 Open Access
 Authors : Ramkumar. G
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV8IS06007
 Volume & Issue : NCFTET – 2020 (Volume 8 – Issue 06)
 Published (First Online): 07042020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Efficiency Improvement of Thermal Energy Storage using PCM
Ramkumar. G
Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Bharathidasan Engineering College, Natrampalli, Tirupattur, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract: Thermal energy storages tank are effective storages and retrieval of heat energy for solar thermal application. Thermal energy storage is normally Sensible Heat Storage (SHS). One another kind of combined thermal energy is Latent Heat Storage (LHS). Phase Change Material (PCM) is used in latent heat storage. Reduce the time required while storing and releasing heat in latent heat storage system for solar thermal application. During these processes phase change material is melted and solidified. The performance of combined sensible thermal energy and latent thermal energy is greater than sensible heat energy.
Keywords: component; sensible heat, latern heat, PCM
 INTRODUCTION

 SENSIBLE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGES
That is, the internal energy of the storages material is influencing by the energy going stored, which would raise the temperature of the materials.
Expressed equation Q = mcp (T1T2)
Where Q is heat transfer
Cp is specific heat of water
 LATENT THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE:
 SENSIBLE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGES
In latent TES, the heat storages material undergoes a phase transformation process for storing or discharging the heat energy [1]. The phase change material either from solid to liquid or near isothermal condition.
Sensible heat energy = ( )
Latent heat energy Q = m (^H)
Q = mcp(T1T2)+m(^H)+Mpcm cp(TfTw)

 PHASE CHANGING MATERIALS
Thermal energy storage through PCM is capable of storing and releasing large amount of energy. The system depends on the shift in phase of the material for holding and releasing the energy [2].

 PARAFFIN WAX
Paraffin wax refers to a mixed of alkanes that fall with 20 n 40 range. They are found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to either liquid phase approximately 37Â°C.
Fig.1 Thermal energy storage using PCM
 PARAFFIN WAX

 EXPERIENTAL SETUP COMPONENT


 Thermal storage tank
 RTD
 Temperature indicator
 Insulation material
 Phase change material
 Flow meter
 Pressure gauge

 THERMAL STORAGE TANK:
Thermal storage tank is heat water storage in occupies space. Tank has manufacturing stainless steel. The tank is two position one outer tank and other inner tank.
Fig.2 Thermal storage tank
There are two physical systems namely LHS system and SHS system considered in the present analysis [3]. The LHS system considered for the analysis is a cylindrical storage system of height 1100 mm and diameter 500 mm. It consists of three zones.
 RTD
RTD is a temperature sensor which measure temperature using the principles that the resistance of the metal charge with temperature.
Fig.3 PT100 RTD sensor (platinum resistance element)
 Outer diameter: 6 mm
 Length of platinum element: 4 inch or 101.6 mm
 Cable length or lead wire: 4 meter
 Cable insulation: pt fe insulation
 Configuration: 3 wire configuration
 Temperature range: 20Â°C TO 540Â°C
 TEMPERATURE INDICATOR:
Temperature indicators used to indicate or measuring the temperature at corresponding area. Using thermal indicators are 12 cable connections with two segments (red and white). Temperature range measure 20Â°C TO 550Â°C. Digital temperature is measured.
Fig.4 Temperature Indicator
 INSULATION MATERIAL
Thermal insulation is blocking or reducing heat transfer between two objects (heat transfer is energy moving from one thing to another because of a difference in temperature) [4]. Thermal conductivity is 0.028 W/m.k
Fig.5 Thermal Insulation
 PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL
Table: 1 Variation Values of PCM
 FLOW METER
A mass flow meter, also known as an inertial flow meter is a device that measures mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through a tube [5]. The mass flow rate is the mass of the fluid traveling past a fixed point per unit time.
 PRESSURE GAUGE
Pressure gauge, instrument for measuring the condition of a fluid (liquid or gas) that is specified by the force that the fluid would exert, when at rest, on a unit area, such as pounds per square inch or new tons per square centimeter [6]. Pressure gauge ranges from 0 to 5bar.

 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS Table: 2 Analysis of Sensible Heat
Time Solar radiation Ta Ti To T1 T2 T3 10 AM
818.7 W/MÂ²
28 Â°C 40Â°C 42Â°C 40Â°C 40Â°C 40Â°C 11 AM
880.6 31.3Â°C 48Â°C 49Â°C 48Â°C 48Â°C 48Â°C 12 AM
997.8 36.2Â°C 58Â°C 60Â°C 59Â°C 58Â°C 58Â°C 1 PM 990 37.2Â°C 70Â°C 71Â°C 70Â°C 70Â°C 70Â°C 2 PM 870.3 35.7Â°C 74Â°C 75Â°C 74Â°C 74Â°C 73Â°C 3 PM 986.4 33.1Â°C 76Â°C 77Â°C 76Â°C 76Â°C 75Â°C 4 PM 1073.2 32.3Â°C 76Â°C 77Â°C 76Â°C 76Â°C 75Â°C 
 EFFICIENCY PARAMETER WITHOUT PCM
Table: 3 Variations of Values without PCM
PARAMETER SYMBOL VALUE VOLUME V 215 litres
INITIAL TEMPERATURE Ti 28Â°C HEAT RADIATION Rin 945.28 W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED 1 hr FINAL TEMPERATURE To 76Â°C  LATENT HEAT ENERGY
Table: 4 Analysis of Latent Heat Energy
Time Solar radiation Ta Ti To T1 T2 T3 10 AM 928.6 W/mÂ²
28.1 39 41 41 40 40 11 AM 1097.4 31.4 47 49 48 47 47 12 NOON
991.2 41 57 60 60 59 59 1 PM 808.3 38.1 68 69 <p69 68 68 2 PM 885.0 43.1 73 74 74 73 72 3 PM 861.7 41.7 75 76 75 74 73 4 PM 801.9 37.4 77 78 78 77 76  EFFICIENCY PARAMETER WITH PCM
 EFFICIENCY PARAMETER WITHOUT PCM
PARAMETER SYMBOL VALUE VOLUME V 215 8.835 =
206.165
INITIAL TEMPERATURE Ti 28 HEAT RADIATION Rin 910.58 W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED 1 hr FINAL TEMPERATURE To 78 PARAMETER SYMBOL VALUE VOLUME V 215 8.835 =
206.165
INITIAL TEMPERATURE Ti 28 HEAT RADIATION Rin 910.58 W/mÂ²
TIME ELAPSED 1 hr FINAL TEMPERATURE To 78 Table: 5 Analysis of Efficiency Parameter with PCM
S.NO DESCRIPTION VALUE 1 Melting temperature 65Â°C 2 Thermal conductivity (solid) 0.1383 W/mÂ°C 3 Thermal conductivity (liquid) 0.1383 W/mÂ°C 4 Specific heat (solid) 2890 J/kg.K 5 Specific heat (liquid) 2890 J/kg.K 6 Density (solid) 947 kg/m3 7 Density (liquid) 750 kg/m3 8 Latent heat 190 J/kg 
 CALCULATION VOLUME OF THE TANK
VOLUME= AREA* LENGTH
Area (A) = Â¶/4 *D2
V tank= 0.200 mÂ³ (or) 200 litres
VOLUME OF PCM
(
(
= (4/3) Â¶(D/2)3(4) )Â³
3 2
= (4/3) Â¶(0.075/2)3
= 0.22 per single PCM ball TOTAL VOLUME OF THE PCM = 40 *0.22
PCM = 8.83 mm or 8.83 litre SENSIBLE HEAT ENERGY
ENERGY ABSORBED PER ONE HOUR
Q = m Cp (TfTw)
m = 215 litre or 0.215m Cp = 4.18 KJ/kg
Final temp Tf = 40.4Â°C Initial temp Ti =34Â°C
Q = 0.200 4.18 (40.4 34)
= 5.7516 KJ
HEAT STORAGE PER HOUR IS 5.57516 KJ
In time interval of 12 noon to 1 pm is
= 4.18(70.258.6)
= 8.424 KJ
LATENT HEAT ENERGY:
Q = mcp (T1T2)+m(^H)+Mpcm cp (TfTw)
Volume of with PCM = volume of water tank – volume of PCM
= 2008.83 = 191.17 litre
Amount of energy storage /hour= 191.17 4.18(68.4 – 59) + (5.2*190)
Q = 8100.84 J + 988 J
Q = 9.088KJ
In time interval of 11 am to 12 noon is
= 191.17 4.19 (68.4 59) + 5.2(190) + 5.2(2.89)(5968.9)
= 9.540 KJ
 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Fig.6 Comparative Analysis of SHE & LHS
Fig.7 Comparative Analysis of Energy
 CONCLUSION
Paraffin wax is a good PCM for energy storages in latent heat storages system. It has a suitable storages system. It has a suitable transition temperature range of 28 Â°C to 78
Â°C and relatively high latent heat of 190 KJ/kg. So that sensible heat is 35.11KJ is compare to latent heat energy is 44.724 KJ it is greater than of sensible heat. Comparing with SHE and LTES is 9.614 KJ of energy is excess energy storage.
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