 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 27
 Authors : Sandeep L Naik, Suresh S
 Paper ID : IJERTV8IS070245
 Volume & Issue : Volume 08, Issue 07 (July 2019)
 Published (First Online): 23072019
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Economic Feasibility Study on Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks over Solid Concrete Blocks in Design of Reinforced Concrete Portal Frames
Sandeep L Naik
Post Graduate, Department of Civil Engineering SIT Tumakuru, India
Suresh S Associate Professor SIT Tumakuru, India
Abstract Autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is one of the product of light weight concrete. It is used as an infill for frame elements, the dead load for entire structure gets reduced. In this study an attempt is made to check the feasibility study of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks over solid concrete blocks by comparing the price and quantities of materials required for the framed structure. In this work two models of 4 storey building have been created using an finite element software called staad pro and designed using staad RCDC (Reinforced concrete design compiler). One model is loaded with AAC blocks weight and another with solid concrete block weight and both models beam end forces are compared. From this work it is clear that using AAC blocks as an infill is better choice than solid concrete blocks.
Keywords AAC block, solid concrete block, infill , Staad pro, Staad RCDC.

INTRODUCTION
Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is approximately 1/5 the weight of ordinary concrete thus lower densities have very good impact on environments and it is having density ranging from 320 to 1920 kg/m3 [10] and a compressive strength ranging from 2 to 7 MPa.
AAC is made of either portland cement or lime mortar, sand, water, and an expansive agent such as aluminum powder and is normally produced by a hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of finely ground quartz sand, lime/cement and a small amount of aluminum powder as a poreforming agent under high pressure steam curing at a temperature typically between 180 C to 200 C. During the slurry phase, the metallic aluminium reacts with calcium hydroxide or alkali to form hydrogen gas bubbles which contribute to the high porosity of the aerated concrete. During autoclaving calcium silicate hydrate along with tobermorite is formed which is responsible for strength parameters.
With the usage of AAC blocks, the total energy consumption of buildings can be declined by 7% and cooling energy by 12% [6]. Autoclaved aerated concrete is an certified green building material being nontoxic, renewable and recyclable. The properties are influenced by their densities and the chemical composition varies with the method of curing [8].

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective of the paper is to check the feasibility of autoclaved aerated concrete infill over solid concrete infill in design of concrete portal frames.

METHODOLOGY OF WORK
A 4 storey reinforced concrete structure is considered and modelled in staad pro and is designed for 1.5(Dead load + live load) using staad RCDC. The building is 23.7m x 33.6m in plan. Two models have been used with different infill loadings, one with solid concrete blocks and another with autoclaved aerated concrete block of densities 2100 kg/m3 and 710 kg/m3 respectively. For comparing purpose the concept of equal stress have been incorporated, which gives an clear idea about the same state of stress. Model 2 dimensions have been obtained in comparison to model 1 which is having the same amount of stresses in each of the members. Thus concrete dimensions can be reduced and this leads to savings. Fig 4 and Fig 5 shows that members of both models are stressed to approximately same level of compressive stresses.
Table 1: Member properties of model 1 and model 2
Properties
Model 1
Model 2
Column
0.6 x 0.6 m
0.52 x 0.52 m
Main beams
0.5 x 0.5 m
0.44 x 0.44 m
Secondary beams
0.25 x 0.5 m
0.5 x 0.25 m
Table 2: Building description
Type of frame
ordinary RC moment resisting frame
Number of storey
4
Floor height
4.2 m
Depth of slab
150 mm
Live load
3 kN/m2
Floor finish
1 kN/m2
Thickness of wall
200 mm
Density of solid block and AAC block
21 kN/m3 and
7.1 kN/m3
Fig.1 Beam column layout
Fig.2 Model 1 with infill as solid concrete block
Fig.3 Model 2 with infill as autoclaved aerated concrete
Fig.4 3D beam stress contour for top most left side beam of model 1
Fig.5 3D beam stress contour for top most left side beam of model 2

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Maximum Displacement
The maximum displacement for the both models was approximately equal and is given in Table 3. This is because of the fact that both models are subjected to same level of stress.
Table 3: Maximum displacement
model 1
model 2
12.69 mm
13.75 mm

End force of beam
The end forces of beam for model 1 and model 2 are compared with each other and their average percentage difference is tabulated in Table 4.
Fx
Fy
Mx
Mz
38.49%
41.35%
21.19%
38.18%
Fx
Fy
Mx
Mz
38.49%
41.35%
21.19%
38.18%
Table 4: Average percentage difference of beam end forces

End force of columns
The end forces of column for model 1 and model 2 are compared with each other and their average percentage difference is tabulated in Table 5.
Table 5: Average percentage difference of column end forces
Fx
Fy
Fz
My
Mz
37.40%
44.5%
43.28%
45.59%
44.42%
where
Fx represents axial force.
Fy and Fz represents shear forces in y and z direction. Mx represents torsional moment.
My and Mz represents bending moments in y and z direction.

Reactions
The average percentage difference in reaction for model 1 and model 2 are compared and their average percentage difference is Tabulated in Table 6.
Table 6: Average percentage difference of column end forces
Fx
Fy
Fz
Mx
Mz
58.02%
36.50%
59.50%
48.53%
52.53%

Quantities of materials
Design and estimation of quantities of frame elements is carried out using staad RCDC as per IS 456 2000. The dimensions of solid concrete blocks are 400mm, 200mm with thickness of 100 or 200mm while the dimensions of aerated concrete blocks are 600mm, 200mm with thickness of 100 or 200 mm. The total number of solid 4inch blocks required was 98154 while the total number of AAC 4inch blocks required was 65436. The total number of soli 8inch blocks required was 49077 while the total number of AAC 8inch blocks required was 32718 numbers.
Table 7: Quantities of model 1
elements
concrete (cum)
steel (kg)
shuttering (sq.M)
slab
400.16
23,252.76
2,667.72
beam
572.01
99,261.58
3,587.24
column
159.41
21,455.28
974.72
footing
79.86
3,944.62
124.34
Table 8: Quantities of model 2
elements
concrete (cum)
steel (kg)
shuttering (sq.M)
slab
400.16
23,252.76
2,667.72
beam
486.08
83,591.81
3,313.17
column
119.73
18,767.45
852.43
footing
43.75
2,153.61
83.21
elements
concrete
steel
shuttering
beams
15.02%
15.79%
7.64%
columns
24.89%
12.53%
12.55%
footings
45.22%
45.40%
33.08%
elements
concrete
steel
shuttering
beams
15.02%
15.79%
7.64%
columns
24.89%
12.53%
12.55%
footings
45.22%
45.40%
33.08%
Table 9: Percentage savings in quantities

Estimation
The cost of 4inch AAC block is 50RS and 8inch AAC block is 86 RS while the cost of 4inch concrete block is 29 RS and 8inch concrete block is 50 RS. This rate data is taken from materials tree construction. The price for concrete is taken as RS 5000/cum and for steel RS 55/kg and for shuttering work is taken as RS 600/sq.M.
Table 10: Total cost of building using 4 inch blocks
elements
total cost of model 1 (RS)
total cost of model 2 (RS)
infill
28,46,466
30,10,056
beams
1,04,71,830
90,16,366
column
25,61,912
21,42,330
footing
9,43,945
5,66,285
slab
48,80,324
48,80,324
sum
2,17,04,477
1,96,15,361
percentage diff
9.62 %
Table 4.11 Total cost of building using 8 inch block
elements
total cost of model 1 (RS)
total cost of model 2 (RS)
infill
24,53,850
28,13,748
beams
1,04,71,830
90,16,366
column
25,61,912
21,42,330
footing
9,43,945
5,66,285
slab
48,80,324
48,80,324
sum
2,13,11,861
1,94,19,053
percentage diff
8.88%


CONCLUSION
Based on the results of this study with the usage of aerated concrete blocks over solid concrete blocks in design of portal frames, the following conclusions are presented

The axial force and shear forces in beams was reduced by 38.49 % and 41.35 % respectively while torsional moments and bending moments in beams was reduced by 21.19 % by 38.18% respectively.

The axial force in columns was reduced by 37.4 %, and shear forces in y and z direction was reduced by
44.5 % and 44.42 % respectively and moments in columns in y and z direction was reduced by 45.59
% and 44.42 % respectively.

The axial load for design of footing was reduced by
36.50 %, and reaction moments in x and z direction was reduced by 48.53% and 52.53 %.

With the usage of 4 inch AAC blocks, 9.62 % of building costs can be saved and with the usage of 8 inch AAC blocks, 8.88 % of building costs can be saved.

Overall percentage savings in concrete was 13.34 % and in steel was 13.62 % and in shuttering work was
5.95 %.
Thus it is feasible to use Aerated concrete block than solid concrete block as an infill in portal frame.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to all those who have extended a helping hand, especially my guide Suresh S. I thank him
from my heart for his valuable guidance. I am also grateful to the Dr. S V Dinesh Head of the Department, Civil Engineering, SIT for the encouragement and cooperation.
REFERENCES

Pawel Walczak, Pawel Szymanski, Agnieszka Roczycka, Autoclaved aerated concrete based on fly ash in density 350 kg/m3 as an environmentally friendly material for energy efficient constructions, journal of procedia engineering, Vol 122, pp 3946, 2015.

Kittipong Kunchariyakun, Suwimol Asavapisit, Kwannate Sombatsompop, Properties of autoclaved aerated concrete incorporating rice husk ash as partial replacement for fine aggregate, journal of cement & concrete composites, Vol 55, pp 11 16, 2015.

Huiwen Wan, Yong Hu, Gang Liu, Yuan Qu, Study on the structure and properties of autoclaved aerated concrete produced with the stonesawing mud journal of construction and building materials, Vol 184, pp 2026, 2018..

Deepa Doddamani, Mangala Keshava, AAC Block Masonry with Ready MixMortar – An Experimentaland Numerical Analysis, journal of recent advances in structural engineering, Vol 1, pp 681 692, 2018.

Katarzyna Laskawiec, Piotr Gebarowski, Jan Malolepszy, Influence of fluidized ashes on properties of autoclaved aerated concrete, ACI Materials Journal, vol 113, pp 409417, 2016.

Hassan Radhi, viability of autoclaved aerated concrete walls for the residential sector in the united arab emirates, journal of Energy and Buildings, vol 43, pp 20892092, 2011.

Nasim Uddin, Fouad H. Fouad, Uday K. Vaidya, Amol K. Khotpal, Juan c. Serrano perez, Structural behavior of fiberreinforced polymerautoclaved aerated concrete panels, ACI structural journal, vol 104, pp 722730, 2007.

N. Narayanan, K. Ramamurthy, Structure and properties of aerated concrete: a review , journal of cement & concrete composites, vol 22, pp 321329, 2000.

J. Varela Rivera, L. Fernandez Baqueiro, R. Alcocer Canche, J. Ricalde Jimenez, R. Chimmay, Shear and Flexural Behavior of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Confined Masonry Walls, ACI structural journal, vol 14531462, 2018.

Fernando Pacheco Torgal, Paulo Lourenco, Joao Labrincha, P. Chindaprasirt, S. Kumar, Ecoefficient masonry bricks and blocks, Woodhead Publishing, 1st edition, 2014.