Economic and Environmental Value for Electrical and Electronic Waste Recycling in North African Countries

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  • Authors : Monaem Elmnifi , Hazim Moria , Alzaroog Emhamed , Mohammed Alsaker, Moneer Amhamed
  • Paper ID : IJERTV8IS080088
  • Volume & Issue : Volume 08, Issue 08 (August 2019)
  • DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV8IS080088
  • Published (First Online): 16-08-2019
  • ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
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Economic and Environmental Value for Electrical and Electronic Waste Recycling in North African Countries

Monaem Elmnifi1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bright Star University, Libya

Hazim Moria2

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah 41912, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Alzaroog Emhamed3 Department of Electrical Engineering,

Bright Star University, Libya

Mohammed Alsaker4

5Department of Chemical Engineering, Bright Star University, Libya

Moneer Amhamed5 4Electrecity Company, Elmarj, Libya

Abstract Population and urbanization in the region of North African Countries (NAC) have increased quickly, with significant improvements in living standards in the last four decades. The Electronic Waste (EW) increases significantly in this fortune. This paper reviews the current NAC drill of EW product management including quantities of EW generation, disposal, and reuse/recycling practices; EW generation forecasts up to 2035, based on two scenarios: low and high; and discusses the long-run potential for EW in the NAC region. The assessment demonstrates that the entire low, high EW generation will be around 1982 and 3568 in 2035. The findings showed that to tackle future environmental concerns and optimize the economic opportunity inherent in EW the EW management laws in the NAC field need to be thoroughly assessed.

Keywords Economic Value; Environmental Value; Electronic Waste; Electrical Waste; North African Countries

  1. INTRODUCTION

    North African Countries (NAC) has experienced a growth in population along with urbanization and living touchstone. This leads to a substantial increase in waste products of all types, including but not limited to, electronic waste [1]. The developments in engineering science combined with throw- away and annual upgrading of electronic device result in shorter life-spans of electronic waste. Appropriate electronic waste management and recycling is a real challenge for both development and development [2]. However, the issues regarding electronic waste in developing countries are significant due to the lack of regularization and adroitness. Electronic waste includes all electrical and electronic equipment discarded by end users, and are not meant to reuse [3,4]. Electronic waste is categorized into different classifications, and its percentages include tiny IT and telecommunications systems 8.72%, small electrical appliances 37.58%, screens and monitors 14.76%, big electrical appliances 36%, lights 1.57%, and heating and freezing equipment 17% [2]. These devices as electronic waste contain a range of materials such as plastic, wood and plywood, spyglass, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, ceramics and rubber, and printed circuit boards. The iron sword has a 50% of electronic waste, 21% of electronic waste contains plastic, and

    13% contains non-ferrous metals including aluminum, pig and valuable metals including gold, platinum, silver, palladium, and others [5]. Electronic waste also includes hazardous materials such as mercury, arsenic, lead, selenium, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and flame retardants that sometimes exceed acceptable rates of room access [6,7]. The global electronic waste material yield in 2016 was calculated to be about 44.7 million metric tons, and around 20% of this sum of money was recycled through proper and regulated recycling outline [2]. The global electronic waste in 2017 was estimated to be around 46 million metric tons and projected to exceed

    52.2 million metric tons by 2021. This production of electronic waste worldwide is divided as follows; 40.7% generated by Asia, 27.52% was produced by Europe, 25.28% generated in

    U.S. (South America 6.71%, Central America 2.68%, and Magnetic north America 15.67%, 4.92% generated in Africa, and 1.57% generated in Oceania [2]. The world population is estimated to surpass 9.6 one thousand million persons by 2050 [8]. This population increase will upsurge waste and electronic waste and thus complicate the situations for all country to regulate and monitor the efficient execution of electric waste recycling. Previous studies have indicated that higher waste per capita exists in countries with higher income as compared with low-income body politic [9]. The correlation between revenue degree and urbanization with the quantity of waste, including electronic waste, is obvious and documented [10]. Have anticipated global per capita electronic waste manufacturing, including fellow NAC member states. This paper reappraisal the current EW management practices in NAC including EW generation measure, disposal, and reuse/recycle methods; prognosis EW generation up to the year 2035 based on two scenarios: low, and high. Also, it describes the environmental and financial values of EW in the NAC Region as regards its long-term potential.

  2. NAC ELECTRICAL WASTE

    The United Nations University (UN) estimates that national EW generation in Africa was roughly 2.2 Mt in 2017, with contributions from Egypt (0.5 Mt), South Africa and Algeria (0.3 Mt each) ranking highest. The top three African nations with the largest generation of e-waste per inhabitant are

    Seychelles (11.5 kg /in), Libya (11 kg /in), and Mauritius (8.6 kg /in). As illustrated in Figure 1, there is currently little information on the amount of e-waste documented that is collected [2]. Waste generated in Egypt by electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is managed by waste traders and waste collectors. A success full WEEE management system such as Switzerlands is in most cases market driven and self- organized. Among the key limitations in such a comparison is that although the bulk of E-waste is growing in Egypt and the

    higher range of maturation. Two scenarios for a generation were created to know the magnitude and importance of wastefulness: low and high. The scenarios are based on 4% and 8% development in a waste generation for both low and high. Based on EW generation data for the year 2017, as shown in table1, the EW generation rate for each country up to the year 2035 was forecasted.

    TABLE I. NACEW GENERATION IN 2017 [2]

    CountryPopulation MillionE-waste per capita,

    kg

    Total, tons × 103
    Libya6.3751170
    Tunisia11.535.663
    Algeria41.326.2252
    Egypt97.555.5497
    Morocco35.743.7127
    Total E-waste in NAC1009
    CountryPopulation MillionE-waste per capita,

    kg

    Total, tons × 103
    Libya6.3751170
    Tunisia11.535.663
    Algeria41.326.2252
    Egypt97.555.5497
    Morocco35.743.7127
    Total E-waste in NAC1009

    /td>

     

    rest of the Arab countries, it is still not high enough to attract huge investments. Instead, the current system consists of

    private-private relationships among recycling enterprises, wholesalers, dealers, itinerant buyers, and waste pickers. These relationships are driven by financial profit and not social or environmental awareness [11]. The 2006 EW and recycling assessment by Algeria disclosed that the waste amounts that are accessible and the capability of current installations are not linked. Egypt may be the WEEE leadership precursor in the region. Egypt’s E-Recycling Co. (EERC) is the country’s first WEEE recycling plant and, while still low inability, is the

    increasing e-waste prominent in environmental protection. A new business, spear ink, developed environmentally friendly toner and inkjet replenishment equipment that are regarded as industrial models [11].

    Morocco conducted its first EW and EW leadership programs evaluation nationwide in 2007. It has further facilitated the set-up, in comparison to the other people in high- income economies, of EW managed and CMPP processing plants. The EW Collection project called’ Green CHIP for digital equipment used, is run by Managem, Al-Jisr, and CMPP as well. Tunisia holds an annual ability of 1000 tones, of EW, obtained and transported to recycling installations, such as the ones managed by the National Waste Management Agency ANGED [11].

    Fig. 1. : Electrical waste generation in Africa [2]

  3. EW PRODUCT GENERATION FORECAST

    The United State Environmental safeguard agency has estimated a yearly increase image from 5% to 10% in EW generation to occur worldwide due to increasing in-universe and touchstone of living, and advances in technology. NAC neighborhood will be no exception and is expected to be in the

  4. RESULTS AND RESULTS

    The following formats illustrate the expected results based on the proposed scenarios. The expected outcomes of the scenes reflect the size of the EW problem in North African countries, but at the same time, highlight their potential economic values. The total generation of EW for low and high scenarios by 2035 will be around 1982 and 3568 thousand tons, respectively. These are significant amounts, and if any of the proposed situations occur, they can either lead to significant economic value, if well managed, or environmental impacts on the operators and population of the region.

    Fig. 2. Low Scenario Results
    calculation, the potential economic value of electronic waste up to the year 2035 as shown in table 2 and 3 for the low and high scenario, respectively.

    Based on the fact that the EWs in the NAC countries are not quantified and segregated, the economic value of e-waste cannot be correctly estimated. This study showed enormous economic value in e-waste in NAC, given the presumptions connected with Scenario’s e-waste forecasting. The total estimated economic value of e-waste in the North African countries during 2017 for the low scenario is 1177 million Euros (see table 2). The highest economic value was obtained in 2017 in Egypt, worth EUR 580 million. The overall Economic cost in North Africa is projected to amount to EUR 2309 million by 2035, of which Egypt (EUR 1134 million), Algeria (EUR 575 million), Morocco (EUR 293 million) and Libya (EUR 163 million) will include Tunisia (EUR 144 million), as illustrated in Table 2 and 3.

    Fig. 3. High Scenario Results TABLE II. EXPECTED ECONOMIC VALUES OF EW TO 2035 IN NORTH AFRICAN COUNTRIES FOR LOW SCENARIO
    calculation, the potential economic value of electronic waste up to the year 2035 as shown in table 2 and 3 for the low and high scenario, respectively.

    Based on the fact that the EWs in the NAC countries are not quantified and segregated, the economic value of e-waste cannot be correctly estimated. This study showed enormous economic value in e-waste in NAC, given the presumptions connected with Scenario’s e-waste forecasting. The total estimated economic value of e-waste in the North African countries during 2017 for the low scenario is 1177 million Euros (see table 2). The highest economic value was obtained in 2017 in Egypt, worth EUR 580 million. The overall Economic cost in North Africa is projected to amount to EUR 2309 million by 2035, of which Egypt (EUR 1134 million), Algeria (EUR 575 million), Morocco (EUR 293 million) and Libya (EUR 163 million) will include Tunisia (EUR 144 million), as illustrated in Table 2 and 3.

    Fig. 3. High Scenario Results TABLE II. EXPECTED ECONOMIC VALUES OF EW TO 2035 IN NORTH AFRICAN COUNTRIES FOR LOW SCENARIO

     

    Fig. 4. Total EW Generation

    The above results show that North African countries are expected to produce large amounts of waste, even with a 4% annual increase, which is considered low. The increase in per capita income from the North African countries indicates that the yearly increase in EW generation will likely be at an annual level of 8%. This is a significant problem and will put the responsibility of the governments of the region to take immediate action to combat the issue of EW now when the issue remains manageable.

    The material in electronic EW product globally was estimated at quintuplet 5 billion Euro s in 2016, and the global electronic waste production was 44 Mt [2]. The NAC portion based on the determined output of 1009 Kt would be 1.651% of which is 1207.6 million Euros. This is equivalent to 1,199. 86 Euro per long ton of electronic waste. This number will be a pivotal value used in the economic appraisal of electronic waste in NAC countries. Using this number as a base of

    YearsLibyaTunisiaAlgeriaEgyptMorocco
    20178274293580148
    20219685340672171
    202410996381752193
    2027122107426843216
    2031141125495978252
    20351631445751134293
    Total713631251049591273

    TABLE III. EXPECTED ECONOMIC VALUES OF EW TO 2035 IN NORTH AFRICAN COUNTRIES FOR HIGH SCENARIO

    YearsLibyaTunisiaAlgeriaEgyptMorocco
    20178376298590150
    20219786345683174
    202411197387764196
    2027124108433856219
    2031143127501994256
    20351651465841152297
    Total723640254850391292

    EW poses significant health and environmental risks that are not directly impacted by the presence of heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, flame retardants, and other hazardous substances. However, some EW also contains high- value materials such as gold, silver, copper, platinum, iron, aluminum, indium, gallium, and other precious metals. One ton of mobile phones contains 3.5 kg of silver, 0.34 kg of gold, 0.14kg of palladium, and 130 kg of copper valued at the US $ 15,000 [12]. The value of the recycled desktop is estimated at

    8.61 EUR, according to the market price of the materials [13]. The study showed that not much had been done by North African countries to address the issue of EW so far.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC WASTE

    In informal and unregulated African nations, nearly all e- wastes are processed, and in unregulated land, dangerous substances arising from disassembly are disposed of straight into the soil. Tables 4 shows the average material composition of four electric appliances. In addition to burning wires and copper cables, screen and television covers, which mainly contain polychlorinated compounds containing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or old tires, are fuel for fire,

    contributing to acute chemical hazards, long-term contamination at sites of combustion, and emission of ozone- depleting substances Ozone and greenhouse gases, as well as health risks. Although electronics and telecommunications businesses are responsible for a significant quantity of the continent’s electronic waste, they have no plans (present or future) to securely dispose of it after its expiration. It is located in the city of Accra, Ghana, the world’s most massive e-waste dump, which emits thick columns of burning smoke, aimed at extracting copper and aluminum, with large amounts of toxic dioxins. However, most of the burning and recycling work is carried out by young people Children [13]. Greenpeace revealed high levels of heavy metals in soil samples in discharge areas, especially lead, at concentrations 100 times higher than normal levels, exacerbating the crisis by raising cattle, goats, and chickens on plants that grow in these soils [14]. A survey conducted in Sudan revealed that (72%) of the workers in the field of communications are unaware of the dangers of e-waste, some (29%) do not care about the damage, and (84%) do not know who is responsible for protecting people from them [15,16].

    MaterialsTV

    Set

    RefrigeratorWashing MachineAir Conditioner
    Iron (plus alloy)7.94955.745.9
    Copper (plus alloy)1.53.42.918.5
    Aluminum (plus alloy)0.31.11.48.6
    Other alloy1.41.10.51.5
    Plastics16.143.334.717.5
    Glass62.4000
    Gas (cfc/others)01.102
    Circuit Boards8.101.53.1
    Others0.513.32.9
    Total100100100100
    Breakdown of plastics (mass ratio %)
    Polypropylene (PP)8.924.776.521.2
    Polystyrene (PS)84.526.36.231.9
    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)1.716.3310.8
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)3.27.95.710.6
    Others1.724.88.625.5
    MaterialsTV

    Set

    RefrigeratorWashing MachineAir Conditioner
    Iron (plus alloy)7.94955.745.9
    Copper (plus alloy)1.53.42.918.5
    Aluminum (plus alloy)0.31.11.48.6
    Other alloy1.41.10.51.5
    Plastics16.143.334.717.5
    Glass62.4000
    Gas (cfc/others)01.102
    Circuit Boards8.101.53.1
    Others0.513.32.9
    Total100100100100
    Breakdown of plastics (mass ratio %)
    Polypropylene (PP)8.924.776.521.2
    Polystyrene (PS)84.526.36.231.9
    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)1.716.3310.8
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)3.27.95.710.6
    Others1.724.88.625.5

     

    TABLE IV. AVERAGE MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC WASTE

EW management in North African countries needs to be thoroughly modified to minimize their environmental impacts and increase their economic value. The amendment should begin with new regulations with useful tools for implementing best practices for EW management, such as government incentives to promote EW recycling. In addition to the implementation of initial programs such as recovery programs

and other programs that provide incentives to users to provide their end-of-life electronic waste to the companies or government institutions that will ensure them are placed through the appropriate recycling process. The study of EW in North African countries is emerging area of study requires Conduct research on obtaining reliable data on the amount of EW produced in individual North African countries and the possibility of companies entering the market in the region. Waste Recycling. The potential of modern recycling plants depends on the data that can be generated to determine the amount of e-waste produced. The findings of the study highlight the need for a comprehensive research program to assess EW in North African countries.

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