Design and Simulation of a Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol for MWSN using MATLAB

Call for Papers - April 2019

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Design and Simulation of a Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol for MWSN using MATLAB

Sushmitha S G

Yashaswini P

Yogalakshmi S E

Shyamala C

Dept of ECE

Dept. of ECE

Dept. of ECE

Asst. Prof Dept. of ECE









Abstract As the sensors are mobile, the topology of a MWSN is constantly changing. Hence designing a routing path between the source and sink nodes in MWSN becomes very challenging. Most of the routing protocols of MWSN are just extension or variation of ones that exist for static wireless sensor network. Recent research works have led to the design of many efficient protocols for MWSN but still there are many unresolved problems like fault tolerance, retaining the network connectivity, reducing the energy cost, maintaining adequate sensing coverage, security etc. For all the above said applications of MWSN, the data transmitted or received has no scope for errors. This project aims at designing and simulation of fault tolerance routing protocolfor MWSN using matlab.



    Mobile Wireless Sensor network (MWSN) is awireless sensor network in which the sensor nodes are mobile. MWSN consists of several unattended and scattered sensor nodes that have the ability to move within the network. A sensor node is a tiny device that includes three basic components as shown in figure 1 below:

    • A sensing subsystem for data acquisition from the physical surrounding environment,

    • A processing subsystem for local data processing and

    • Storage and a wireless communication subsystem for data transmission

      Fault detection- To provide any countermeasures, the first step a system must perform is to detect that a specific functionality is or will be faulty.

      Fault Recovery- After the system has detected a fault, the next step is to prevent or recover from it. The main technique to achieve this goal is to replicate the components of the system that are vital for its correct operation. i.e Fault tolerance.

      Routing Protocol: Routing is the act of moving a data packet from source sensor node to destination base station (BS). The best routing protocol is the one that covers all states of a specified network and never consumes too much of network resources.


    The main aim of this project is to provide reliable communication with fault tolerance. Initially the fault is detected and it is rectified. Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures.


    1. In year 2017, Kasilingam Rajeshwari, Subbu Neduncheliyan proposed a paper on Genetic algoritham based fault tolerant clustring in wireless

      sensor network. In order to over come issues like energy loss, message loss and link failure cluster based fault tolerance technique using genetic algorithm is proposed.

    2. In year 2016, Beneyaz A Begum, Satayanarayana V Nandury explained a paper on Interference-fault free data aggregation in Tree based WSNs .Since WSN often surrender with issues related to interference during the transmission of 2 or more closely related sensor node interfer with each other , IFFT(Interference Fault Free Transmission) technique has been proposed, which avoid interference.

    3. In year 2016, Mandeep Kaur, Parul Garg explained a paper on Improved distributed fault tolerant clustering algorithm for tolerance in WSN. In

      this paper they have proposed an algoritham to improve the life time of wsn by using Improved distributed fault tolerant clustring algorithm.

    4. In year 2015, Gholamreza Kakamanshadi, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh proposed a paper on Survey on fault tolerance techniques in wireless sensor networks. In this paper they presents a critical analysis of various fault tolerance mechanim in wsn such as redundancy based, clustring based and deployment based to identify the streangth and weakness of each one of these mechanism.

    5. In year 2014, Jaideep Lakhotia , Rajeev Kumar explained a paper on Fault Tolerant and Mobility Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Network. this paper proposes a fault tolerance protocol that achieves fault tolerance of cluster head while routing and mobilitymanagement of mobile sensor nodes to reduce packet loss data transmission in MWSN.

    6. In year 2014, XiongQi Zheng, Yong Feng, Jie Yang

      , ZhiQiang Lu proposed a paper onEnergy Efficient And Fault Tolerant Routing Protocol For Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks . The proposed EFTCP has high fault tolerance through provinding an alternate for each cluster head node. An EFTCP can reach efficient message text by the method that cluster head adoptively allocate time slot to their member nodes according to amount of data need to send.

    7. In year 2014, Rama Ranjan Panda, Bhabane Sankar Gouda, Trilochan Panigrahi explained a paper on Efficient fault node detection algorithm for wireless sensor networks. centralized robust fault detection algorithm to identify faulty node present in the network.

    8. In year 2013, Sourour Trab, Ahmed Zouinkhi, Boumedyen Boussaid, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim proposed a paper on Application of distributed fault detection in WSN to dangerous chemical products based on Bayesian approach . Accidents are becoming frequent in the field of the storage and handling of chemical product. Bayesian approach has been included which ensures a pre study of WSNs deployement in dangerous chemical product stores and guarantes a best performing fault detection.

    9. In year 2010, Salvatore F Pileggi,Carlos E Palau, Manuel Esteve propsed a paper on Multimode WSN : Improving robustness, fault tolerance and performance of randomly deployed wireless sensor network. This paper propses an advanced flexible solution that applies the concept of ABC(Always Best Connected).During hostile and unpridictable environment it effects the communication range and increase the number of unconnected nodes. Multinode WSNis provided with an adaptive mechanism for environment condition evaluation and with ability og self configuration.

    10. In year 2009, Hind Alwan, Anjali Agarwal explained a paper on A Survey on fault tolerance routing techniques in WSN. this paper presents an overview of fault tolerance in WSN routing protocol. They have surveyed existing approaches and summerized recent

    research results on fault tolerant data routing into two main schemes retransmission based and replication based.

    Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.


    The methodology consist of four parts

    1. Formation of cluster

    2. Cluster head formation

    3. Isolation of faulty node

    4. Re-election of cluster head

    5. Transmission of data through cluster head from source to destination

    Formation of cluster head

    A cluster consist of number of nodes so that in many aspects they can beviewed as single system. The nodes in the

    cluster are set to perform same task, which are controlled and scheduled by software.

    Cluster formation is based on geographical area of the earth size of the cluster is based on the density of the nodes present in the geographical area which is been considered size of the cluster is inversely proportional to density of nodes i.e. higher the node density smaller the cluster size.

    The cluster head formation

    Cluster head is a node in the cluster that is responsible for collecting data from all other sensors in its cluster and rely these data to the base station its role usually rotates between the nodes in the cluster.

    Cluster head is selected depending on following parameters

    • Less delay

    • Low power consumption

    • Position of the node

    • Greater life time

    • No data loss

      Cluster head formation method is used provide reliable data transmission which enhances the quality of services.

      Isolation of faulty node

      Faulty node is one which sends irrelevant data. The nodes which are faulty are automatically isolated and only the proper nodes are considered for transmission. The isolation of nodes depends on following parameter

    • More delay

    • More power consumption

    • Lesser life time

    • Data loss

      Re-election of cluster head

      The movement of nodes within the safe limit is considered as movement of node within the cluster. Whenever the node crosses this safe limit there are two possible events that can happen. The node may return back to the same cluster Whenever the node moves into the

      neighboring cluster and if this node is a cluster head then re-election of cluster head takes place in both the cluster. Re-election of cluster head is nothing but selection of the cluster head among the remaining cluster nodes. Whenever the node returns back to the same cluster the connection is re-established


      Node deployment

      Cluster formation

      Calculation of parameters

      Processing fault nodes

      Check life time

  5. SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION Software required: MATLAB R2013a

MATLAB combines a desktop environment tuned for iterative analysis and design processes with a programming language that expresses matrix and array mathematics directly. MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi- paradigm numerical computing environment. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementationof algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. Operating system: WINDOWS 8.1

Coding language : MATLAB


Initially the cluster is formed and later cluster head is selected once the cluster head is selected once the first three steps of methodology is followed source and destination node is selected it is shown as follows

CH formation

Updating routing table

Fig 6.1 : movement of the nodes

Communication between source and destination


Fig 4.2: Flow chart

Fig 6.2: selection of source and destination nodes

Fig 6.3: parameters considered during the communication

Fig 6.4: detection of faulty nodes, position of nodes and life time.


  • Healthcare monitoring,

  • Environmental surveillance,

  • Defense tracking,

  • Wildlife mapping,

  • Traffic monitoring etc.

  • The monitoring of vital signs in temporary hospitals and the use of un- manned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the aiding of search and rescue (SAR) operations.


The main advantage of this project is that faults and other errors are rectified and corrected in initial level itself and

it is not done in communication level because of which time consumption has been reduced


The main aim of the project is to provide reliable communication for MWSN by considering challenging parameters such as life time, power dissipation, fault tolerance. Providng a fault tolerance network for MWSN is a most difficult task. In this project that has been achieved by using cluster formation and creating cluster head fault tolerance has been achieved.


  1. HADEEL AHMAD AL-FAHAD EIMAN ALI AL- JAZZAF ABDELSALAM. H. A. HAMZ, An Investigation and study for Routing Protocols Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks, June 2013

  2. N. NARASIMHA DATTA* AND K. GOPINATH, A survey of routing algorithms for wireless sensor networks, Nov. Dec. 2006,

  3. Dipak Wajgi and Dr. Nileshsingh V. Thakur, load balancing based approach to improvelifetime of wireless sensor network, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 4, No. 4, August 2012

  4. Jijesh J. J and Shivashankar, energy efficient routing protocol based on dsr, International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) Vol.7, No.5,

    October 2016

  5. Sandhya Rachamalla, Dr. Anitha Sheela Kancharla, a survey of real-time routing protocolsfor wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.4, No.3, June 2013

  6. Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins, Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing, IEEE, 1997.

  7. Chen, T. & Gerla, M., Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks, Proc. IEEE ICCs, 1998.

  8. Elizabeth M. R. & Chai-Keong, T, Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Network, IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 46-55, April 1999.

  9. Petteri Kuosmanen, Classification of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols, IEEE, 2002.

  10. Xukai Zou, Byrav Ramamurthy and Spyros Magliveras, Routing Techniques in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Classification and Comparison, Proceedings of the Sixth World Multi-conference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics (SCI 2002),2002.

  11. Jong Youl Choi, Security problems for ad hoc routing protocols, Technical report, 2003.

  12. Yi Lu, Weichao Wang, Bharat Bhargava , Study of Distance Vector Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, CERIAS and Department of Computer Sciences Purdue University, March 24th, 2003.

  13. Sanghwan Lee, Yinzhe Yu, Srihari Nelakuditi, Zhi-Li Zhang, Chen-Nee Chuah, Proactive vs Reactive Approaches to Failure Resilient Routing , IEEE, 2004.

  14. D.J. Cook and S.K. Das, Wireless Sensor Networks, John Wiley, New York, 2004.

  15. Lindqvist, Janne, Counting to Infinity, Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology. 2004.

  16. Mr. Ankur Khetrapal, Routing techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Classification and Qualitative/Quantitative Analysis, New Delhi: Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi University.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *