- Open Access
- Authors : N. Dinesh, Ganeshkumar Kv, Y. Derin Antro, R. Raja Rajan, M. Vijay
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV11IS03085
- Volume & Issue : Volume 11, Issue 03
- Published (First Online): 22-06-2023
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design And Thermal Analysis Of Ceramic Coating On Piston For Automotive Engine By Finite Element Software
N. Dinesp, Ganeshkumar KV1, Y. Derin Antro2, R. Raja rajan2, M. Vijay2 1-Assistant professor, 2-UG scholar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore-32
Using a technique known as plasma spray, the surface of the piston in the engine is coated with a variety of ceramic powders such as Alumina, Titania, and Zirconia for the purpose of this numerical analysis. Thereafter, the behaviour of these coated surfaces is investigated. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the thermal characteristics of a surface-coated piston that is subjected to friction. ANSYS was utilised in order to model both the piston with and without a coating so that it could be analysed. As a result of our investigation, we discovered that coated specimens had enhanced mechanical and thermal properties, which contributed to better diesel engine performance. The final product reveals the structural and thermal distribution of both coated and uncoated pistons.
The exceptional qualities of functionally graded materials, such as corrosion, erosion, and oxidation resistance, high hardness, chemical and thermal stability at cryogenic and high temperatures, have made them a popular topic of study. Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) on metallic substrates used at high temperatures in the aircraft and aerospace industries, especially for the thermal protection of components in gas turbines and diesel engines, benefit from these qualities. To imitate adiabatic fluctuations, thermal barrier coatings have been added to the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine. Thermal fatigue protection of metallic surfaces, as well as prospective reductions in engine emissions and brake specific fuel consumption are among the goals. A TBC application lowers heat loss to the engine cooling jacket through the exposed surfaces such as the piston crown and piston rings. B limiting heat transfer and lowering the temperature of the underlying metal, TBC applied to these components' surfaces improves their high temperature durability. When a TBC fails, the ceramic topcoat peels away from the bond coat. Several factors
influence the overall performance of coatings and lead to the formation of flaking. Thermal mismatch and oxidation, on the other hand, are both known to shorten the coating system's life expectancy. The bond coat oxidises and spalls because the coatings are susceptible to ambient gases and liquids. The functionally graded coatings were employed to minimise the mismatch impact. Because of this, thermal expansion and interfacial tensions can be used as an alternative to conventional thermal barriers.
Mass loss and wear mechanisms of HVOF sprayed multi-component white cast iron coatings O. Maranho et al, The HVOF thermal spray process was used to apply multi-component white cast iron instead of the more traditional manufacturing methods. Rubber wheel apparatus in compliance with ASTM G-65 was used to investigate the impact of substrate type, substrate preheating, and coating heat treatment on mass loss. Scanning electron microscopy research was also used to examine the effect of heat treatment on the wear mechanisms of the coating. Compared to as-prayed coatings, heat treated coatings had a mass loss of three times less. Micro-cutting and cracks around unmelted particles and pores are also wear processes of as-sprayed coatings. Sintering causes less mass loss in heat- treated coatings. Aspects of microstructure on the synergy and overall material loss of thermal spray coatings in erosion corrosion environments. V.A.D. Souza et al, When WC CoCr coatings are Electrochemical tests were conducted on titanium coatings generated by RPS using a controlled atmosphere plasma spray system (CAPS) to determine their corrosion resistance. A neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution and an acidic 0.5 M NaCl q1 M HCl solution were both used. Corrosion resistance has been studied in relation to porosity and nitrogen content. Coated samples, detachable coatings, AISI304 substrate and commercially pure titanium grade 2, are also given and discussed in the
polarization curves. Optimizing the plasma spraying parameters is essential to provide wear and corrosion resistant deposits, since the corrosion resistance of coated samples was found to be mostly reliant on porosity values. Deposited using the High Velocity Oxy- Fuel (HVOF) and the Super Detonation-Gun (D-Gun) methods, the effect of microstructure on overall material loss is examined. When two different microstructures are created, this study aims to understand the synergy impact (here defined as the amplification of erosion due to corrosion processes) on material loss. For example, HVOF coatings have a lower corrosion resistance than D-Gun coatings, but they have a greater total erosioncorrosion resistance than D-Gun coatings. Because the microstructures of HVOF and Super D- Gun coatings differ based on the circumstances of application, the findings provided in this work cannot be generalized. When distinct microstructures are generated in the WCCoCr coating, a link between the composition of the coating, its microstructure, and its erosion corrosion performance is established.
Comparison of HVOF and plasma- sprayed Alumina Titania coatings microstructure, mechanical properties and abrasion behaviour.
Yourong Liu , et al, Nano and micro structured powders were used in HVOF and PS procedures to test the mechanical characteristics, abrasion wear resistance, and microstructure of Alumina Titania ceramic coatings. The mechanical characteristics and abrasion resistance of the coatings are heavily influenced by the deposition guns, although this is not true of the powders. An advantage with this element type is that you can stack several elements to model more than 250 layers to allow through-the- thickness deformation slope discontinuities. The user-input constitutive matrix option is also available. SOLID46 adjusts the material properties in the transverse direction permitting constant stresses in the transverse direction. In comparison to the 8-node shells, SOLID46 is a lower order element and finer meshes may be required for shell applications to provide the same accuracy as SHELL91 or SHELL99. As a result of this process, used to account for the impact of porosity on the abrasion resistance. Corrosion resistance properties of reactive Plasma-sprayed titanium composite coatings HVOF coatings are two to three times more resistant to abrasion. Modified EvansMarshall equation is composite coatings HVOF coatings are two to three times more resistant to abrasion. Modified EvansMarshall equation is
T. Valente et al, Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) techniques can be used to create protective coatings
or free- standing components in the thermal spraying process. Nitrogen or methane can be used to generate hard nitride or carbide phases in reactive metals like Ti, Cr, or Al by reacting with these metals.
Plasma Spraying Technique for the Deposition Of a-Si/Âµc-Si.
J. Kopecki et al, Using plasma spraying, thin coatings can be applied at high rates using low- cost precursors. As a result of its electrodeless energy coupling, our microwave plasma source has a major advantage over conventional plasma spraying sources, which use electrodes made of copper or tungsten. Thin films with high purity can be deposited since the precursor is unpolluted and therefore suitable for photoactive coatings like amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a-Si and cSi).A plasma is used to melt and evaporte the intrinsic silicon powder, resulting in films of between 100 and 1000 nanometers in thickness.
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, pumps and gas compressors. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. Components of Diesel engine, (E) Exhaust camshaft, (C) Crankshaft, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow, (I) Intake camshaft, (S) Fuel Injector, (V) Valves, (P) Piston, (R) Connecting rod, (W) Water jacket for coolant flow.
Fig.2.1 Components of Diesel Engine
A coating is a material used to cover anything. Surface qualities can be improved by applying a coating, which is sometimes known as a "substrate." It is possible to enhance the appearance, adhesion,
wetting, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, scratch resistance, and other properties of the material. As a liquid, gas or solid, they can be used in many different ways. A Drawdown card can be used to measure and assess the opacity and film thickness of coatings.
As the metal or non-metallic coating material melts or is semi-molten, it is sprayed onto the substrate surface to form a thin deposited layer known as a thermal spray. Material is heated to a plastic or molten state and then accelerated to produce a thermal spray effect. These particles are distorted by pressure and create a layered sheet as they strike the substrate, where they stick. They build up over time, forming a thick covering
Fig.2.2 Thermal Spray Technique
Plasma spray is the most adaptable of all thermal spray techniques because it can reach temperatures high enough to melt or heat virtually any material. Cathode and anode are electrodes in a tiny chamber called a plasma spray cannon (nozzle). Plasma is formed when high-intensity arc breaks down the gas in the chamber, releasing a tremendous amount of heat that can reach temperatures of 6000 Â°C to 16000 Â°C. Melting of the coating material occurs when it is rapidly introduced into the gas flame
Fig.2.3 Plasma Spraying
ANSYS is a complete FEA simulation software package developed by ANSYS Inc USA. It is used by engineers worldwide in virtually all fields of engineering. Structural, Thermal Fluid, (CFD), Low-and High-Frequency Electromagnetic.
Every analysis involves three main steps: Pre-processor Solver
Aluminium oxideis achemical compoundofaluminium and oxygenwith the chemical formulaAl2O3. It is the most commonly occurring
of severalaluminium oxides, and specifically identified asaluminium(III) oxide. It is commonly calledalumina, and may also be calledaloxide,oralundumdepending on particular forms or applications. It commonly occurs in its crystalline polymorphicphase-Al2O3, in which it comprises themineralcorundum, varieties of which
Form the preciousgemstonesrubyand sapphire. Al2O3is significant in its use to produce aluminium metal, as anabrasiveowing to itshardness, and as arefractory material owing to its high melting point Al2O3is anelectrical insulatorbut has a relatively highthermal conductivity(30Wm1K1) for a ceramic material. Aluminium oxide is insoluble in water. In its most commonly occurring crystalline form, calledcorundumor -aluminium oxide, its hardness makes it suitable for use as anabrasiveand as a component incutting tools. Aluminium oxide is responsible for the resistance of metallic aluminium toweathering. Metallic aluminium is very reactive with atmospheric oxygen, and a thinpassivation layerof aluminium oxide (4nm thickness) forms on any exposed aluminium surface . his layer protects the metal from further oxidation.The thickness and properties of this oxide layer can be enhanced using a process called anodising. A number ofalloys, such asaluminium bronzes, exploit this property by including a proportion of aluminium in the alloy to enhance corrosion resistance. The aluminium oxide generated by anodising is typicallyamorphous, but discharge assisted oxidation processes such asplasma electrolytic oxidationresult in a significant proportion of crystalline aluminium oxide in the coating, enhancing itshardness.
Titanium dioxide, also known astitanium
(IV) oxideortitania is the naturally occurringoxideoftitanium, chemical formulaTiO2. When used as apigment, it is calledtitanium white,Pigment White 6 (PW6), orCI 77891. Generally it is sourced fromilmenite, rutileandanatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint tosunscreentofood colouring. Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as well-known mineralsrutile,anataseandbrookite, and additionally as two high pressure forms, a monoclinicbaddeleyite-like form and anorthorhombic-PbO2-like form, both found
recently at theRiesc raterinBavaria.It is mainly sourced from ilmenite ore. This is the most wide spread form of titanium dioxide- bearing ore around the world. Rutile is the next most abundant and contains around 98% titanium dioxide in the ore. The metastableanataseandbrookitephases convert irreversibly to the equilibrium rutile phase upon heating above temperatures in the range 600Â°800Â°C. Titanium dioxide has eight modifications in addition to rutile, anatase, and brookite, three metastable phases can be produced synthetically (monoclinic,tetragonaland orthorombic), and five high-pressure forms (- PbO2-like,baddeleyitelike,cotunnite- like, orthorhombic OI, and cubic phases)
Aluminum alloy is a type of metal alloy made by mixing aluminum with one or more other metals or non-metals, such as copper, magnesium, zinc, silicon, or manganese. These alloys are used in a variety of industries, including aerospace, automotive, construction, and electronics, due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and other desirable properties. Aluminum alloys are classified based on their composition, with each type having different properties and applications. For example, 2024 aluminum alloy is commonly used in aircraft structural components due to its high strength and fatigue resistance, while 6061 aluminum alloy is often used in bicycle frames and other consumer products due to its good strength and weldability. Overall, aluminum alloys have become an increasingly important material due to their lightweight and versatile nature, making them a popular choice in many modern applications.
Zirconia can be found in three crystal structure. These are monolithic (m), tetragonal (t) and cubic (c) structures. Monolithic structure is stable between room temperature and 1170 0C while it turns to tetragonal structure above 1170 0C. Tetragonal structure is stable up to 2379 0C and above this temperature, the structure turns to cubic structure. Zirconia (ZrO2) is a ceramic material with adequate mechanical properties for manufacturing of medical devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the best properties for these applications. When a stress occurs on a ZrO2
surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Zirconia is a crystalline dioxide of zirconium. Its mechanical properties are very similar to those of metals and its color is similar to tooth color.
The fundamental properties of zirconia ceramics which are of interest to the engineer or designer
High fracture toughness,
Good frictional behaviour,
Low thermal conductivity,
Corrosion resistance in acids and alkalis,
Modulus of elasticity similar to steel,
Coefficient of thermal expansion similar to iron.
There are many different types of zirconias. These have evolved as researchers and manfacturers sought to exploit the different properties of the various phases. Some of the phases are stable at high temperatures and need to be frozen in such that they can be used at room temperatures, while others exploit toughening mechanisms that are only found in these and few other materials. Some of these materials are listed below along with their typical abbreviations.
Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals TZP
Partially Stabilised Zirconia PSZ
Fully Stabilised Zirconia FSZ
Transformation Toughened Ceramics TTC
Zirconia Toughened Alumina ZTA
Transformation Toughened Zirconia TTZ
Materials (oxides) added to stabilise or toughen the zirconia will also be noted as a prefix to the abbreviations listed in table 1. They will sometimes be used in conjunction with numbers which indicate the amount of the stabilising agent added. Typical examples include Y, Ce, Mg and A which
correspond to yttria (Y2O3), ceria (CeO2), magnesia (MgO) and alumina (Al2O3) respectively. So a material denoted as 3Y- TZP would tetragonal zirconia polycrystal with an addition of 3mol% Y2O3as a stabiliser.
Lists properties for various grades of zirconia and has been compiled from a variety of sources. However, as with most ceramic materials properties are dependent on many factors such as starting powders and fabrication techniques. Most ceramic fabrication techniques have been applied to zirconias such as dry pressing, isostatic pressing, injection moulding, extrusion and tape casting. Addition of impurities during processing may also introduce flaws and degrade properties.
The FEA and comparison investigation of an aluminium alloy piston coated with alumina, titania, and zirconia using ANSYS revealed the benefits and drawbacks of each coating material. According to the results, alumina coatings are best for high- performance engines because they are thermally stable and resist wear. Titania coating is resistant to high temperatures and wear, but it cracks more easily than other coatings when subjected to extreme pressure. When compared to alumina and titania coatings, zirconia has poorer wear resistance but better heat insulation and lower friction characteristics.
Maximum surface stress and deformation are both reduced with any of the three coatings relative to an uncoated piston. This suggests that the coatings have the potential to increase the piston's durability and service life. The results of the study indicate that the coating material used on an aluminium alloy piston must be tailored to the needs of the individual application and the working environment. The choice of coating should be based on a compromise between wear resistance, thermal stability, and other criteria including cost and availability.
By comparing all the findings from the study, the ceramic coating of Zirconia delivers the greatest performance than other two coatings. It can endure the temperature of 808oc than other two coatings. The total heat flux travel rate per unit
area is significantly smaller in Zirconia coating, which leads to the insulation of thermal than Alumina and Titania. To conclude, Zirconia is the ideal ceramic coating for the application of piston.
K. Chandra Mouli Naidu, N. V. Sainath Reddy, 2022, Experimental Study of Solar PV Panel Enhanced with Phase Changing Material, International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ETEDM 2022 (Volume 10 Issue 08). Ganesh Kumar K. V, Mohamed Sarbudeen S, Abhilash S.K.M, Mohamed Sulthan Nazeer A, 2021, Design And Fabrication of Helmet by using Hybrid Composite Material, International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ETEDM 2021 (Volume 09 Issue 10).  Mr. K. V. Ganeshkumar , Mr. J. David , Mr.
P. Kenson, Mr. M. Magalingam, 2019, Dissimilar Welding of Aluminium Alloy 6063 and Stainless Steel 316 by using Various Parameters and Evaluate the Mechanical Properties, International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ETEDM 2019. K.S. Sathishkumar, S.Ramesh Kumar, A.Jeevarathinam, GaneshKumar. K.V, Dr.S.Kalpana, Vibrational Behavior Of Kevlar Epoxy Composite Fibre Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI) Volume 12, Issue 7, July, 2021:1820
1827. S. Sathishkumar, S. Ramesh kuamr, A. Jeevarathinam, K.S. Sathishkumar, K.V. Ganesh Kumar, Temperature dissipation and thermal expansion of automotive brake disc by using different materials, Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 49, Part 8, 2022, Pages 3705-3710, ISSN 2214-7853,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.10.115. Ravikumar M, Radhakrishnan B, Arunraja K M, and Pandiyarajan K, (2022) Heat Transfer Analysis of Fin and Tube Exchanger using CFD, Materials Today Proceeding, Elesvier Publications, Vol.52, 3, pp:1603-1605.  Yasin, J., Selvakumar, S., Kumar, P. M., Sundaresan, R., & Arunraja, K. M. (2022). Experimental study of TiN, TiAlN and TiSiN coated high speed steel tool. Materials Today: Proceedings.  Ponmurugan, M., M. Ravikumar, R. Selvendran,
C. Merlin Medona, and K. M. Arunraja. "A review on energy conserving materials for passive cooling in buildings." Materials Today: Proceedings (2022). P Thangavel, V Selladurai (2008), An experimental investigation on the effect of turning parameters on surface roughness, Int. J. Manuf. Res. 3 (3), 285-300.  Alwarsamy, T. & Palaniappan, Thangavel & Selladurai, Vini. (2007). Reduction of machining vibration by use of rubber layered laminates between tool holder and insert. Machining Science and Technology. 11. 135-143.
10.1080/10910340601172248. Prakasam, S & Palaniappan, Thangavel. (2013). Springback effect prediction in wipe bending process of sheet metal: A GA-ANN approach. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology. 55.  M. Viswanath and K.M.Arunraja, A Literature Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicles, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Vol.6 Issue 04,Special Issue on 2018.  Mathivanan, S., K. M. Arunraja, and M. Viswanath. "Experimental Investigation on Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, ISSN (2018): 2278- 0181.