 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1550
 Authors : Doulat Pawar, Dr. V. K Sethi, Anurag Gour
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS10562
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 01 (January 2014)
 Published (First Online): 23012014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design Optimization of Solar PV Power Plant for Improved Efficiency of Solar PV Plant by Maximum Power Point Tracking System
Doulat Pawar1, Dr. V. K Sethi2, Anurag Gour3

M.Tech Scholar School of Energy Technology, UTD, RGPV Bhopal INDIA

Professor School of Energy Technology, UTD, RGPV Bhopal INDIA

Assistant Professor School of Energy Technology UTD, RGPV Bhopal INDIA
Abstract
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a method that grid connected inverters, solar battery chargers and similar devices use to get the maximum potential power from one or more photovoltaic devices, normally solar panels. PV and IV curve for MPPT [fig 1]This paper presents a relative study of widelyadopted MPPT algorithms; their performance is calculated on the basis of energy generation capability in most effective way, by using the simulation tool Matlab/Simulink, taking into account different solar irradiance variations. PV cells have a relationship between, temperature solar irradiation, and total resistance which generate non linear production efficiency which can be studied for optimum power generation which is based on the VI characteristic curve of PV module.
It is the purpose of the MPPT system to model the output of the cells and apply the appropriate load resistance to obtain maximum power for any given ecological conditions. solar radiation energy is most Viable & eco friendly source of energy. It shows ways to Integrate solar design into multiunits of small household PV plant, and provides calculations and examples to show how better design optimization decisions can increase the useable solar energy. The improvement in overall system efficiency of integrated PV modules embedded in power plant increased power generation is achieved by minimizing and capturing energy losses.
Keywords: P&O Algorithm, Solar Photovoltaic cell, buck converter, MPPT, Simulink model, solar tracking

Introduction
The MATLAB/SIMULINK model consists of PV module proposed model of plant, buck/boost converter [fig 2], and MPPT controller. The role of the present work is in the modeling of buck converter using standard equation model approach moderately than circuit model. The buck/boost converter model is developed using model based on governing equation [2.1] that allowing the input voltage of the converter, i.e. output voltage of particular PV module is altered by varying the duty cycle, so that the maximum power point could be tracked when the ecological conditions changes. This paper is focused on the famous Perturb and Observe (P&O) method [fig 10] and is compare to predefined system.
Fig 1 PV & IV curve for MPPT
The model work with MPPT controller, a DC/DC, buck/boost converter feeding a load is achieved. The simulation results proposed that the MPPT algorithm used in the solar PV system is applicable. For
particular power plant to work efficiently the BOS (Balance of system) [fig 3] must satisfy the basic condition to laid down the plant. The BOS typically includes grid inverters, mounting system, cable and connectors. The life expectancy of the PV module support Structures are assumed 50 years. Inverters, transformers, cable and connector are considered to last for 30 years, but spare must be replaced every 10 years based on data provided by the power industry on transformers and electronic components. The life cycle record includes the energy use by running authority and regular maintenance of system is required for proper generation of electric power through the solar PV plant
Fig:2 Proposed model of PV Array plant (MPPT controller using "Incremental Conductance" Technique)
Fig: – 3 Balance of system for PV plant
1.1 Boost Converter Technology
A Boosttype dc/dc converter [fig 4] is used to interface the PV output to the battery and to trail the maximum power point of the solar PV array. The boost converter power switch consists of one or more parallelconnected power MOSFETs. The fly back diode is of a highspeed switching type. The parameters of the converter are given in table below.
Fig: 4 DC/DC Boost converter technologies
A maximum power point tracker system (MPPT) can be used to keep the PV modules operating point at the MPP. By using MPPT, we can extract more than 97% of the PV power when accurately optimized. We require a DCDC converter [fig 5] that converts produced DC voltage by the PV module to a load voltage demand. Suitable Digital controller that drives the converter operation with MPPT capability.
Fig: – 5 Schematic of Boost Converter
Parameter
values
Inductor (L)
200
Capacitor (c)
1.25 mF
Mosfet switch
30A 500V
Diode (D)
60A 600V
Switching freq.
100 KHz
Duty cycle
25 ms
Table: – 1 DC/DC converter parameters

Basics of solar PV cell
Fig: – 6 Equivalent circuit of the PV cell

Typical Rating of a PV module
=
+
1 . (3)
Electrical parameter
PM80
Maximum power rating Pmax (Wp)
80.5
Minimum power rating Pmin(Wp)
75.0
Rated current Impp (A)
4.6
Rated voltage Vmpp (V)
17.5
Short – circuit current Isc (A)
5.0
Open circuit current Voc (V)
21.5
= + ( ) (4)
1 0 1
Table: – 2 Solar cell parameter for PM80
Study of PV, VI curve of a cell module with
1 = (1, ) …. .(5)
= 2 1 .. (6)
(2 1 )
3 ( 1)
1 1
manufacturer specification is taken into consideration when design optimization of power plant was done.
= 1 Ã—
1
1 . (7)
[Table 2]= (1 ) .. (8)

Physical Parameter
1
( 1 )1
1

Number of seriesconnected cells: 36

Physical dimension (mm): 1200 x550x35

Weight (Kg) : 7.5
The basic creation solar cell is analogous to photodiode, usually of semiconductor like silicon, designed to maximize the absorption of photons from the sun light and minimize reflection through the surface of PV module. When it receives an incident light, it behaves as a current initiator whose value increases in inverse function of the quantity of light incident upon it. The PV array block menu allows us to plot the VI and PV characteristics for one cell module and for the whole array.


Governing Equation for Solar PV Cell
In a PV cell, the Itotal (i.e. total current) is the same as the current IL (load current) produced by the photoelectric effect of PV cell minus the ID, (diode current) .Basic equations are:
= … (1)
I = 1 . (2)
Where,

Measured cell voltage
Io – Saturation current of the diode,
q – Elementary charge1.6×1019 Coulombs, k – Constant of value 1.38×1023J/K,
T – Cell temperature in Kelvin,
Theparameters that are determined from the VI curve of PV cell are very important like shortcircuit current (ISC) of cell its, opencircuit voltage (VOC), the fill factor (FF) and efficiency. The model includes the temperature dependence of photocurrent I and saturation current of the diode Io shown in [fig 7.]


Terms used in equations are I – Current from solar cell
G – Isolation in W/m2.
T – Temp for which VI characteristics have to be found.
T1 Temperature for which characteristics is known. Isc – short circuit current
KO – Increase in Amps/ Degree increase in Temp q – Charge of an electron
Voc Open circuit voltage
Above equation provides the basic circuit model shown above and the following related equation, where n is the diode ideality factor.


IV curve
The array VI & PV characteristics are changed at different value of cell temperature [fig 7] (Voc, Isc, Vmp, Imp) under standard test conditions (25 deg. C, 1000 W/m2). The array VI and PV characteristics at 1000 W/m2 are displayed for different cell
temperatures [fig 7].PV module or solar cell shows different behavior when exposed to different value of solar irradiance [fig 8]
Fig 7 PV graph with respect module temperature
Fig: – 8 V I graph with respect to irradiance
Fig: – 9 PV graph with respect to incident irradiance
[Fig. 9] shows the characteristic power curve for a PV array for different values of incident irradiance. The problem measured by MPPT techniques is to automatically find the voltage VMPP (Voltage at maximum power point) or IMPP (Current at maximum power point) at which a PV array should operate to obtain the output PMPP (Power at maximum power point ) under a given temperature and irradiance. It is considered that under partialshading conditions, it is possible to have multiple local maxima, but we get only one MPP. Most techniques respond to changes in both irradiance and temperature, but few are more useful if approximate constant temperature is found. Many techniques were repeatedly react to alteration in the PV array, though few are open loop and require periodic tuning with respect to sun. In this case, the PV array will usually be coupled to a power converter that can change the current imminent from the PV array.

Classification
MPPT Controllers typically trail one method to optimize the generated power output of a solar array out of the three. Maximum power point trackers use different algorithms and switch among them based on the working conditions of the array & they are –

Perturb and observe

Incremental conductance Method

Current drag/sweep Method

Comparison of methods for MPP
The perturbandobserve and incremental conductance is examples of hill rising method, also known as perturbation method, is the most commonly used MPPT algorithm in commercial PV product. This is a trial and error method. The PV controller increases the reference for the inverter output power by a small amount, and then detects the actual output power. If the output power is indeed increased, it will increase again until the output power starts to decrease, at which the controller decreases the reference to avoid collapse of the PV output due to the nonlinear PV characteristic. The enhanced perturbationobservation method can eliminate the oscillation near the maximum power point. The P&O method can generate oscillations of output power around the MPP even under balanced state solar illumination.
P&O method is the most common. In this method very less number of sensors are utilized the operating voltage is sampled and the algorithm changes the operating voltage in the required direction and samples /. If / is positive, then the
algorithm increases the voltage value towards the MPP until /is negative. This iteration is continued until the algorithm finally reaches the MPP. This algorithm is not suitable when the variation in the solar irradiation is high. The voltage never actually reaches an exact value but perturbs around the maximum power point (MPP).
The main task of the incremental conductance algorithm is to find the derivative of PV output power with respect to its output voltage, that is dP/dV Perturb and observe method can find out the maximum power point without swings around this value. It finds maximum power point tracking under rapid changing environmental conditions with greater accuracy than the basic perturb and observe method. The calculation time for MPP is increased due to slowing down of the sampling frequency resulting from the higher complexity of the algorithm compared to the P&O method. However, efficiencies of some systems may reach above 95%.MPPT placement.
Figure 10 Flow chart of P&O algorithm.


Effect of variation of solar irradiation
The output PV and VI curves of a PV cell are directly dependent on the solar irradiation values. Due to ecological variation the solar irradiation keeps on fluctuating, but MPPT control method are available which find this variation and can change the power generating efficiency of the PV cell to
congregate the required power load demands. Solar irradiation falling on PV module has direct relationship with power generating capability of PV cell. Greater the Solar irradiation greater the solar input to the solar cell and hence power generation level would increase for the identical voltage value. As solar irradiation, increase the open circuit voltage (IOC) increases. This is because, when more sunlight falls on to the solar cell, the more electrons are supplied with higher excitation energy, thereby increasing the electron mobility and thus more power is generated. We can see that these two kinds of method can make PV cells operate at the maximum power point from the simulating figure. However, there is obvious oscillating near the maximum power point through comparing.
Fig 11simulation waveform of traditional P&O method
Fig 12 simulation waveform of improved P&O method

Conclusion
This paper suggest an improved P&O, MPPT method by using it we increased generation efficiency by 25% from same value of irradiance. This method calculates the maximum power and controls directly the produced power from the PV solar cell. The proposed method offers various advantages, whose response is high and well control for the extracted power, good tracking efficiency. This paper discussed the modeling and simulation of PV array and the implementation of an MPPT algorithm for
tracking systems from the simulation; it inferred how the maximum power point is tracked using P&O algorithm to maximize the power output of the PV array.
The work focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and compared to a designed proposed system. A simulation work dealing with MPPT controller, a DC/DC uk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results [fig 11, 12] showed the validity of the proposed MPPT in the PV system.
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