fbpx

Effect of High Silica Powder And Paper Mill Waste In Bricks

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Effect of High Silica Powder And Paper Mill Waste In Bricks

Effect of High Silica Powder And Paper Mill Waste In Bricks

J. Beula 1

R. Haripriya 2

L. Manonmani 3

Department of Civil Engineering

Department of civil engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Parisutham Institute of

Parisutham Institute of

Parisutham Institute of

Technology and Science

Technology and Science

Technology and Science

Thanjavur

Thanjavur

Thanjavur

AbstractIn Civil engineering field it is a great challenge that replacing the industrial waste material as the construction materials. Paper industry is one of the oldest and largest sectors in India, it has several environmental impacts causing land pollution with toxicity. Waste management becomes a big problem nowadays. In the present study, an attempt has been made to utilize the paper waste with high silicate powder in making of fired clay bricks. Paper mill waste was incorporated in clay bricks manufacturing of size 230×100×70mm, and it was observed that with increase in paper content, there is a decrease in compressive strength and weight of bricks. The purpose of this study was to determine the compressive strength and water absorption test. It was observed that 6% of paper waste and 30% of high silicate powder in normal clay bricks gives the higher compressive strength of 6 N/mm² and 8.7 N/mm2 respectively and also the water absorption result is better in 30% usage of high silicate powder and 6% of paper mill waste.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Burnt clay bricks are most utilizing bricks in construction world. Since the large demand has been placed building materials industry especially in the decade owing to increasing the population which cause a chronic shortage of building material. But the unlimited use of clay is harmful to society as all the brick kilns in India, depend on good quality clay available from agricultural field and weight of 3 kg per brick. So the last 40% per weight. Brick use of industrial waste products such as paper waste and high silicate powder for making fired clay bricks is ecologically and economically.In our project , we are going to use high silicate powder and paper mill waste in clay brick. Due to its silica content, amorphous glassy structure and availability, silicate powder is determined to be a feasible option for addition. The specimen with glass additions exhibited an increase in compressive and flexural strength, a decrease in the initial rate of absorption and an increase in firing shrinkage.

  2. MATERIALS

    1. Clay

      Clay is a hydrous aluminium silicate. Minor impurities present in clay are potassium, sodium, calcium, Magnesium (or) iron oxide. The chemical formula of clay is Al2 O32Sio22H2o.

    2. High silicate powder:

      The glasses are rich and high in silicate content. It is non crystalline (amorphous) nature. The particle size of high silicate powder is important and had a significant effect on the properties of fired clay bricks.

      • . This waste having low thermal conductivity (good insulate PAPER WASTE:

    The waste comes from the paper mill is the paper

    waste).

    CRITICAL COMMENTS

    • Paper mill waste and orange peel does not make a good bond with each other and it crumbles only when it is totally dried.

    • (40% waste glass addition) in brick results decrease in apparent porosity.

    • The water absorption capacity of papercrete brick was found to be more than 20%, which makes it not suitable for water logging and external walls.

    • To overcome the above failures,we selected paper waste and high silicate powder to be used in fired clay brick.

    C . Paper mill waste

    The waste comes from the paper mill is the paper waste. This waste having low thermal conductivity (good insulator).This is collected from " NISA Paper Industries" in Thiruchirapalli.

    D . Water.

    Water is an important ingredient for the production of brick as it actually participates in the chemical reaction. Since it helps to form the strength. The quality and quantity of water is required to be looked carefully Normal portable water is used in this study.

    1. Brick specimen.

      • Brick of size 23×10×7cm is used for making fired clay brick.

      • It is casted by this dimension.

  3. METHODS

    The methodology to be adopted and the modeling to be carried out are described in this chapter. The methodology which explains the procedure follows the entire project. The methodology is explained in the form of flow chart as follows.

    1. Grinding of paper waste.

      The waste paper is used for the replacement of clay because it has the binding property. By the addition of

      paper waste the brick can be classified as the light weight brick. The paper waste is highly grinded by electric mixer in order to increase the workability.

    2. Weighing of materials.

      The materials which are used for making of bricks are weighed under weigh batching. The weighing process is

  4. EXPERIMENT

    Laboratory tests are the one of the method of finding physical and chemical properties of the materials. In this project we have more than two materials to find the properties of that material and find out whether the materials are suitable for use. There are separate tests for clay soil, high silicate powder.

    more important as the strength depends on the proportion A. Specific gravity

    of each materials in this project. This process requires high accuracy so weigh batching is preferred.

    1. Mixing.

      All the materials required for the manufacturing of bricks are mixed correctly by using hand mixing or by machine mixing. Hand mixing is preferred to mix the each ingredients in this work. The materials used in this projects are listed as follows:

      • clay soil

      • high silicate powder

      • paper mill waste

      • water

    2. Formation of bricks.

      The Specific gravity of the fine aggregates that are used is tested by following the Indian Standards specification by following IS 2386 (Part III) 1963. The design parameters of bricks also depend on the specific gravity of materials used. As the particle size is less, pycnometer is used for clay soil. The empty weight of the pycnometeris measured and then it is filled with sand up to a mark and the weight is measured. Then water is filled with water and the weight is measured. Then weight of the pycnometeronly with water is measured and the specific gravity of the fine aggregates used is calculated. The same method is used for determining the specific gravity of the high silicate powder.

      The paper obtained from the industries was B. Sieve analysis

      utilized for commercial Fired clay brick manufacturing. The binding materials like clay and high silicate powder were mixed with the various proportions of paper by a measured weight by adding a small amount of water. Now the mixture is completely mixed and then later on after few minutes clay soil is mixed in the mixer. If the paper is not mixed properly the water absorption will be high, which will lead to breakage of the block. The hand mould is used for casting of bricks are shown in fig. 3.5.

    3. Drying

      After cating process, the bricks were dried for 4 days to attain the high strength. Drying Process was done by normal method by sunlight. The brick is casted in the required dimensioned mould to get the proper shape for each brick in order to dry it uniformly without any irregular surface and heating process.

    4. Burning of bricks.

      After drying process, the bricks were burned for 2 days at the temperature 900-1100°C. Burning is the important process in order to reduce the formation of voids in the bricks. Burning should be uniformly done in order to get the regular shape and color.

    5. Testing of bricks.

      Normally the bricks are burned for 2-3 days, so that it attains full strength. Then there are some field tests that we can conduct in the field in order to check the quality of bricks. Bricks are tested for the following tests:

      • Compressive strength test

      • Water absorption test

      • Shape and size test

      • Hardness test

    Sieve analysis is done as per I S 2386 ( Part I)-1963. The

    first step involves arranging the IS sieves in the order of 4.75mm – 2.36mm -1.18mm-600µ-300µ-150µ. 2kg of fine aggregate i s t a k e n and placed on the top most sieves. Sieving is done for 15minutes and weight retained on each IS sieve is found. Using the above value fineness modulus is calculated.

    1. Liquid limit.

      By using casagrande apparatus we did this liquid limit test. Initially clay soil is taken and it is mixed with water. we have to take a empty weight of vessel (W1) .Then we have to take a empty weight and wet weight of the clay soil (W2) . By using oven we dry the wet soil at normal temperature. Finally we have to take a empty weight and dry weight of the soil (W3) . Further calculation has done by using above values.

    2. Plastic limit

      By using casagrande apparatus we did this plastic limit test. Initially clay soil is taken and it is mixed with water. And it is rolled on the glass plate with 3mm diameter. Empty weight of the vessel is taken as (W1) .Then, empty weight and wet weight of rolled clay soil is taken as (W2) . By using oven we dry the rolled soil at normal temperature. Finally we have to take dry weight of the rolled soil (W3) . Calculation of plastic limit is done by using above values.

    3. Compressive strength test.

    T he compressive strength of this bricks is greater than the conventional clay bricks. The minimum strength of clay bricks is 3.5 N/mm². The minimum strength of this bricks we obtained is 5 N/mm².After the curing periods the bricks are kept for testing. To test the specimens the bricks are placed in the Compression testing machine. The load at failure is the maximum load which the bricks can withstand. In that three

    numbers of bricks were tested for each mix proportion. Each brick may give different strength. Hence, average of three bricks was taken.

    C. Water absorption Test

    The bricks should not absorb more than 12% of water. The bricks to be tested are weighed in the dry condition and then immersed in the portable water for 24 hours. After immersion of 24 hours those are taken out and wiped with cloths. And then weighed in wet condition. The difference between the weights is the water absorbed by the bricks. Water Absorption test as per

    IS -3495 (Part – 2):1992.

    Water absorption in % by weight = [(W2 W1)/W1] x 100 W1 = Dry weight of brick

    W2 = Saturated weight of brick

    1. Shape and size

      In this test, a brick is closely inspected .It should be of standard size and its shape should be truly rectangular with sharp edges. For this purpose the bricks are selected at random and they are stacked lengthwise along the width and along the height. A good quality brick should have bright and uniform color throughout.

    2. Soundness test

      In this test, the two bricks are taken and they are struck with each other. During the stroking process the brick should not break, if it breaks then it indicates that the bricks are weak. For the high strength, the bricks should not break and clear ringing sound should be produced. For predicting the ringing sound the brick is stroked by hands.

    3. Hardness test

    In this test, the hardness is tested by the help of nails. A scratch is made on brick surface with the help of finger nail in order to test the hardness of bricks. If no impression is left on the surface ,the brick is sufficiently hard. It also indicates that the brick is highly strong. The presence of impression during the scratching process indicates that the brick is weak and it lacks on clear ringing.

  5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    The investigations are carried out to determine the strength of clay bricks replaced with some proportion of high silicate powder and paper mill waste. And also to determine the water absorption, compressive strength.

    1. Compressive strength Test

      Compressive strength test is calculated for brick specimen in compressive testing machine.

      Fig. 1. Value of compressive strength test

      Table 1. Compressive Strength Result (High Silicate Powder)

      Proportions of HSP (%)

      Trial 1 (kN)

      Trial 2 (kN)

      Compressi ve Strength (N/mm2)

      1

      128

      130

      5.6

      10

      143

      140

      6.2

      20

      156

      154

      6.8

      30

      200

      200

      8.7

      40

      154

      150

      6.7

      50

      125

      121

      5.4

      Table 2. Compressive Strength Result (Paper Mill Waste)

      Proportions of PW (%)

      Trial 1 (kN)

      Trial 2 (kN)

      Compress ive Strength (N/mm2)

      0

      128

      130

      5.6

      3

      130

      132

      5.8

      6

      135

      138

      6.0

      9

      120

      125

      5.4

      12

      108

      110

      4.8

      15

      95

      97

      4.1

      Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

      10

      5

      0

      0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 50%

      Proportion (%)

      Fig. 2. Compressive Strength for Paper Mill Waste Calculations

      Area of brick = 230×100mm

      Crushing load = 205 kN

      Compressive strength = (crushing load)/(area)

      = (205×103)/ (230×100)

      = 5.125N/mm²

    2. Water Absorption Test

    The bricks should not absorb more than 12% of water. The bricks to be tested are weighed in the dry condition and then immersed in the portable water for 24 hours. After immersion

    of 24 hours those are taken out and wiped with cloths. And then weighed in wet condition. The difference between the weights is the water absorbed by the bricks.

    Table 3 Water Absorption Result (High Silicate Powder)

    Proportions (%)

    W1(dry weight) (kg)

    W2(wet weight) (kg)

    (W2- W1) (Kg)

    Water absorption (%)

    0

    3.100

    3.27

    0.17

    5.80

    10

    3.066

    3.268

    0.202

    6.6

    20

    3.030

    3.246

    0.216

    7.15

    30

    2.760

    2972

    0.212

    7.7

    40

    2.640

    2.828

    0.188

    7.14

    50

    2.516

    2.730

    0.214

    8.51

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    0%

    10% 20% 30% 40%

    50%

    proportion (%)

    Water Absorption

    Fig. 3. Water Absorption Result (High Silicate Powder)

    Proportions (%)

    W1(dry weight) (kg)

    W2(wet weight) (kg)

    (W2- W1) (Kg)

    Water absorption (%)

    0

    3.100

    3.270

    0.170

    5.80

    10

    2.408

    2.571

    0.163

    6.80

    20

    1.990

    2.135

    0.145

    7.30

    30

    1.854

    2.004

    0.150

    8.10

    40

    1.275

    1.387

    0.112

    8.80

    50

    1.396

    1.525

    0.129

    9.30

    Water

    Absorption

    Table 4. Water Absorption Result (Paper Mill Waste)

    10

    0

    0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15%

    Proportion(%)

    Fig. 4. Water Absorption Result (Paper Mill Waste)

    Calculations

    W1 = weight oh dry brick

    W2 = weight of wet brick Water absorption = [(W2-W1)/W1 ] x 100

    =[(9.842-10.546)/9.842]x100 = 7.15%

  6. CONCLUSION

This experimental study came to the conclusion that the brick specimen of size 230×100×70mm were casted for different mix percentage of clay, high silicate powder, paper mill waste instead of clay. However the specimens have been tested for 6 mix proportions. The test such as compressive strength and water absorption were tested and the result was drawn. From the result it was observed that among 6 mix proportions, the maximum compressive strength for 30% of High Silicate Powder (8.7N/mm²),maximum compressive strength for 6% of Paper Mill Waste (6N/mm²)was obtained. And also the water absorption is good in that percentage.

REFERENCES

[1]. AeslinaAbduKadir,AbbasMohajerani(2014)"Bricks: An Excellent Building Material For Recycling Wastes A Review Paper" Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference,Environmental Management and Engineering Calgary, AB, Canada.

[2]. Arti.M,Ajay.N. Burile, Nimita.R, Gautam,Sameer.N. Shinde(2017)."Paper Pulp Waste Used For Manufacturing of Bricks" IJSRD – International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 5 | ISSN (online): 2321 – 0613.

[3]. Digambar.S,Chavan,RiyajMulla.K, Vikas.V,Lengare,(2015) Use of papermill sludge and cotton waste in clay bricks manufacturing Review Paper Novateur Publications International Journal Of Innovations In Engineering Research And Technology [Ijiert]Issn: 2394-3696 Volume 2.

[4]. Hisham H. Abdeen and Samir M. Shihada (2017) "Properties of Fired Clay Bricks Mixed with Waste Glass"Journal of Scientific Research &Reports ; Article no.JSRR.32174 ISSN: 2320-0227.

[5]. L.M. Federico, S.E. Chidiac, R.G. Drysdale(2005)."The Use Of Waste Material In The Manufacturing Of Clay Brick" 10th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Banff, Alberta, June 8 12, 2005.

[6]. Maneeshkumar. C, Ashikmoulana.S, Venkateshan M,An Experimental Study On Use Of Recycle Paper Mill Waste In Light Weight Brick International Journal Of Advanced Research in Engineering & Management (IJAREM).

[7]. Mohammad ShahidArshad, Dr.P.Y. Pawade (2014)."Reuse Of Natural Waste Material For Making Light Weight Bricks"International Journal Of Scientific

&Technology Research Volume 3.

[8]. Niklesh.R. Murekar,Roshan.S. Satpute, Manish.M,Chaudhari (2017)."Using Waste Material for Making Light Weight Bricks" International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Science and Technology (ICRTEST 2017) ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 5 Issue:

1(Special Issue 21-22January2017) 467 – 470.

[9]. Sudharsan.N, Palanisamy.T."FeasibilityOf Using Waste Glass Powder In Flyash Bricks" International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Technology E-Issn 0976-3945.

[10]. RajuSarkar, RiteshKurar, Ashok Kumar Gupta, AnkurMudgal and VarunGupta(2017)."Use of paper mill waste for brick making"Civil& Environmental Engineering | Research Article.Sarkar et al., Cogent Engineering,4:1405768https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916. 2017.1405768

[11]. Rohit Kumar Arya, Rajeev Kansal."Utilization Of Waste Papers To Produce Ecofriendly Bricks"International Journal Of Science And Research(Ijsr)Issn (Online): 2319-7064.

[12]. IS1077-1992- Dimension of brick

[13]. IS3495(PART1):1992- Compression strength [14]. IS3495(PART2):1992- Water absorption

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *