Effect of Oxygenated Fuel on Performance & Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine

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Effect of Oxygenated Fuel on Performance & Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine

Ravi.S.M1,

1.Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Srinivas Institute of Technology, Mangalore Karnataka, India.

Lokesh K.S2

2.Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Srinivas Institute of Technology, Mangalore Karnataka, India.

Abstract:- The depletion of petroleum reserve has resulted in two crises that are rising of fuel prices & global warming problems. The energy security can be maintained by improving the efficient energy producing machines. Efforts are being made to find the alternatives. At this juncture bio- diesel has got sufficient attraction as vehicular fuel. But the properties of bio-diesels are not as the same as diesel fuels, including high viscosity & low volatility.

Particulate matter & oxides of nitrogen are the main pollutants in the tail pipe emission of bio diesel fuelled engine. The present work represents blending of 1 and 2 % (V/V) of dibutyl ether with diesel. Addition of dibutyl ether will oxygenate the diesel oil. This research work investigates the effect of diesel blending with oxygenated fuels on performance & emission characteristics of diesel engine. The effect of fuel additives was to control the emission from diesel engine & to improve its performance. Further investigation is being carried out on oxygenated diesel application so as to make it environment friendly.

Key Words: Bio diesel, Emissions, Oxygenated fuels, Performance.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The depletion of petroleum reserve has resulted in two crises that are rising of fuel prices & global warming problems. The energy security can be maintained by improving the efficient energy producing machines. Efforts are being made to find the alternatives. At this juncture bio- diesel has got sufficient attraction as vehicular fuel. But the properties of bio-diesel are not as the same as diesel fuels, including high viscosity & low voltality. Particulate matter & oxides of nitrogen are the main pollutants in the tail pipe emission of bio diesel fuelled engine.

    Bhavin H Mehta, Hiren V Mand [1] have found that the addition of oxygenating agent into fuel oil is one of the

    effective method for obtaining the reduction in the particulate matter, carbon monoxide & hydro carbon emissions without a significant increase in the oxides of nitrogen emission. Hiroshi Nabetani & Martin [2] have studied the performance of the diesel engine using oxygenated blend in 20 & 40 % to the diesel. The engine performance was evaluated through torque, power & specific fuel consumption, while the emission was evaluated through carbon monoxide, hydro carbon, particulate matter, carbon dioxide, & oxides of nitrogen pollutants. Their results show that higher content of dimethyl carbonate can reduce the emission of carbon monoxide, hydro carbon, particulate matter & carbon dioxide. It was found that the addition oxygenates could increase the power & torque. Hanger Chi & Nathalie Gee

    [3] has studied the performance of diesel engine using diethylene glycol and dimethyl ether to oxygenate the diesel which resulted in reduction of particulate matter enhanced engine performance. Meager information is available as regarding addition of dibutyl ether to oxygenate diesel & to test the engine performance & its emission characteristics. The present work represents oxygenating diesel by blending 1 & 2% (v/v) of dibutyl ether and to investigate the effect of oxygenated diesel on the performance & emission characteristics of diesel engine.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

    To oxygenate the diesel oil di-butyl ether was blended with diesel in the proportion 1 and 2% (v/v). The pro1perties of dibutyl ether are shown in table 2.1 & engine specifications shown in table 2.2

    Table 2.1: Properties OF Di Butyl Ether

    Molecular Formula

    Molar Mass

    Appearance

    Densi ty

    Melting Point

    Boiling Point

    Freezing Point

    Vapor Pressure

    Viscosity

    Voltality

    C8H18O

    130.23

    g/mol

    Colorless

    0.769

    -97.9C

    142.4C

    -95C

    3730 pa

    0.741 cp

    61%

    Table 2.2: Engine Specifications

    ENGINE PARAMETERS

    SPECIFICTION

    Engine Type

    4-stroke Diesel

    Number of cylinders

    Single Cylinder

    Rated power

    5.2KW (7 HP) @1500RPM

    Bore

    87.5mm

    Stroke

    110mm

    Cubic Capacity

    661cc

    Compression ratio

    17.5:1

    Rated Speed

    1500 RPM

    Dynamometer

    Eddy Current dynamometer

    Type of cooling

    Water cooled

    Fuel injection Pressure

    190bar

    The experiment was conducted in a single cylinder Kirloskar water cooled engine at variation load from 20 to

    80 % with constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine

    compression ratio was maintained at 17.5 & standard injection timing with an injection pressure of 200 bar.

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    DBE20

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    DBE20

    HEAT RELESE RATE (Kj/Kg)

    HEAT RELESE RATE (Kj/Kg)

    CYLINDER PRESSURE (N/m²)

    CYLINDER PRESSURE (N/m²)

  3. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    -10

    330

    380

    430

    -10

    330

    380

    430

    5

    5

    DBE20

    DBE20

    0

    0

    300

    300

    400

    400

    500

    500

    -5

    -5

    CRANK ANGLE ()

    CRANK ANGLE ()

    10

    0

    10

    0

    CRANK ANGLE ()

    CRANK ANGLE ()

    Fig 1:Comparision Of H R R With C A Fig 2:Comparision Of C P With C A

    Fig.1 shows that comparision of heat relese rate with crank angle.From the fig it can be seen that heat release rate of diesel is more than that of oxygenated diesel.This can be attributed to high calorific value of neat diesel oil. Fig.2 shows comparision of cylinder pressure with crank

    angle.From the fig it is evident that the engine running with oxygenated fuel exihibit higher cylinder pressure when compared with neat diesel.The increse in cylinder pressure is due to high bulk modulus of oxygenated diesel.

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    10

    5

    0

    10

    5

    0

    0.7

    0.6

    0.5

    0.4

    0.3

    0.2

    0.7

    0.6

    0.5

    0.4

    0.3

    <>0.2

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    DBE20

    DIESEL

    DBE10

    DBE20

    0.1

    0

    0.1

    0

    Brake Thermal Efficency (%)

    Brake Thermal Efficency (%)

    Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (Kg/kw-hr)

    Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (Kg/kw-hr)

    Fig 3:Comparision Of B Th E With Rated Load Fig 4:Comparision Of BSFC With Rated Load

    0.120

    0.100

    0.080

    0.060

    0.040

    0.120

    0.100

    0.080

    0.060

    0.040

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    250

    250

    200

    200

    150

    150

    100

    100

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    CO (%)

    CO (%)

    NOX (ppm)

    NOX (ppm)

    Fig.3 shows the varition of brake thermal efficiency with rated load for neat & oxygenated diesel.From the fig it can be seen that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine running with oxygenated diesel (2 % v/v) is maximum.This can be atributed to high viscosity & voltality of oxygenated diesel (2 % v/v) compared to neat diesel & oxygenated diesel (1% v/v). Fig.4 indicates the

    variation of brake specific fuel consumption with rated load.From the fig it can be seen that brake specific fuel consumption of oxygenated diesel (2 % v/v) is maximum.This can be atributed to fuel burns at faster way in oxygenated diesel (2% v/v) compared to neat diesel & oxygenated diesel (1% v/v).

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    0

    50

    100

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    0.020

    0.000

    0.020

    0.000

    50

    50

    0

    0

    Fig 5 :Comparision Of CO With Rated Load Fig 6 :Comparision Of N0x With Rated Load

    Fig 5 shows the variation of carbon monoxide with rated load for neat & oxygenated diesel.From the fig it can be seen that the carbon monoxide of the engine running with neat diesel is maximum.This can be atributed to lower oxygen proption of neat diesel compared to oxygenated fuel (1 & 2 % v/v). Fig 6 shows the variation of NOx with

    rated load for neat & oxygenated diesel.From the fig it can be seen that NOx of engine running with oxygenated fuel (2 % v/v) is maximum. .This can be atributed to heat release rate is high in oxygenated diesel (1 & 2 % v/v) compared to neat diesel.

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    DIESEL

    DBE10 DBE20

    5

    0

    5

    0

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    RATED LOAD (%)

    RATED LOAD (%)

    HC (ppm)

    HC (ppm)

    Fig 7:Comparision Of HC With Rated Load

    Fig 7 shows the variation of hydro carbon with rated load for neat & oxygenated diesel. From the fig it can be seen that hydro carbon of the engine running with neat diesel is maximum. This can be atributed to lower combustion in neat diesel compared to oxygenated fuel (1 & 2 % v/v).

  4. CONCLUSION

    1. The effect of fuel additives was to control the emission from diesel engine

    2. Fuel additives gives better engine performance.

    3. The complete combustion was obtained when using oxygenated fuels with diesel.

    4. Burning rate of fuel mixture will be incresed.

    5. The oxygenated fuel is environmental friendly.

  5. REFERENCES

  1. Bhavin H Mehta, Hiren V Mandila: A review effect of oxygenated fuel additive on the performance & emission characteristics of diesel engine. SAE Paper 92154. (2006),14-25.

  2. Hiroshi Nabetani & Martin: The effect of oxygenated fuel on the performance & emission of automotive diesel engines. CEC/63,

    EF03, May 1994

  3. Hangeri Chi & Nathalie Gee: Forecasts of reduction of ozone depletion through use of oxygenated diesel fuel. JSME Conference, Italy, 325/24, 1989.

  4. Heisey JB, Letz SS. Aqueous alcohol fumigation of a single- cylinder DI engine, SAE Paper No .11208, 1981.

  5. Broukhiyan EMH. Ethanol fumigation of a light duty automotive diesel engine, SAE Paper No .811209, 1981.

  6. Hayes TK, Savage LD, White RA, Sorenson SC. The study of combustion characteristics of an C.I. engine fuelled with ethanol & oxygenated fuel additives, SAE Paper No . 86458, 1994.

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