Effect of Transformational Leadership on Optimized Work Behavior

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Effect of Transformational Leadership on Optimized Work Behavior

Shabbir Hussain, Fahad Ameen, Rafia Razaq, Saqlain Nasir

Superior University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Abstract- This research focus to evaluate the impact of TL on the work behavior optimization of the production company in Pakistan. TL plays a vital role as mediation for work behavior optimization. The collection of data was carried out by a simple random method from 30 workers. The valid and return questionnaire showed 20 samples. Data is calculated using SPSS software. The result of this research proved that TL has a positive impact on worker behavior optimization. This research proposed a model to optimize the working behavior of employees of the production company in Pakistan through TL. This research can clear the way for employee preparation to tackle global business competition.

Keywords: – Transformational leadership (TL), work behavior optimization

INTRODUCTION

Workload become the most important topic of this era. Every business and each organization focuses on maximizing their profit, while the workers suffered from the maximum workload. So, the solution to this issue is to find a way which could increase employee working capacity and could be proficient in his job by generating latest and genuine ideas which could assist company success and profit. It will be difficult to have innovative ideas and achievements for the individuals who cannot absorb the change of the new era. The company leaders are the ones who can promote innovative workplace attitudes and can make new changes to a difficult situation (Janssen, 2010)

Previous research studies concentrated on the different angles of ethical leadership (ex:-organizational citizenship behavior, ethical identification, power of making decision in ethical leadership) and unethical conduct for example-Mayer et al., (2009) stated that a worker's perception regarding ethical leadership was positively linked to their minimized firm deviant behavior and maximized citizenship attitude and Walumbwa & Schaubroeck in (2009) demonstrated that ethical leadership enhance individual attitude for task accomplishment . But, less attention has been given to the effect of TL on employee workload behavior. All employees cannot be innovative at work and their workplace behavior will be demolish (Asbari, et al., 2020). Innovation in work behavior is individual capacity to make changes like the adaptability of updated policies, new work, techniques, and skills to complete the work and accomplish the task (Rego et al., 2012). TL is a type of leadership that enables individuals or workers to boost their task-performing ability and optimize work behavior. Avolio et al., in 2004 stated that authentic leadership is the mixture of ethical and transformational leadership, which not only motivates an employee but also tells an action to perform a task positively. TL can cause behavior that lies beyond expectations (Nguyen et al., 2019), (Breevaart & Bakker, 2018), (KITTIKUNCHOTIWUT, 2020). A leader can increase their organizational behavior by providing by making missions of company and by being their role models (Jensen et al., 2020). TL recommends results like innovative behavior, product enhancement, and behavior of an organization (Gashema & Mokua, 2019).

Most workers suffer from workload factors and cannot achieve their tasks which could be harmful for both organization and employees. If a worker is having a workload it could not perform well and might have medical diseases like stress and ultimately it will affect an organization by not letting it achieve its target. In an organization, the implementation of influential leadership is very important. Influential leadership can motivate the workers to manage their workload and stay positive in the workplace even in a negative situation. Having Influential leadership, the worker can not only work efficiently but also will be able to maximize their behavior. The independent variable selected for this research is TL can be defined as. Its a type of leadership in which leader works with his crew or group equally without personal interest to determine the change needed and building a vision to lead the positive change by influencing, and executing the innovation in tandem with motivated members of the team, this transformation in self-interest determines the followers level of maturity as well as their concerns for the achievement (Odumeru

& Ogbonna, 2013). The dependent variable used in this study is work behavior optimization is defined by karakas in 2010 that the working achievements after applying required efforts in the job which is concerned to getting purposeful work, engaged profile, passionate employers/colleagues .

The topic of current research TL- is one of the most significant topics that is a hot favorite topic for researchers, scholars and organizations. The connection between TL and optimizing work behavior is a very important subject to tackle with work load efficiently. This research tries to seek the attention of organizations and firms to recognize the connection between TL and optimized work behavior. This study may provide some knowledge to researchers and authorities in business. The objective of the study is to find the nature of correlation between the dimensions of TL.

H1:TL have significant positive effect on working behavior optimization

H0: TL have negative effect on working behavior optimization

METHODOLOGY

The quantitative sampling method is used in this study. Collection of data is performed by providing the questionnaires to the employees from the Haier manufacturing company of home appliances and consumer electronics. Instruments that are used to measure TL are taken from transformational leadership questionnaires including demographic and job-related questions such as age, gender, work pressure, leadership status and tenure. The method for processing data is done by SPSS. Both open and closed- end questions were given in the questionnaire. The population in this study is the employee of the Haier manufacturing company in Pakistan. Questionnaire were distributed electronically with simple random sampling techniques.

CORRELATIONS

Age

Working hour per day

transformational leadership

work optimization

Gender

age

1

Working hour per day

-.179

.451

1

influential leadership

-.119

.617

.845**

.000

1

work optimization

-.155

.515

.882**

.000

.929**

.000

1

Gender

.201

.395

-.189

.426

.066

.781

-.031

.898

1

Variable=age, tenure, transformational leadership, work optimization gender

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Pearson Correlation table shows that data is collected form 20 person. Table depicts that the degree of association between transformational leadership and work optimization is 92%. This relation is 99% significant.it means if we will convert the leadership into transformational leadership then the work can be optimized up to 92 percent. Age has negative impact on working hour per day it means as the age will ncrease the ability to work per day will decrease. Transformational leadership has positive impact on working hour per day. The degree of association between transformational leadership and working hours per day is 84 percent. The ability of worker to work per day will increase if transformational leadership increase. The relationship between gender and transformational leadership is .06 percent it means if your leader is transformational leader, it will effect both male and woman equally. The correlation between work optimization and working days per day is 88 %. This relation is 99% percent significant.

REGRESSION

Table no 1

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.947

.896

.868

.171

R shows the coefficient of correlation is 94 percent. R square show the coefficient of determination is 89 percent. It shows that the independent variable (transformational leadership) can affect the dependent variable (work performance optimization) 89%.

Table of ANOVA

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

3.764

4

.941

32.349

.000b

Residual

.436

15

.029

Total

4.200

19

Dependent Variable: work optimization

Predictors: (Constant), Age, transformational leadership, Gender, Working hour per day

Table of ANOVA show that p-value is .000 which is less than 0.01, so it means that there is positive relationship among independent variable (transformational leadership) and dependent variable (work performance optimization)

Table of Coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

.168

.610

.275

.787

transformational leadership

.404

.107

.652

3.776

.002

Working hour per day

.115

.062

.326

1.859

.083

Gender

-.011

.122

-.009

-.091

.928

Age

-.001

.007

-.017

-.199

.845

Dependent Variable: work optimization

Table of coefficient shows that the beta value of transformational leadership is 0.652, which shows that the change in independent variable (transformational leadership) one time will change the Dependent Variable (work optimization) .610 time. The value of beta is positive which shows the positive relationship between transformational leadership and work optimization. The beta value of working hours per day is 0.326, which shows that the change in independent variable (working hours per day) one time will change the Dependent Variable (work optimization) .326 time. In other context, we can say that if independent variable will increase the dependent variable will also increase. The beta value of gender is -0.009, which shows that the change in independent variable (gender) one time will change the Dependent Variable (work optimization) -0.009 time. The value of beta is negative which shows the negative relationship between gender and work optimization. The beta value of age is -0.017, which shows that the change in independent variable (age) one time will change the Dependent Variable (work optimization) -0.017 time.

CONCLUSION

The research concluded that transformational leadership is influential and can be effective in optimization of employees work behavior. Moreover, it identified that positive relationship between transformational leadership and worker behavior optimization. This shows that the more efficient the transformational leadership is the more optimized work behavior will be. This suggested that the null hypothesis of this research is rejected.

REFERENCES

[1] Avolio, B., Gardne, W. L., Walumbwa, F., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801-823.

[2] Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., & Cunha, M. P. (2012, March). Authentic leadership promoting employees' psychological capital and creativity.

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[3] Asbari, M., Purwanto, A., Ong, F., Mustikasiwi, A., Maesaroh, S., Mustofa, M., . . . Andriyani, Y. (2020, 06 01). Impact of Hard Skills, Soft Skills and Organizational Culture: Lecturer Innovation Competencies as Mediating. EduPsyCouns: Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 2(1), 101-121.

[4] Breevaart, K., & Bakker, A. (2018). Daily job demands and employee work engagement: The role of daily influential leadershipbehavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(3), 338-349.

[5] Gashema, B., & Mokua, J. K. (2019). Trickle-down effect of CEO influential leadershipon employees innovative work behaviors. International Journal of Business Ecosystem & Strategy , 1(2), 2687-2293.

[6] Janssen, O. (2010). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302.

[7] Jensen, M., Potonik, K., & Chaudhry, S. (2020, December). A mixed-methods study of CEO influential leadershipand firm behavior. European Management Journal, 38(6), 836-845.

[8] Karakas, F. (2010, November). Spirituality and Behavior in Organizations: A Literature Review. Journal of Business Ethics, 1, 89-106.

[9] KITTIKUNCHOTIWUT, P. (2020). Influential leadershipand Financial Behavior: The Mediating Roles of Learning Orientation and Firm Innovativeness. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 10, 769-781.

[10] Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., & Salvador, R. (. (2009, january). How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle- down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 1-13.

[11] NGUYEN, H. M., MAI, L. T., & HUYNH, T. L. (2019). The Role of Influential leadershiptoward Work Behavior through Intrinsic Motivation: A Study in the Pharmaceutical Field in Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 6(4), 201-212.

[12] Odumeru, J., & Ogbonna, I. (2013). Transformational vs. transactional leadership theories: Evidence in literature. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(2), 355.

[13] Walumbwa, F., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: Mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1275-1286.

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