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 Total Downloads : 495
 Authors : Bindu S J, C A Babu
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS031529
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 03 (March 2014)
 Published (First Online): 29032014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design of Single Stage Single Switch Improved Power Quality ACDC converter
Bindu S J , C A Babu
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering School of Engineering, CUSAT,
Kochi,Kerala, India
Abstract ACDC converter are increasingly used in application such as UPS, battery Charger and in application where size, weight and cost are major concern. Since the power converters draw pulsed current from the utility line current harmonics are injected to the electrical network. Power quality is an issue that is becoming important to electricity consumers at all level of usage. Sensitive equipment and nonlinear loads are common place in both industrial and domestic environment. Harmonic distortion can result in malfunction of sensitive equipment and generators. Power factor corrected convertor is increasingly usedin industry to improve input current quality and regulate the output voltage of front end convertor.This paper presents a Single Stage Single Switch Power Factor Corrected Converter. This converter achieves power factor correction and regulates output voltage by using only one switch. In this paper a design solution is presented to avoid the DC bus voltage stress at light load by suitable selection of boost inductor using Equal Area Criterion (EAC).
Simulation studies done using ORCADsoftware and actual test results are compared and analyzed. The input current waveform is found to be sinusoidal and in phase with input voltage, the voltage stress is quiet insignificant.DC bus voltage stress during light load condition is observed. Under closed loop condition the stress was found almost eliminated.

INTRODUCTION
Requirement and stipulations specified by IEEE 519 and IEC 6100032 with respect to low harmonic distortion and high input power factor aroused interest in active current wave shaping technique. Therefore, a power factor correction stage has to be inserted to the existing equipment to achieve a good power factor. There are other reasons for wanting to limit harmonic currents, these include being able to use the full rated current from the available power source. THD is the ratio of harmonic current to the fundamental component. Power factor and THD are related by
p.f=
1
1+()2
The goal then of a PFC convertor is to reduce the harmonic content of the current waveform and keep the phase angle between the current and the voltage as small as possible. In effect the circuit wants to emulate the resistive load.
The new family of power factor corrected switching power supplies normally consists of two stages in the power circuit, viz. The input power factor correction stage and the output DC to DC converter stage. Continuous efforts to further make
these power converters compact and cost effective too lead to the development of new class of power supplies known as Single Stage Single Switch Switch Mode Rectifier, which is the integration of PFC stage and the DC to DC converter stage. It uses only one switch and controller to shape the input current and regulate the output voltage.The energy storage device in between is necessary to absorb and supply the difference between the pulsating instantaneous input power and constant output power [1].
A major problem associated with Single Stage Single Switch power factor converter is strong dependency of DC bus voltage stress across the capacitor with the output load [1], [2]. Power unbalance between PFC stage and DCDC stage is the inherent reason for causing high DC bus voltage stress. Frequency control is other solution proposed to overcome high DC voltage stress [13]. But this call for complex control circuit.The concept of series charging, parallel discharging capacitor schemeis another solution.[14].But this call for more component count in the power circuit. Another approach to this problem is by modulating the predetermined operating frequency of the converter[15] increased complexity in the control circuit.
In this paper a design solution is proposed based on application of equal area criterion (EAC) to the discontinuous current operation [5]. This paper gives a method to avoid the problem of energy unbalance between energy stored during on period of switch and energy dissipated in the load by optimally sizing the boost inductor. Maximum energy stored in the inductor shall be limited to such a value that this energy matches with maximum output power required. The instant at which maximum power delivered shall be matched with the instant when the input ac voltage is at the peak. Also consider the fact that maximum power is delivered at a duty ratio which is slightly less than the limiting duty ratio (0.5) for DCM operation.Equal Area Criterion is applied between theoretically calculated fundamental component of input ac current and the peak inductor current when tonis maximum. Using this approach the design was carried out, and simulated testing as well as experimental observation showed only a very small rise in DC bus voltage at light load condition, even under open loop. After introducing closed loop control with output voltage as controlled variable and duty ratio as manipulated variable the DC bus voltage stress was found almost insignificant.

THE BIFRED CONVERTER
Figure 1. The BIFRED PFC ac/dc converter
One of the basic configurations of single stage single switch SMR is the BIFRED converter which is the acronym for Boost Integrated with Fly Back Rectifier / Energy storage / DC DC converters which is shown in Fig.1.It integrates a DCM boost converter with dcdc converter. DCM boost HQR is chosen here as the converter which draws energy at line frequencies due to its inherently law line current harmonics. Continuous current mode Fly back converter can provide wide bandwidth response. Two elements are common in the design of single stage single switch switched mode rectifier. First, the mode of input inductor must be maintained such that input inductor begins and ends each switch cycle at a ground state. Second, the converter must have an energy storage capacitor which is capable of providing energy when the instantaneous line voltage is near zero.
When S is turned on, rectified line input voltage appears across the boost inductor and the output magnetizing inductor stores their energy independently during the on interval of the switch. When the switch is turned off, the stored energies are delivered to the bulk capacitor and to the load.
Under light load condition the PFC stage without realizing this, stores the same energy as that of the heavy load leading to an unbalanced power between the input and the output [1]. This unbalanced power gets stored across the bulk capacitor causing the dc bus voltage to increase. One way to take care of this problem is through closed loop control which will automatically reduces the on duration of the switch by sensing the output voltage thus by striking a power balance. But thedynamic response of the system being poor this methodis found not so attractive [2].

PFC CONVERTER WITH DC BUS VOLTAGE FEEDBACK
Figure 2.Converter with power stage negative feedback
An alternative method was proposed to use a negative feed back scheme in the power stage instead of in the control loop [2]. Fig 2 shows this scheme.A negative feedback voltageVfis obtained by using a feed back winding coupled with the
isolation transformer. This will make the resultant voltage available across boost inductor less when the DCbus voltage increases, thus putting limit on to the input power drawn and by striking a power balance.

THE PROPOSEDSINGLE STAGE SINGLE SWITCH PFC CONVERTER.
Figure 3. The Proposed Single Stage Single Switch PFC converter
Proposed converter, shown in Fig. 3, is a modified BIFRED converter, which avoids the use ofD1and thenegative voltage feedback Vf. Equal area criterion(EAC) is applied to achieve optimum design ofboost inductor, coupled with a closed loop control withoutput dc voltage as controlled variable and duty ratio asmanipulated variable so as to eliminate the problem of dc bus voltage stress at light load. To fully explain the circuit, converter operation will be analysed according to the three operational stages.
Stage I.
This stage starts when the switch turns on , causing the current in inductor L1, to ramp up from 0 with a slope, which is proportional to the instantaneous line voltage. Diode D1 is reverse biased. At the end of this interval the amount of energy is stored in L1 which depends only on input line voltage and is independent of the current and voltages of other inductors and capacitors.
Stage II.
This stage starts when S turns OFF, which causes the current in inductor L1, to ramp down with a slope proportional to the instantaneous line voltage minus the energy storage capacitor voltage minus the output voltage reflected to the primary. Diode D1 conducts.
Stage III.
This mode starts when the current in inductor L1 reaches zero. Switch remains off, diode D1 conducts. During this mode, the potential energy level of L1 and C1 remains unchanged. Capacitor C2 and the load receive energy from the coupled inductor L2, and C2 passes energy to the load.

DESIGN OF PFC STAGE BY EQUAL AREA
i I

Em
(cos t
) cos( + t
t) (Vdc + nV2 ) t
CRITERION.
r 2 L
on on L
The rectifier input current is discontinuous in nature. A typical input current pulse superimposed on the reference
currentImSint, is shown in Fig. 4.
EAC applied to single stage single switch power factor converter means equalizing the areaunder a sinusoidal reference current and the area underthe input current in the total period of one switchingcycle [4].
1 1
(2)
At the beginning I1 = 0
During on time, i Em [cos cos( t)]
1
r L
Where < t< ton
Off mode current becomes zero at t toff
(3)
I I Em [cos ( t ) cos( + t t)] (Vdc + nV2 ) t
3 2 L on on L
1 1
Where < t< toff
(4)

Design of Boost Inductor.
At the end of on duration I2
is maximum ( I2 peak ).
I2 peak occurs at = 90 and duty cycle is maximum. The off
duration followed by this I2 peak
will be minimum.
Figure 4. Input current pulse superimposed on reference current.
T = t0n+ toff+ t3
ton On period of boost switch.
Value of L has to be selected in such a way that current at the end of this minimum off duration is zero.
From (3)
toff Off period of boost switch.
t3 – Nonconducting period (dead period). – Instantaneous switching angle
I2 peak
Em
L1
sinton
(5)
sinton ton since switching frequency is high.
1 1 1
I Em t
Em t Em DT
(6)
A.EAC applied to design of boost inductor for the proposed single stage single switchpower factor converter
Magnitude of the reference current is selected such a way that
2 peak L on L on L
Pout Vrms Irms .ref .
Instantaneous current irin on mode of boost switch is,
L1
Em DT
I2 peak
Where D is duty cycle (7)
ir I1 +
Em
L1
[ cos cos ( + t)](1)

DC bus voltage, output voltage and Duty ratio.

Where <t<ton
ir in off mode,
From (4), (5) with I3 =0 and assuming t3 0
V ( Em nV ) 1 D
(18)
`
0 I Em (sint sint t ) (Vdc + nV2 ) t
2 peak on on off off
2 1 D
E D
2 n (1 D)
L1
0 Em (sint sint ) Em sin(t
t
L1
(8)
) (Vdc + nV2 ) t
V m
2 n(1 D)
(19)
L on on L on off L off
C. Design of fly back converter.
1 1 1
(9)
(Vdc + nV2 ) t
Em (t t )
(10)
For Volt second transformer balance
L off
L on off
(V V )D n(V V )(1 D)
(20)
1 1 1
sat 2 f
(Vdc + nV2 )(t ton ) EmT
(11)
At critical inductance Lc , the peak inductor current is twice the average.
2
I 2I
VL Ton
(21)
(V + nV )t (V + nV )t
E T
(12)
p L L
dc 2 dc
t (V + nV E )
2 on m
C
2
I VL D
p f L
(22)
on = dc 2 m
(13) s C
T (Vdc + nV2 )
I f L V D
(23)
D 1
Em
(Vdc + nV2 )
(14)
p s C L2
we have
V nV
Em
(15)
nIP (1 D) V2
dc 2 1 D
i2(avg ) 2 R
(24)
IP
2V2
R(1 D)n
(25)


DESIGN OF OUTPUT CONVERTER STAGE[8].
from (21), (25)
A.Voltage transfer function for fly back converter.
Always volt second balance should be there.
LC
(V2
Vf
)R(1 D)2 n2
2V f
(26)
2 s
Primary Volt sec/turn= Sec volt sec/turn.
(V1 Vswic
V V
) DT (V2 Vd )(1 D)T N1 N2
N2 D
(16)
(17)

DESIGN OF A 100 WATT, 230 V, 50 HZ, 50 VDC SINGLE STAGE SINGLE SWITCH POWER FACTOR
CONVERTER

Calculation of L1 using EAC.
Switching instant is considered as = 90
1
2 1 N (1 D)

Voltage Transfer function of single stage single switch power factor converter

We can write output voltage V2 as
fs 20kHz ,
D 0.26
Pout Vrms Irms
Irms
100 0.4348A
230

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN D and LOAD
20
Im 0.6148A
We have Ip= (1)
Value of I peak is calculated using EAC as follows
1 0.456 50 106 I I
2
= (1)
2 peak m
(1)
1 0.456 50 106 I
2 peak
I peak 2.696A
50 106 0.6148
Vo=
=
(1)
2
(1) 2
I
1
L DTEm
peak
1.57mH
0.26 50 106 230 / 2
2.696
2Lf=Rn2(1D)2
2
R=2 (1)2

Calculation of LC
LC is calculated for D = 0.26 Using (24), (33) LC 1.2mH
n2(1D)2=2
n(1D)= 2

Calculation of energy storage capacitor.
1
1D=
2
D=1 1 2
I peak
DTEm
L
1
0.45 50 106 230 2
= 1.57 103
From the above equation we can conclude that for a given circuit duty ratio is function of load.


SIMULATION RESULTS.
4.66Amp
Energy Stored =
1 L I 2
2 1
1 1.57 4.662
2
17J
Simulation of the proposed single stage single switchpower factor converter withthe designed value of circuit parameters was carried out using Orcad software package. Simulation results were found meeting the design intends.

Testing under open loop control.
1
Energy Stored = CV 2
2 1
1 1
C V 2 L I 2
1
C 5402 1.57 103 4.662
C1 116F
Open loop simulation was carried out by varying the duty ratio. Output voltage is found linear to on duty ratio. Input current is sinusoidal and in phase with the input line voltage. For duty ratio greater than 0.5, input current transition from DCM to CCM was observed.

Testing under closed loop.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Experimental 230V, 50Hz input, 10100V dc, 100w single
stage single switch power factor converter has been built and tested using MOSFET IRFPF50 as switch, to verify the results obtained during simulated test. Steady stateoperation of converter is analysed. A design example of converter demonstrates, how to select converter parameters which will cause it to operate in the correct mode for a given line voltage, turns ratio, switching frequency, energy storage capacitor ripple, output voltage switching ripple and output voltage.
Experimental results are found in line with the results obtained during simulation when tested in open loop as well as closed loop condition. Fig. 10 shows sinusoidal nature of input line current and input power factor close to unity.
Figure 12shows that line current drawn is sinusoidal
Figure 13. Photograph of the prototype
Main advantage of this converter among the single stage approach are simplicity size and efficiency and it does not contribute to any additional voltage stress.

CONCLUSION
Performance under closed loop condition was studied by varying the reference voltage. Output voltage was found varying linear with the reference voltage and input current was found sinusoidal and in phase with the input voltage. Fig 6
shows the harmonics spectrum of input current which indicates fundamental frequency of 50Hz is dominant and higher order components are insignificant .
Fig. 7 shows variation in input line current when the load is reduced after 15 ms.It is observed that in closed loop condition the dc bus voltage stress has been drastically reduced. When load is suddenlyreduced due to the instantaneous power unbalance, the dc bus voltage and output voltage tend to increase. But the increase in output voltage is immediately detected by the controller and duty cycle is automatically reduced within one to two switching cycles, the closed loop is found taking the corrective action leading to a new energy balance and a marginally low hike in dc bus voltage.
Figure 5. Shows that DCDC converter operates in CCM
Figure 6. Shows that under open loop there is substantial increase in output voltage when load is reduced after 25 ms
Under closed loop condition when load is suddenly reduced due to the instantaneous power unbalance, the dc bus voltage and output voltage tend to increase.
Fig. 8 shows the increase in output voltage is immediately detected by the controller and duty cycle is automatically reduced, the closed loop is found taking the corrective action leading to a new energy balance.
Figure 7. Shows the automatic reduction in the magnitude of input current under closed loop control when the load is reduced after 15ms
Figure 8.shows the voltage across switch when load thrown out at 15ms.Corrective action started after 2 switching cycle.
Figure 9.Shows the transformer primary voltage
Figure 10.shows the output voltage
Figure 11.shows harmonic spectrum of input current
Single stage single switch power factor corrected converter design by applying EAC to determine value of boost inductance and by using closed loop control is presented. The dc bus voltage stress at light load is found completely eliminated under closed loop operations. Output voltage regulation using duty ratio variations and fixed switching period is the most simple method of control. For normal performance of the converter the duty ratio needs to be limited up to 0.5. Experimental results demonstrate that it is possible for the proposed converter to have fast response and low line current harmonic content.
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