 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 27
 Authors : M. D. Manigandan , B. Sathyabhama , S. Deepa
 Paper ID : IJERTCON034
 Volume & Issue : PECTEAM – 2018 (Volume 6 – Issue 02)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTCON034
 Published (First Online): 17042018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design of Power Efficient One Dimensional Median Filter for Real Time Noise Reduction Applications
1M. D. Manigandan ,2 S. Deepa, 3 B. Sathyabhama
1PG student,2Professor, 3Assistant Professor,Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Panimalar Engineering College,Chennai ,India
AbstractTremendous growth of multimedia technologies mandates the need for high quality images. Thus fast and efficient noise removal technique is the need of the hour. Nonlinear filters have shown their supremacy in removing the outliers from a signal affected by nonGaussian noise, such as clicks, scratches, saltand pepper impulses etc., Median filter is the most sought after non linear filter known for its excellent noise reduction capability. A modified selective one dimensional median filter design is proposed in this work which is aimed at reducing the power consumption. Proposed design is a wordlevel filter; the samples are stored in descending order in the window of size N. When a sample enters the window, the oldest sample is removed, and the new sample is inserted in an appropriate position to preserve the sorting of samples. The throughput of the design is increased by performing the deletion and insertion of samples in the same, so that the median output is generated at each cycle. The simulation results has shown reduction in power and delay thereby improving the throughput.
Keywords: Median filter, Rank generation, Rank calculation, sorting, Adaptive Median filter

INTRODUCTION
The performance of imaging sensors is affected by a variety of factors, such as environmental conditions during image acquisition and by the quality of sensing elements themselves. For example sensor temperature, light levels are major factors affect the amount of noise in the resulting image. Images are corrupted during transmission principally due to interference in the channel used for transmission. With the advent of internet technology and the stupendous growth of multimedia technologies, the design of power efficient real time image and video processing hardware has become a great challenge to designers and researchers.
Median filter belongs to the class of edge preserving smoothing filters which are nonlinear filters. These filters smooth the data while keeping the small sharp details. Median filtering is a simple and very effective noise removal filtering process. Its performance is particularly good.
Median filter is a nonlinear digital filter (order statistics filter) widely used in signal and image processing for smoothing of signals, suppression of impulse noise and edge preservation. In median filtering a window of size N=2M+1 is sliced along entire signal sequence and the centre value of each window is replaced by the median of the values in the
window. For example, in 1Dimensional median filtering the window Wi = {xiM, xi, xi+M} is centered on the ith
input value; the filter output is yi=median(Wi). The main problem of the median filter is its high computational cost: the temporal complexity of sorting N values even with the most efficient sorting algorithms is O(NÂ·log N). Therefore, the real time median filters are traditionally implemented in hardware. Designing power efficient hardware has always been in focus of research community. A low power design is mainly appreciated in all hardware architecture to obtain efficient output. The low power design problems can be broadly classified into two: analysis and optimization. Analysis problems are concerned about the accurate estimation of the power or energy dissipation at different phases of the design process. Optimization is a process of generating the best design given an optimization goal, without violating design specification. Analyze techniques also serve for design optimization but major criteria to be considered are the impact of circuit delay which affects throughput and performance of circuit. Other factors are design cycle time, reliability, testability, quality, reusability. There is great interest in understanding how to continue increasing performance without increasing the power dissipation.
Depending on the number of samples processed at each machine cycle, there are two architectures for hardware design, namely, bit level and word level. In the bitlevel architecture, the samples are processed in parallel, and the bits of the incoming samples are sequentially processed [1],[2],[3],[5],[8]. On the contrary, the wordlevel samples are sequentially processed word by word, and the bits of the sample are processed in parallel [4], [6],[7],[10],[11],[12]. Cadenas et al. [1] proposed a novel quantum like representation allowing the median to be computed in an accelerated manner compared to the bestknown method.
The median output can be generated in W/B clock cycles, where B is a parameter denoting the number of sample bits to be processed at a time. Chen et al. [2] have proposed lowpower 2s complement multipliers by minimizing the switching activities of partial products using the radix4 Booth algorithm. Prokin & Prokin [9] adopt a bitlevel pipelined architecture to generate the median output in W clock cycles, where W is the sample width. Fahmy et al. used a histogram based method, and the efficiency can be shown only for larger windows. Moshnyaga & Hashimoto [7] have proposed a new architecture and circuit implementation of 1D median filter using non recursive sorting. The work in [7] adopts the sorting network architecture, where the median of a set of samples is computed by sorting the input samples and then selecting the middle value. In their method, the input samples are sequentially processed word by word, and the incoming sample is inserted into the window in two clock cycles. In the first cycle, the oldest sample is removed from the window by moving some of the stored samples to the left. In the second cycle, the incoming sample is compared with all the samples in the window and then inserted in the right place by moving some of them to the right. This architecture has a latency of two clock cycles, and it generates only one median output for every two cycles.
In this paper, an efficient design of medianfilter hardware, capable of delivering the median value in realtime under stringent requirements on power is proposed. A new word level one dimensional filter architecture is proposed, in which the new median output, with a filtering latency of only one clock cycle, is generated at each machine cycle for each incoming sample. The improvement is achieved by performing the deletion and insertion of samples in one clock cycle, and a new control circuit is proposed to govern these two operations. Section 2 presents the methodology used along with the architecture of the proposed1D median filter and the description of the various functional blocks used in the design. The simulation results are presented in section 3 and conclusion is presented in section 4.

METHODOLOGY
In median filter architecture input samples are sequentially processed word by word and the incoming samples is inserted in to the correct rank in two steps. In the first step the oldest sample is removed from the window by moving some of the stored samples to the left. In the second step, the incoming sample is compared with the already sorted samples and then inserted in the right place by moving some of them to the right .In this median filter the rank of each sample can be generated and calculated by ripple carry adder. The main drawback of a standard median filter (SMF) is that it is effective only for low noise densities [8]. At high noise densities, SMs often exhibit blurring for large window sizes .This will affect the entire image clarity and data loss. For some application large sample width may be required ,in these case more signal transitions is needed so dynamic power consumption is high. Delay is also a drawback of some architecture. Adaptive Median is a decision based filter that first identifies possible noisy
pixels and then replaces them using the median filter or its variants, while leaving all other pixels unchanged. New median filter architecture is designed to reduce the power consumption. Here instead of sorting samples physically in the window sorted samples are kept immobile, only rank of each samples are updated at each cycle .Since, the architecture is implemented in two stage pipeline the median output is the sample with median rank. Median filter architecture could be used the resources with the less power consumption. The proposed architecture is aimed at minimizing the power consumption and thus making it suitable for all hardware related sources and applications.

Median Filter Architecture
Figure 1 shows the architecture of the proposed one dimensional median filter. This architecture gives an overview of lowpower median filter with window size N. It consists of a circular array of N identical cells and three auxiliary modules: i)
Median selection ii) Rank calculation
iii) Rank selection. All the cells are connected to a global input register X, through which they receive the incoming sample, and the median is stored in the output register Y.
Figure 1. Architecture of one dimensional median filter
The architecture is implemented as a twostage pipeline, where the registers in all the cells serve as the internal pipeline registers. All the registers in the architecture are synchronized by
the rising edge of a global clock. Each cell block Ci is composed of a rank generation module, a comparator module == and three registers rank register Pi, a data register (Ri), and a 1bit
token register (Ti). Register Ri stores the value of the sample in cell ci, register Pi keeps the rank of this sample, and the enable
signal (en) of Ri is stored in register Ti.All the samples in the window are ranked according to their values, regardless of their physical locations in the window. In our design, a cell with a greater sample value will be associated with a greater rank. However, for two cells ci and cj, whose sample values are equal,
ci will be given a greater rank if Ri is newer than Rj i.e., the sample in cj enters the window earlier than the sample in ci. The rank is hence unique for each cell. For a window with size N, the
rank starts from 1 for a cell with the least sample value, and ends with N for a cell with the greatest sample value. The median of
the window can then be obtained from the sample value Ri of a cell ci whose rank
Pi is equal to (N + 1)/2, assuming N is an odd number. In the architecture, the input sample enters the window in a FIFO manner. After it is queued, it will not be moved and is simply dequeued in place. A token, which is represented as logic state 1 in the token register of some cell, is used to control the dequeuing of old sample and queuing of new input sample at the same time. After the token is used, it will be passed to the next cell at a new cycle. All the token registers
form a token ring with exactly one token. It serves as a state machine in the circuit, where the location of the token defines
the state of the machine. Since the data in each register Ri is immobile, the proposed architecture has the potential for low power applications. At the initial state of the architecture, to
make the first incoming sample be stored in the first cell Ci, the token is assumed to exist in the last cell Cn, shown as the
shadowed circle at the output of register Tn.Whenever an input sample enters the window at a new cycle, the rank of each cell has to be updated. It may have to be recalculated, or may be the old rank decremented by 1, incremented by 1, or kept unchanged. The new rank of each cell, which is denoted by signal Qi in the cell, is generated by the RankGen module. Each RankGen module receives signal A from the RankCal module and signal B
from the RankSel module. Signal A is the rank of a cell Ci that
contains the token and signal B is the old rank of Ci. Moreover, signal Yi is the output of a comparator module == which compares the value of rank Pi with a constant value (N + 1)/2 so
that VYi= 1 if Pi is equal to (N + 1)/2, else Yi= 0. This signal is used
to indicate if the corresponding cell Ci contains the median in Ri. Similar to the RankSel module, the MedianSel module transfers the value of Ri to the output register Y if Yi= 1; i.e., if the median is
stored in Ri.At each machine cycle, the architecture performs the following operations: find the cell with the oldest sample (called the oldest cell), find the cell for the input sample to insert into the window (called the insertion cell), and update the sample in each cell. The oldest cell is the one whose age is equal to N. Since only one input sample is allowed to enter the window at each cycle, there is only one oldest cell in the window. When the input sample is inserted in the insertion cell cj , the original sample in cj and those in the cells between cj and the oldest cell ck will all be shifted toward ck for one cell. The original sample in ck is discarded to provide a new space for storing the sample shifted in from its adjoining cell. The insertion cell is chosen in such a way that the sorting of samples in the window is still preserved if the input sample is inserted there. Since the original sample in the insertion cell may be shifted left or right depending on the position of the oldest cell, a leftinsertion (LI) [rightinsertion (RI)] cell is defined as an insertion cell whose original sample will be shifted left (right) when the input sample is inserted there. To keep the sorting of samples when the input sample is inserted, a cell cj will be the LI cell if it is the last cell in the window from left to right whose sample is larger than X, i.e., Rj
> X Rj+1, for j = 1 to N1. If cj is the rightmost cell cN in the
window, it will also be the LI cell when RN > X. On the other hand, if cj is the first cell in
the window whose sample is smaller than or equal to X, i.e.,
Rj1 > X Rj, for j=2 to N, it will be the RI cell. If cj is the
leftmost cell c1 in the window, it will also be the RI cell when X
R1. In general, the LI and RI cells are two adjoining cells in the window with the LI cell on the left and the RI cell on the right. However, when the rightmost cell is the LI cell, there will be no RI cell, and when the leftmost cell is the RI cell, there will be no LI cell, either.
Cycle
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Figure 2. Example Illustrating the insertion of 10 Samples
If the oldest cell ck is on the left (right) of the LI (RI) cell cj , the input sample is inserted in cj , and the original sample in cj and those in the cells between cj and ck will all be shifted one
cellspace left (right). The last of the shifted samples in cell ck+1
(ck1) is then shifted into the oldest cell ck for the left (right) shift operation. If the oldest cell ck happens to be the LI or RI cell, the input sample is directly inserted in ck without shifting any sample between cells.
An example illustrating the insertion of 10 input samples into a window with seven cells is given in Figure 2. Initially, when the sample 25 enters the window at cycle t0, it is inserted in the
RI cell c1. In the figure the cells coloured in green indicate the RI cells and cells coloured in saffron indicate the LI cells. After the passing of seven clock cycles, the window is fully occupied
with valid data at cycle t7, and cell c6 is the oldest cell, coloured in blue. At this time, since c6 is on the right of the RI cell c3, the input sample 36 is inserted in c5 and the samples in cells c6, and
c7 are all shifted one cellspace right. When an input sample is inserted into the window along with some necessary shift operations, each cell in the window may keep its original sample, receive the input sample, or receive the sample from its adjoining cell on the left or right.

Rank Generation
Signal Fi is the output of a comparator module <=, which compares the value of Ri with that of the input sample X so that Fi = 1if Ri is less than or equal to X (Ri X), else Fi
= 0 (Ri >X). Signal Ai is the output of a logic AND gate so that Ai
= 1 if Ti = 0 and Fi = 1; i.e., if cell ci, does not contain the token and Ri is less than or equal to X, else Ai = 0. The Ai signal of each cell is connected to the RankCal module,
which calculates the new rank of a cell that contains the token. The new rank is calculated as K + 1, where K is the number of cells, which does not contain the token and whose sample value is less than or equal to X; The RankCal module can be implemented by a multiinput adder that adds all the Ai signals and then increments
the sum by 1. Figure 3 shows the RankCal module. If cell ci contains the token, the output A of the RankCal module will be its
new rank at the next cycle. On the contrary, if cell ci does not contain the token, its new rank will be determined by the other
signals. Signal Gi is the output of a comparator module >, which compares the value of rank Pi with that of signal B so that Gi
= 1 if Pi is greater than B, else Gi = 0. Since the value of B is
the rank Pj of another cell cj that contains the token, the meaning of Gi can also be described as Gi = 1 if Pi is greater than Pj (Pi >
Pj), else Gi = 0(Pi <= Pj). Signal Ei is the output of a compactor module ==, which also compares the value of Pi with that of B so that Ei = 1 if Pi is equal to B, else Ei = 0. Likewise, the
meaning of Ei can be described as Ei = 1 if Pi is equal to Pj (Pi = Pj), else Ei = 0. Combining these two signals Ei and Gi, for the three relations between Pi and Pj (Pi > Pj , Pi = Pj , and Pi< Pj ), the corresponding value of EiGi will be 00,10,11 respectively.
Figure 3. Rank Generation Module

Rank Selection
The RankSel module is responsible for transferring the rank Pi of a cell ci to its output B if ci contains the token; i.e. when Ti=1. It shows a simple implementation of this module using AND/OR
gates. It can also be implemented by tristate buffers, where B is the output of a global data bus that collects the output signals of all the tristate buffers. Since there exists exactly one cell that contains the token at any time; i.e., there exists exactly one Ti signal whose value is equal to 1, the value of B will always be valid. The Median Selection module can also be implemented in a similar way. It
transfers the value of Ri to the output register Y if Ri is the median; i.e., when Yi = 1. However, if it is implemented by tristate buffers, the median will be valid only when there exists at least (N + 1)/2
samples in the window; otherwise, it will remain in a high
impedance state. For a cell ci, since there are four possible sources to update its rank, a 4to1 multiplexer is used to select one of these
sources for signal Qi. Then, the value of rank Pi will be updated by the value of
Qi at each cycle. The multiplexer is controlled by two selection signals S1 and S0; and these two signals, which are generated by the Ctrl module, are determined by four signals Ti, Ei, Fi, and Gi.
If cell ci contains the token (Ti = 1), its new rank is obtained from the output A of the RankCal module; i.e., the value of S1S0 should be 11 when Ti = 1. If cell ci does not contain the token
(Ti = 0). In Case 1 when Pi > Pj (EiGi = 01) and Ri X (Fi = 1), the rank of ci will be decremented by 1; i.e., the value of S1S0 should be 10 when EiFiGi = 011.
Figure 4. Rank Selection Module

Control Module
Figure 5 shows the control module. For a cell ci, since there are four possible sources to update its rank, a 4to1 multiplexer is used to select one of these sources for signal Qi. Then, the value of rank
Pi will be updated by the value of Qi at each cycle. The multiplexer is controlled by two selection signals S1 and S0; and these two signals, which are generated by the Ctrl module, are determined by
four signals Ti, Ei, Fi, and Gi. If cell ci contains the token (Ti = 1), its new rank is obtained from the output A of the RankCal module; i.e., the value of S1S0 should be 11 when Ti = 1. If cell ci does not
contain the token (Ti = 0). In Case 1 when Pi > Pj (EiGi = 01) and Ri
X (Fi = 1), the rank of ci will be decremented by 1; i.e., the value of S1S0 should be 10 when EiFiGi = 011. Similarly in Case 2, when Pi < Pj (EiGi = 00) and Ri > X (Fi = 0), the rank of ci will be incremented by 1; i.e., the value of S1S0 should be 01 when EiFiGi
= 000. Finally, when Pi < Pj (EiGi = 00) and Ri <= X (Fi = 1) in Case 3, Pi > Pj (EiGi = 01) and Ri >X (Fi = 0) in Case 4, and Pi = Pj (EiG i = 10) in Case 5, the rank of ci will be kept unchanged; i.e., when EiFiGi = 010,001, the value of S1S0 should be 00.
Figure 5. Control Module


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The lowpower architcture of the proposed 1D median filter design was implemented TANNER EDA tool and synthesized using Synopsys Design Vision with the 180nm cell library. Figure 6 shows the four bit low power architecture and Figure 7 shows architecture of the single cell. Figure 8 shows the simulation results. Figure 9 (a) shows the power results for the existing technique and Figure 9(b) shows the power results for the proposed modified architecture. The power consumption is reduced. The output power is reduced when compared to the previous existing method.
Figure 6. Four Bit Low Power Architecture
Figure 7. Architecture of the Single Cell
Figure 8. Simulation Results
(a)
(b)
Figure 9. Power Results(a,b)

CONCLUSION
In this paper a power efficient 1D word level median filter design is proposed. The filters receive an input sample at each clock cycle and generate a median output at the same cycle. When an input sample enters the window, the sorting of existing samples is reused in generating the new median output. The hardware complexity of the architecture is directly proportional to the number of samples in the window. The simulation results have shown that the proposed architecture is performs better in terms of power consumption and also the reduction in delay enhances the speed of the hardware.
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S.Deepa is currently working as Professor in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in Panimalar
Engineering College, Chennai. She received her Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering
from Madras University in the year 1998. She completed her Masters in Engineering in Applied Electronics in the year 2005 and received doctorate in image processing in the year 2014, both from Sathyabama University, Chennai. She has a total teaching experience of about 14 years and her research interest includes Image Processing, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition, Low power VLSI design and architecture.
B.Sathyabhama is currently working as assistant professor in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai. She received her Bachelor
of Engineering degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from DMI college of
engineering in the year of 2010. She completed her Masters in Engineering in VLSI design in the year of 2012 in Easwari engineering college, Chennai under Anna university of Chennai. Her current research interests include fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) architectures, computeraided design (CAD) tools for FPGAs, logic synthesis, and low power VLSI design.
M.D.Manigandan completed his Bachelor of Bachelor of Engineering degree in
Electronics and Communication Engineering from Panimalar Engineering College in the year of 2015. Currently he
is pursuing his Masters in
Communication Engineering in Panimalar Engineering College, affiliated to Anna University Chennai. His current research interests include Medical Image Processing, field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures and low power VLSI design.