q on the same Elliptic curve, using the Elliptic curve equations.
i.e. Q = KP Let K = 15
So, Q = 15 P= (2 (2 (2P+P) +P)) + P
So this example shows that the point multiplication is consummate by using the point addition and the point doubling repeatedly to get the result. This method is named as double and adds method. There are the other efficient methods for the point multiplication such as the NAF (Non
Adjacent Form) and wNAF the method for the point multiplication [3].

Point Addition:
It is the addition of the two points of the elliptic curve, say P and Q , to get another point R on the same Elliptic curve.
Geometric explanation
Consider the 2 point of P and Q on the Elliptic curve as shown in the figure (a).
Then two conditions arises

If Q =! P, then a line drawn through the points of P and Q will intersect the Elliptic curve at exactly
Hence Q + (Q) = O, where O is additive identity of the Elliptic curve group, shown in the figure (b).
Analytical Explanation:
Consider the two distinct points P(XP ,YP) and Q(XQ ,YQ)
.The slope of line joining these two points is S. s = (YQ YP)/(XQ – XP)
As we know that the R = P + Q, and R is also the point on
EC so the coordinates of the R (XR,YR) are calculated by XR =S2 XP XQ
YR = YP + S(XP – XR)


Point Doubling:
The Point doubling is addition of a point say P to itself to get the another point on the elliptic curve.
So the R = P+P =2P Geometric explanation:
To double a point P to get R, i.e. to find R = 2P, consider a point P on an Elliptic Curve as shown in figure (a). If y coordinate of the point J is not zero then the curve line at P will intersect the elliptic curve at accurately one more point
R. The reflection of the point R with respect to xaxis gives the point R, which is the result of doubling the point P.
Thus R = 2P.
If y coordinate of the point P is zero then the curve at this point intersects at a point at infinity O. Hence 2P = O when YP = 0. This is shown in the figure (b).
Analytical Explanation:
Consider a point P(XP,YP)where Xp =! 0 Let the R = 2P, R(XR,YR)
Then the coordinates of R(XR,YR)are calculated by XR = S22 XP
YR= S (XP – XR) YR
S is the curve at the point P and a is the parameter chosen with the Elliptic Curve.
S = (3 X 2+ a)/ 2 Y
one more point R. The reflection of the R gives the point R, with respect to the x axis. The R point is the result of the addition of P and Q.Thus R = P+Q

If Q = P, the line through this point intersect at a point at the infinity O.

P P
If the yP = 0, then 2J = O, where O is the point at infinity and zero point.
Note: The operation defined above are on real numbers. Operation over the actual numbers are slow and incorrect due to round off error. To make cryptographic operation fast and accurate and more efficient the Elliptic Curve Cryptography is defined over the two finite fields described in the next section.


ELLIPTIC CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY IS DEFINED OVER TWO FINITE FIELDS

Elliptic curves over Prime Field Fp

Elliptic curves over Binary Field F2 m
The variables and the coefficients of Elliptic Curve equation are all restricted to these finite fields. The operations in these sections are defined on affine coordinate system, which is a normal coordinate system in which each point is represents by vector(X,Y).
Elliptic curves over Prime Field Fp:
The cubic equation for the Prime Field Fp is
Y2 mod p = (X3 + AX + B) mod p, where 4A 3 + 27B2mod p 0.
So the values of variables and coefficients of cubic equation are between 0 through p1(set of integers), in this finite field. All the operations as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division are performed in modular arithmetic and the values are chosen from 0 and p1.to make cryptosystem more secure the Prime no p is chosen in a such way that there is finitely large number of points on elliptic curve.SEC specifies curves with p ranging between 112521[4]. The algebraic rules for point addition and point doubling can be adapted for elliptic curves over Fp. So the operations of elliptic curve over prime field Fp are described below
Point Addition
Consider the two distinct points P and Q such that P = (XP,YP) and Q = (XQ,YQ)
Let R = P + Q where R = (XR,YR), then XR = (s2 – XP XQ) mod p
YR= (s (XP XR) YP) mod p
s = ((YP YQ)/(XQXP)) mod p, s is the slope of line through P and Q.
If Q = P i.e. Q = (XP, YP mod p) then P + Q = O. where O is point at infinity.
If Q = P then P + Q = 2P then the point doubling equations are used.
Also P + Q = Q + P
Point Subtraction
Consider two the distinct points P and Q such that P = (XP
,YP) and Q = (XQ ,YQ)
Then the P – Q = P + (Q) where Q = (XQ,YQ mod p)
The Point subtraction is used in the certain employment of the point multiplication such as NAF.
Point Doubling
Consider a point P such that the P = (XP,YP), where YP 0 Let R = 2P where the R = (XR, YR), Then
XR= (s2 2XP) mod p
YR = (s(XP XR) YP) mod p
P P
s = ((3X2 + a) / (2Y )) mod p, s is the curve at the point P
and a, is one of the parameters chosen with the elliptic curve. If the Yp = 0 then 2P = O, where O is point at the infinity.
In case of the finite group Ep(a,b), the numbers of the points N is bounded by
p+ 1 2p p + 1 + 2p
Example: Consider an Elliptic Curve E29 (1, 1), its equation is given by:
Y2 mod 29 = (X3+X+1) mod 29 (1)
Where prime no is p = 29,
And the constants of the prime field (A,B) be (1,1), as satisfying the following condition.
4A3+27B2mod p 0.
Consider the affine coordinates of prime field (X,Y) be (0,1) calculated by eq(1).So, other points satisfying the eq (1) are given in Table 1, they are found on Elliptic Curve.
Table 1: set of points on EC
(1,1) 
(1,12) 
(1,4) 
(1,9) 
(4,2) 
(4,11) 
(5,1) 
(5,12) 
(7,0) 
(8,1) 
(8,12) 
(10,6) 
(10,7) 
(11,2) 
(11,11) 
This table can be extended further; we have shown only the few points.
The Point addition and the point doubling are basic the EC operations as mentioned earlier. The Elliptic curve cryptographic primitives require scalar point multiplication. When the point multiplication, i.e. the point addition or the point doubling is performed on a point of the EC it is compulsory that the resulting point should also lie on same EC, this is described by the example given below.
Point Addition:
Let two points of the EC P(6,7) and Q (10,5). Let a third point R(XR,YR)
So R=P+Q
By the equations mentioned in the point addition in section,
S = 14
XR = 6
YR = 22
So R (6,22) is achieved by point addition method and this point is also on Elliptic Curve E29 (1,1).
Point Doubling:
In point doubling both the point are same i.e. P=Q.
So R = P+P Let P(6,7)
By the point doubling equations S = 14
XR = 10
YR =24
So R(10,24) is achieved by the point doubling method and this point is also on the Elliptic Curve E29 (1,1).
2 :
Elliptic curves over Binary Field F m
The equation of the Elliptic Curve on a binary field F2m is Y2 + XY = X3 + AX2 + B,
WhereB 0. The elements of the finite field are integers of length at most m bits. These numbers can be considered as a binary polynomial of degree m1. In binary polynomialthe coefficients can only be 0 or 1. Polynomials of degree m 1 or lesser are in all the operation such as addition, subtraction, division, multiplication. To make the cryptosystem secure the m is chosen in such a way that there is finitely large number of points on the elliptic curves. The SEC specifies curves with ranging between 113571 bits [5].
The algebraic rules for point addition and point doubling can be adapted for elliptic curves over F2m. So the operations of the elliptic curve over Binary field F2mare described below.
Point Addition
Consider the two distinct points P and Q such that P
=(XP,YP) and Q = (XQ,YQ)
Let R = P + Q where R = (XR,YR), then XR = S2 + S + XP + XQ + a
YR = s (XP+XR) + XR + YP
s = (YP + YQ)/(XQ + XP) , s is the slope of line through P and Q.
If Q = P i.e. Q = (XP, XP + YP) then P + Q = O. where O is the point at infinity.
If Q = P then Q + P = 2P then the point doubling equations are used.
Also Q + P = P + Q
Point Subtraction
Consider the two distinct points P and Q such that P = (XP
,YP) and Q = (XQ,YQ)
Then the P – Q = P + (Q) where Q = (XQ, XQ + YQ)
The Point subtraction is used in the certain implementation of the point multiplication such as NAF.
Point Doubling

Polynomial Arithmetic: In Binary Field F2m arithmetic of integer of the length m bits is used. These number scan be considered as binary polynomial of degree m 1.
Consider a binary string (Rm1 R1 R0) can be expressed as the polynomial
Rm1xm1 + Rm2 xm2 + … + R2 x2 + R1x + R0 where Ri = 0 or 1.
For e.g., a 4 bit number 1001 can be represented by polynomial as x3 + 1.
In polynomial arithmetic there is an irreducible polynomial of degree m that is similar to the modulus p on modular arithmetic.
In binary polynomial the coefficients of the polynomial can be either 0 or 1. If in any operation the coefficient becomes greater than 1, it can be reduce to 0 or 1 by modulo 2 operation on the coefficient.
VIII. ELLIPTIC CURVE DOMAIN PARAMETERS When two parties communicate, then prior to communication they should agree upon some parameters to have a secured and trusted communication using ECC. These parameters are called Domain parameters. There parameters are specific for both prime field and binary field describe below. There are several standard domain parameter defined by SEC. Domain parameters are specified before the communication begins.
Domain parameters for the EC over Prime Field Fare (p, a, b, G, n, h).
Domain parameters for the EC over Binary field F2mare (m, f(x), a, b, G, n and h).
Where, p is the prime number defined for finite field. a and b are the constants,
G is the generator point/base point (XG,YG) point on the elliptic curve chosen for the cryptographic operations,
N is the order of the elliptic curve. The scalar for point multiplication is chosen as a number between 0 and n1,
h is the cofactor where h must be small (h<= 4) and, preferably h=1,
Consider a point P such that the P = (XP, Let R = 2P where R = (XR,YR)Then
XR = S2+ S + a
P
YR= X 2+ (s + 1)* XR
YP), where XP 0
m is an integer defined for the finite field F2m. The elements of finite field F2m are integers of the length at most m bits, f(x) is the complex polynomial of the degree m used for the elliptic curve operations.
s = (XP + YP)/ XP, S is the tangent at the point P and a is one of the parameters chosen with the Elliptic Curve.
If XP= 0 then 2P = O, where O is the point at the infinity.
VII. FIELD ARITHMETIC
For the operation performed in ECC modular arithmetic or polynomial arithmetic is chosen. These arithmetics are described below:

Modular Arithmetic: The modular arithmetic performed on a no say p involves arithmetic in range from 0 to p1. If in any operation the number falls out of this range then result is wrapped around to fall in the range 0 to p1. And for that mod operator is used.

EC CRYPTOGRAPHY
Elliptic Curve Cryptography is a public key cryptography. In the public key cryptography each user or device taking part in the communication generally have a pair of keys i.e. a public key or a private key, and a set of the operations associated with the keys to do the cryptographic processes. The private key is known only to the particular user whereas the public key is distributes to all users talking part in the communication. The EC algorithm are specified in the communication. The EC algorithm are specified in the SEC1: Elliptic Curve Cryptography [6] .EC the cryptographic algorithms for key agreement and the digital signature are explained below.

ECDSAElliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm: A message sent by a device to another device should be authenticated and for that signature algorithm is used is used. For example consider two devices M and N. M sends a message to N.
To authenticate that message device M sign the message using its private key. Then device M sends that message and the signature to device N.
N verifies the signature by using the public key of device M. Since the device N knows Ms public key, it can be verify that that message is sent by M and not.ECDSA is a variant of Digital Signature Algorithm that operates on the elliptic curve groups [7]. Before sending the signed messages both devices should agree up on the Elliptic Curve domain parameters. The Sender M have a pair of the keys consisting of a private key PM (which is randomly selected the integer less than n, where n is the order of the curve, an elliptic curve domain parameter) and a public key UM = PM

G (G is the generator point, and the elliptic curve domain
parameter). An overview of ECDSA process is defined below.
Signature Generation
For signing a message F by sender M, using Ms private key PM
1. Calculate e = HASH (F), where HASH is a cryptographic
Both the devices M and N have a key pair consisting of a private key P (a randomly selected integer less than n, where n is the order of the curve, an elliptic curve domain parameter) and a public key U=P*G (G is the generator point, an the elliptic curve domain parameter).
The process of key exchange between M and N

M have a pair (PM,UM), where UM =PM * G

N have a pair (PN,UN), where UN =PN * G

M calculates its secret key K = PM * UN

N calculates its secret key K = PN * UM
Secret Key generated by both the devices is same, as K = PM *UN= PN * UM
=PM * PN * G = PN * PM * G
Elliptic curve with Elgamal System:

Bob choose elliptic curve E (a, b) over GF (p) and GF (
2n ).

Bob choose a point on the curve e1 (x1 , y1 )

Bob choose an integer d.

Bob calculate e2 (x2 , y2 ) d * e1 (x1 , y1 ) .

Bob announce E (a, b, p), e (x , y ) and e (x , y ) as
hash function, such asSHA1
1 1 1
2 2 2

Select a random integer k from the [1,n 1]3.

Calculate r = x1 (mod n), where (x1, y1) = k * G. If r = 0, go to step 2

Calculate s = k1 (e + PM r)(mod n). If s = 0, go to step 2

The signature is the pair (r, s). Signature Verification
For B to authenticate M's signature, N must have Ms public key UM

Verify that r and s are integers in [1,n 1]. If not, the
signature is invalid

Calculate e = HASH (F), where HASH is the same function used in the signature generation

Calculate the w = s1 (mod n)

Calculate u1= ew (mod n) and u2 =rw (mod n)

Calculate the (x1, y1) = u1G + u2UM

The signature is valid if x1 = r(mod n), invalid otherwise.


ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman:
ECDH is a key agreement protocol that allows two communicating parties to generate a shared secret key. This shared secret key can be used for private key algorithms. To generate a shared key between M and N using ECDH, Both have to approve upon the EC domain parameters revealed earlier.
Note: Any third party, who doesnt have access to the private details of each devices, will not be able to calculate the shared secret from the available public information.
An overview of ECDH process is defined below. The EC domain parameters used are:
Eq(A,B): Elliptic curve with the parameters A,B,q where q is prime number and an integer of form 2m
G: the generator point on the elliptic curve whose order is large value n.
your public key and keeps d as private key.
Encryption:
Alice selects P, point on the curve, as her plain text. She chose a random number r and computes
C1 r * e1
C2 P r * e2
Decryption:
Bob after receiving C1 and C2 , computes
P C2 d *C1
It can be explained as P + r * e2 – d * r * e1
=> P + r * d * e1 – d * r * e1 => P+O=P
P r * e2 d * r * e1 P r * d * e1 d * r * e1
P O P


APPLICATIONS
Elliptic curve cryptography is widely used in many of the areas[8].
Smart Cards
ECC is most popularly used in smart cards. Smart cards are being used as bank (credit/debit) cards, electronic tickets and personal identification (or registration) cards. Many manufacturing companies are producing smart cards that make use of elliptic curve digital signature algorithms. These manufacturing companies include Phillips, Fujitsu, MIPS Technology and Data Key, while vendors that sell these smart cards include Funge Wireless and Entrust Technologies.
PDAs
PDAs have more computing power compared to most of the other mobile devices, like cell phones or pagers. PDAs are considered to be a very popular choice for implementing public key cryptosystems. But ECC is idol choice for PDAs because they still grieve from the limited bandwidth.
PCs
For implementing the ECC, Constrained devices have been considered to be the most suitable platforms. Recently, several companies have created software products that can be used on PCs to secure data, encrypt email messages and even instant messages with the use of ECC.
CONCLUSION
In this paper we have provided an overview of Elliptic Curves and their operations. We have seen further what Elliptic curve arithmetic is and how they are solved. The use of Elliptic Curves in publc key cryptography i.e. Elliptic Curve cryptography is describe in this paper. It is important that the point multiplication and field arithmetic should be efficient for efficient implementation of ECC. There are different methods for efficient implementation point multiplication and field arithmetic suited for different hardware configurations. Further we have mentioned the application areas of ECC.
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Darrel Hankerson, Julio Lopez Hernandez, Alfred Menezes, Software Implementation ofElliptic Curve Cryptography over Binary Fields, 2000

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Anoop MS, Elliptic curve cryptography : An implementation Guide

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Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot and Scott A. Vanstone,
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