 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 618
 Authors : Suraj S Nair, Vikas Teotia, Alice Cheeran, Sanjay Malhotra
 Paper ID : IJERTV4IS050765
 Volume & Issue : Volume 04, Issue 05 (May 2015)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV4IS050765
 Published (First Online): 29052015
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design of DC Current Transformer Magnetic Sensor for Measurement of Beam Currents in Accelerators
[1]Suraj Nair
Tech. Student Electronics and Telecommunication VJTI
Mumbai India
[3]Alice CheeranAssociate Professor Department of Electrical Engineering
VJTI
Mumbai India
[2]Vikas TeotiaScientific Officer Control Instrumentation Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Mumbai India
[4]Sanjay MalhotraScientific Officer Control Instrumentation Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Mumbai India
Abstract The fluxgate magnetometer principle of second harmonic detection is applied for designing a DC Current Transformer (DCCT) based magnetic sensor for accurate measurement of beam currents in proton accelerators .This paper presents the most suitable magnetic material which can be used as the core. It also gives the geometrical model of the magnetic sensor with exact values for its height, outer radius, inner radius and the number of turns in the sensor winding. The magnitude of the AC excitation current along with its frequency is also mentioned. The sensor voltages and the second harmonic components obtained for different values of DC beam currents have been analyzed for a variety of magnetic core materials. A highly linear sensor characteristics with sensitivity in the order of 3V/A is obtained with the usage of Vitrovac 6025 Z as the core material for the modeled sensor.
Keywords: Direct Current Current Transformer, Fluxgate, Accelerator, Magnetometer, Beam Current

INTRODUCTION
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay is developing a Direct Current Current Transformer (DCCT) based magnetic sensor for accurately measuring the value of DC beam currents in proton Accelerators. A wide range of technologies are used for measuring the magnetic fields from particle currents[1].The DCCT technology[2] based magnetic sensors are highly accurate, compact and resistant to variations in temperature. Hence they are used extensively in accelerator applications. Proton beam accelerators in BARC are used for sterilization of medical products, improving properties of gems and stones, curing of adhesives, polymerization and for increased cross linking of materials. The beam currents passing through proton beam accelerators have a magnitude ranging from 0.1 mA to 30 mA with energy of 3 meV. The application of the accelerator changes with changing values of the beam current. The beam current needs to be adjusted precisely to a particular value depending upon the application. These beam currents cannot be measured by intrusive means such as ammeter. Hence the need arises to accurately measure the current value by nonintrusive means. In this paper we
design a highly linear, sensitive and compact DCCT magnetic sensor for accurate measurements of the beam currents. In the following section the principle for measuring the beam current using DCCT is described. This is followed by a discussion on the selection of proper magnetic core material along with the simulation results and finally the conclusion.

MEASURING PRINCIPLE
The principle of Fluxgate Magnetometer [3, 4] for detecting the second harmonics has been incorporated for measuring the voltage generated in the sensor due to the beam currents. Fluxgate Magnetic sensors have a rectangular core [4]. The core of the DCCT magnetic sensor is in the shape of a toroid. Both the primary and secondary windings are placed on the same core such that they are 180 degrees out of phase with each other. AC current of a frequency 1000Hz is fed to the windings. The flux generated in the two windings will be equal and opposite to each other with perfect matching when there is no external magnetic field in the vicinity of the core. As a result the net flux generated in the core is zero as shown in green in Fig.1
Fig. 1: Net Flux in the absence of external field.
The external magnetic flux due to the dc beam current will assist the flux in primary winding and oppose the flux in the secondary winding. Thus the time for which the magnetic flux remains in saturation increases in the positive half and decreases in the negative half cycle depending on the direction of beam current. This will generate a nonzero value of net flux in the core as shown in green in Fig. 2
Fig.2: Net Flux in the presence of external field
The sensor coil wound around the core senses the voltage generated on account of the change of external flux. The second harmonic component of this generated voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the DC beam current which produced the net flux. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the voltage generated in the sensor gives the strength of the voltage harmonics and its frequency equals twice the frequency of the modulating current, thereby resulting in cancellation of the odd harmonics and retaining only the even harmonic components. The magnitude of the higher even harmonics is lesser than that of the first even harmonic. Thus the second harmonic component of the sensor voltage generated is the most significant component among all the harmonics and is used to detect the magnitude of the dc beam current.

SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The BH properties of various magnetic core materials have been considered for modeling the sensor. The frequency harmonics of the sensor voltages generated are observed in MATLAB for different values of DC Beam current starting from the value of 0.1 mA to 30 mA. Table 1 shows the core materials considered for modeling.
Table 1Core Materials
Material
Number
Material Name
M1
Electrical Steel NGO Posco 35PN250
M2
Cobalt Steel Hiperco 50
M3
Nickel Steel Carpenter 49
M4
Stainless Steel 416
M5
Low Carbon Steel SAE1020
M6
Castings Cast Iron
M7
Iron Powder Core: Micrometals
M8
Alloy Powder Core Magnetics Koolmu 26
M9
Magnetics F Ferrite 100C
M10
Metglas type 2714AF(66%Co 15%Si 4%Fe)
Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) show the magnitude of voltage harmonics for DC Beam currents of 1 mA and 30 mA respectively for M10.
Fig.3 (a): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Metglass when beam current is 1mA
Fig.3 (b): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Metglass when beam current is 30mA
The second harmonic component remains fairly constant at 3.5 even after increasing the value of dc beam current by 30 times. Table 2(a) and Table 2(b) gives the comparison of the sensor voltage values and the corresponding second harmonic components for all materials considered.
Table 2(a)Sensor Voltages and Harmonics when beam current is 1mA
8.6396 e7
Core Material
Sensor
Voltage(Volts)
FFT
Harmonic(Volts)
M1
8.1419e4
16
M2
1.2591 e4
2.5
M3
0.2028
3750
M4
6.4925 e7
0.013
M5
4.4942 e6
0.09
M6
5.1657 e5
1
M7
0.017
M8
6.0217 e8
0.0012
M9
0.0024
47.5
M10
7.1369 e4
3.4
Table 2(b)Sensor Voltages and Harmonics when beam current is 30mA
Core Material
Sensor Voltage(Volts)
FFT
Harmonic(Volts)
M1
8.1381 e4
16
M2
1.2583 e4
2.5
M3
0.1996
3750
M4
6.4932 e7
0.013
M5
4.4927 e6
0.09
M6
5.1554 e5
1
M7
8.6387 e7
0.017
M8
6.0216 e8
0.0012
M9
0.0024
47.5
M10
7.3603 e4
3.5
It was observed that the variation in sensor output voltages with DC Beam current was negligible; as a result, the second harmonic component remained constant even when the DC beam current was changed. Thus it was concluded that such normal magnetic core materials does not respond to small current variations of the order of milliamperes and hence are not suitable for the development of magnetic sensors which requires a high degree of sensitivity and linearity. Hence we considered another material named Vitrovac 6025 Z. The BH property of this material was such that magnetic flux density B reaches a saturation of 0.54 Wb/m2 at a magnetic field intensity H of 10 A/m and increases steadily with a slope of 2.16e3. Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 4(b) shows the magnitude of voltage harmonics for DC Beam currents of 1 mA and 30 mA respectively for Vitrovac 6025 Z.
Fig. 4(a): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=10A/m when beam current is 1mA
Fig. 4(b): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=10A/m when beam current is 30mA
The second harmonic of the sensor voltage is seen to be varying linearly with variation in DC beam current with a sensitivity of the order 0.62208 V/A. In addition to the above core material, two variants of the same material were also considered, wherein the material reaches saturation at lower values of magnetic field intensity at 5 A/m and 2 A/m. The Sensor Voltage harmonics for different values of dc beam current when Hsat= 5 A/m are shown in Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 5(b)
Fig. 5(a): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=5A/m when beam current is 1mA
Fig. 5(b): Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=5A/m when beam current is 30mA
Fig. 6(a) and Fig. 6(b) shows the sensor voltage harmonics of
Table 3(a),Table 3(b) and Table 3(c) shows the sensor voltages and their corresponding harmonics for the three varieties of the material used.
Table 3(a)Sensor Voltages and Second Harmonics when Hsat is 10
DC Beam Current
(mA)
Sensor Voltage(V)
FFT Harmonic(Volts)
0.1
6.2208e05
0.23
0.5
3.1104e04
1.15
1
6.2208e04
2.3
5
0.0031
11.5
10
0.0062
23
15
0.0093
35
30
0.0187
70
DC Beam Current (mA)
Sensor Voltage(V)
FFT Harmonic(Volts)
0.1
1.2442e04
0.48
0.5
6.2208e04
2.4
1
0.0012
4.8
5
0.0062
24
10
0.0124
48
15
0.0187
72.5
30
0.0373
145
Table 3(b)Sensor Voltages and Second Harmonics when Hsat is 5
the material when H
sat=
2A/m.
Fig. 6(a) – Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=2A/m when beam current is 1mA
Fig. 6(b) – Sensor Voltage harmonics for Vitrovac with Hsat=2A/m when beam current is 30mA
Table 3(c)Sensor Voltages and Second Harmonics when Hsat is 2
DC Beam Current
(mA)
Sensor Voltage(V)
FFT Harmonic(Volts)
0.1
3.1104e04
1.2
0.5
0.0016
6
1
0.0031
12
5
0.0156
60
10
0.0311
120
15
0.0467
180
30
0.0933
360
Sensitivity of the material with Hsat=5A/m is found to be 1.2442V/A. It is seen that the sensitivity becomes more in the core material which saturates at a lesser value of magnetic field intensity (H). Vitrovac6025 which saturates at 2A/m is chosen as the core material for the sensor as it has the maximum sensitivity of 3.1104V/A among the other two variants. Table 4 gives the modeled geometry of the DCCT Magnetic sensor.
Parameters
Value
Core Material
Vitrovac 6025 Z
Number of turns in winding
50
Height of Core
10mm
AC Current in winding
10mA
AC Current frequency
1000Hz
Outer Radius
31mm
Inner Radius
21mm
Table 4 Geometrical values of DCCT Sensor

CONCLUSION

In this work a mathematical model of a linear, highly sensitive and compact DC Current Transformer (DCCT) based magnetic sensor is proposed for the proton accelerators at Control and Instrumentation Division, BARC. Experiments show that the sensor exhibits excellent linearity for the entire range of DC beam currents from 0.1mA to 30mA with a high sensitivity of 3.1104 V/A.
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