 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 315
 Authors : Samiksha Dhole, Sayali Shembalkar, Tirupati Yadav, Prasheel Thakre
 Paper ID : IJERTV6IS040673
 Volume & Issue : Volume 06, Issue 04 (April 2017)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV6IS040673
 Published (First Online): 25042017
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design and FPGA Implementation of 4×4 Vedic Multiplier using Different Architectures
Samiksha Dhole
UG Scholar, Dept. of ECE, RCOEM, Nagpur, India
Sayali Shembalkar
UG Scholar, Dept. of ECE, RCOEM, Nagpur, India
Tirupati Yadav
UG Scholar, Dept. of ECE, RCOEM, Nagpur, India
Prof. Prasheel Thakre
Asst. Professor, Dept. of ECE, RCOEM, Nagpur, India
Abstract: The need of high speed multiplier is increasing as the need of high speed processors are increasing. A Multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in most of the fast processing systems which is not only a high delay block but also a major source of power dissipation. A conventional processor requires substantially more hardware resources and processing time in the multiplication operation, rather than addition and subtraction. This paper describes about the design of 4bit, 8bit and 32bit Vedic multiplier using ancient Vedic mathematics which helps in delay and power reduction. Simulation is done in Xilinx 14.7 software using VHDL. The results for vedic multiplier using various architecture and their delay comparision is done.
Keywords: Carry save adder, ripple carry adder, carry select adder (CLA), Vedic Mathematics, and Urdhva Tiryagbhyam.

INTRODUCTION
The word Vedic is derived from the word Veda which means the storehouse of all knowledge. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system of mathematics existed in India. In this eminent approach, methods of basic arithmetic are simple, powerful and logical. Another advantage is its regularity. Because of these advantages, Vedic Mathematics has become an important topic for research. The technique use in Vedic Mathematics is mainly based on sixteen Sutras. Vedic mathematics was reconstructed from the ancient Indian scriptures (Vedas) by Swami Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja (18841960) after his eight years of research on Vedas [1]. Vedic mathematics is mainly based on sixteen principles or wordformulae which are termed as sutras [2]. This is a very interesting field and presents some effective algorithms which can be applied to various branches of engineering such as computing and digital signal processing. Integrating multiplication with Vedic Mathematics techniques would result in the saving of computational time.
Multipliers play an essential part in todays digital signal processing and various other applications. With advances in technology, many scholars have tried and are trying to design multipliers which compromise either of the following design targets – high speed, low power consumption, symmetry of layout and less area. In this paper we have made the use Vedic sutra in designing high speed multiplier we have proposed various architecture for designing Vedic multiplier so as to reduce delay as minimum as possible using urdhva triyagbhyam.

URDHVATRIYAGBHYAM SUTRA
The word Urdhva Tiryakbhyam is vedi sutra which means vertical and crosswise multiplication [ 1]. This multiplication formula is equally applicable to all cases of algorithm for N bit numbers. Conventionally this sutra is used for the multiplication of two numbers in decimal number system. The same concept can be applicable to binary number system. Advantage of using this type of multiplier is that as the number of bits increases, delay and area increases very slowly as compared to other conventional multipliers [3].
Fig 1 Example of 4×4 multiplication using Urdhva triyakbhyam Sutra
In the above figure1, 4bit binary numbers
0123 and 0123 are considered. The result obtained is stored in 01234567.In the first step A0 and B0 is multiplied and the result obtained is stored in 0. Similarly, in second step [0, B1] and [1,
0] are multiplied using a full adder and the sum is stored in 1 and carry is transferred to next step. Likewise, the process continues till we get the result [3].
Fig2: Multiplication method of UrdhvaTiryakbhyam.

VEDIC MULTIPLIER FOR 2X2 BIT
The method is explained below for two, 2 bit numbers A and B where A = a1a0 and B = b1b0 as shown in Figure 3. Firstly, the Least Significant Bits are multiplied which gives the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the final product (vertical). Then, the LSB of the multiplicand is multiplied with the next higher bit of the multiplier and added with, the product of LSB of multiplier and next higher bit of the multiplicand (crosswise) [4]. The sum gives second bit of the final product and the carry is added with the partial product obtained by multiplying the most significant bits to give the sum and carry. The sum is the third corresponding bit and carry becomes the fourth bit of the final product [4].
Fig3: The Vedic Multiplication Method for two 2bit binary numbers
s0 = a0b0;
c1s1 = a1b0 + a0b1; c2s2 = c1 + a1b1;
Multiplier (VM) module is implemented using four input AND gates & two halfadders which is displayed in its block diagram in Figure 4 [4].
Fig4: Block Diagram of 2×2 bit Vedic Multiplier (VM)
The same method can be extended for higher no. of input bits (say 4). But a little modification is required as discussed in section 3.2. This section illustrates the implementation of 4×4 bit VM which uses 2×2 bit VM as a basic module.

VEDIC MULTIPLIER FOR 4X4 BIT
Divide the no. of bits in the inputs equally in two parts [5]. Lets analyze 4×4 bit multiplication, say multiplicand A=A3A2A1A0 and multiplier B= B3B2B1B0. Following are the output line for the multiplication result, S7S6S5S4S3S2S1S0. Lets divide A and B into two parts, say A3 A2 & A1 A0 for A and B3 B2 & B1B0 for B [5]. Using the fundamental of Vedic multiplication, taking two bit at a time and using 2 bit multiplier block, we can have the following structure for 4×4 bit multiplication as shown in Figure 5 [5].
Fig5 4×4 Vedic Multiplication Method
Each block as shown above is 2×2 bit multiplier. First 2×2 multiplier inputs are A1 A0 and B1 B0. The last block is 2×2 bit multiplier with inputs A3 A2 and B3 B2. The middle one shows two, 2×2 bit multiplier with inputs A3A2 & B1B0 and A1A0 & B3B2. So the final result of multiplication, which is of 8 bit, S7S6S5S4S3S2S1S0.
Here we have shown various block diagram of architecture use to design 4×4 Vedic multiplier and their respective delays. The last block is 2×2 bit multiplier with inputs A3 A2 and B3 B2. The middle one shows two, 2×2 bit multiplier with inputs A3A2 & B1B0 and A1A0 & B3B2. So the final result of multiplication, which is of 8 bit, S7S6S5S4S3S2S1S0.
Here we have shown various block diagram of architecture use to design 4×4 Vedic multiplier and their respective delays.

VARIOUS ARCHITECTURE OF VEDIC MULTIPLIER
In these architectures first partial products are obtained by 2×2 multipliers and then these partial products are added to obtain the result. In these architectures we have discussed various approaches to add this partial products and calculated delay for all architecture [6] [7].

Vedic Multiplier for 4×4 Bit Using Ripple Carry Adder
Fig6 Vedic Multiplier for 4×4 Bit Using Ripple Carry Adder
0
Fig7 Design Summary and Total Combinational Delay

Vedic Multiplier for 4×4 Bit Using look ahead Carry Adder
Fig8 Vedic Multiplier for 4×4 Bit Using Look Ahead Carry Adder
Fig9 Design Summary and Total Combinational Delay

Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using Carry save adder.

Carry save adder.
Carry save adder used t perform 3 bit addition at once. Here 3 bit input (A, B, C) is processed and converted to 2 bit output (S, C) at first stage. At first stage result carry is not propagated through addition operation. In order to generate carry, implemented ripple carry adder on stage 2 for carry propagation. Carry Save adder VHDL Code can be constructed by port mapping full adder VHDL Code to 2 stage adder circuit [6].
Fig10: 4 bit carry save adder.
Using carry save adder we have used two architecture as follow:

Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using two Carry Save Adder by using concede operation
Fig12 Design Summary and Total combinational delay

Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using single Carry Save Adder


Q3[3:0] Q2[3:0]
Q1[3:0] Q0[3:0]
Q0[3:2]
Q0[1:0]
Fig13: Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using single Carry Save Adder by using concede operation
Fig11: Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using two Carry Save Adder by using concede operation
In this architecture instead of using two 4 bit carry save adder we have used only one 6bit carry save adder. First partial products are obtained using 2×2 Vedic multiplier, the partial product obtained from LSB 2×2 multiplier Q0(3:0),Q0[1:0]=p[1:0], the remaining bits Q[3:2] are concatenated to bits from MSB 2×2 multiplier that is Q3[3],Q3[2],Q3[1],Q3[0],Q0[3],Q0[2]. Now
partial products Q1, Q2 are concatenated with 00 in MSB side so as to take it 6 bit. Thus three 6bit numbers are added using single 6bit carry look ahead adder. Hence this architecture requires only one 6bit carry save adder instead of three 4 bit adder used in Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using carry look ahead adder and ripple carry adder.
3. 32×32 bit Vedic multiplier.
Architecture used 
Vedic Multiplier For 32×32 Bit Carry look ahead adder 
Vedic Multiplier For 32×32 Bit Using single Carry save adder 
[Stimulation on Spartan 6] 
65.442ns 
49.400ns 
Fig17: 32×32 bit Vedic multiplier synthesis analysis.
Thus from these observations we can conclude that among architecture of Vedic multiplier for 4×4 using ripple carry adder, carry look ahead adder, carry save adder; carry save adder gives minimum combinational delay. And same is observed for 8×8 bit and 32×32 bit multiplication.
Fig14 Design Summary and Total Combinational Delay

CONCLUSION
Thus form stimulations of all above architectures we have observe following results

4×4 bit Vedic multiplier.
Architecture used
Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Ripple carry adder
Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Carry look ahead adder
Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using
two Carry save adder
Vedic Multiplier For 4×4 Bit Using single
Carry save adder
[Stimulation on Spartan 6] 12.942ns
11.405ns
10.932ns
9.173ns
Fig15: 4×4 bit Vedic multiplier synthesis analysis.

8×8 bit Vedic multiplier.
Architecture used
Vedic Multiplier For 8×8 Bit Carry look ahead adder
Vedic Multiplier For 8×8 Bit Using single Carry save
adder
[Stimulation on Spartan 6] 18.248ns
16.629ns
Fig16: 8×8 bit Vedic multiplier synthesis analysis.


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