 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 592
 Authors : Mr. Sagar Gajanan Kashid, Prof. Mr. Pandit Rangrao Sawant
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS100091
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 10 (October 2014)
 Published (First Online): 07102014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design and Development of Material Handling Crane
Mr. Sagar Gajanan Kashid
(Post Graduate Student, Mechanical Department, Rajarambapu Institute of technology, Sakharale, Shivaji University Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.
Prof. Mr. PanditRangrao Sawant,
(Professor, Mechanical Department, Rajarambapu Institute of technology, Sakharale,
ShivajiUniversity Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract: – In case of construction equipment there is a mainly requirement of material to be transfer from one place to another place or from one floor to another floor. This material may contain the grain particles, cubes, heavy cement bags, etc. This is very important to transfer the material at right place at right time for its good working environment.
So there is a main requirement of the construction crane for the purpose of material handling from one place to
between radius of 20feet

Angular movement of 180 degrees of crane axis.

Crane should be mobile having less weight.

Easily assembled on construction site (normally within 2.5 hours.
another place.
This project will helpful for the specific requirement of such application of material handling in case of construction sites. Basically these construction sites requires more human interfere for proper completion of the construction work.
Keywords: Tower cum Jib crane, Steel structural design, FEM, Material sourcing, manufacturing procedure, testing procedure.
INTRODUCTION:
In the construction or heavy mechanical industry there is a need to transmit the material from one place to another place. There are so many varieties of cranes used in these industries. The commonly used cranes are overhead cranes, mobile cranes, rough terrain cranes, tower cranes, jib cranes. In case of construction work small cranes are normally used which carries approximately 100 kg can load. Also in this construction industry, the tower cranes are mostly used for high buildings applications. Sothere is a need of design of a crane, which considers the requirement of sponsorer.
Due to some limitations of conventional methods, it is impossible to improve workability. In order to successfully come up with these problems, material handling crane which is designed features plays vital role in daytoday
industrial as well as civil work. To overcome the problem in existing methodology of working it was proposed to
ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK
Chapter 1: Design
This chapter gives various Design considerations in structures, components and its applications of CAD / CAE in new product design.

Calculations of the maximum stresses induced in the members of the vertical structure of the crane.
A structural failure may be said to occur when a structure collapses due to rupture or excessive distortion of members. The main mode for structural failure of material would be by shear, tension, buckling, crushing, fatigue or brittle fracture.In elastic design, the allowable stresses are taken less than the structure of material by an appropriate factor called Factor of Safety.

For steel, a factor of safety of 1.67 is used in axial tension and compression and 1.5 in bending.

The usual value of load factor is taken 1.7 for beams.
The shear force at distance 6.3 meters from the free end is equal to the unbalanced vertical force i.e. Fx=10KN and the bending moment at this section,
M = 10 KN x 6.3 m = 63 KNm
Box type design is considered, 500 mm x 500 mm is used as a column, with a one end fixed and other is free, then by Eulers formula the crippling load will be,
Design and development a Material handling Crane by
which the workability improves.
P = 2 Ã—Ã—
2
[1]In this paper the Design, Manufacturing and Execution of crane. And proposed requirements of the project,
Considering Modulus of Elasticity E=200 GPa



Material of weight 500 Kg to be carry.

Maximum lifting height should be 132 feet.

Material can place in

Motor drive for hoist to lift the material.

Minimum persons required to operate the crane.
Fig. 1.1 SFD and BMD
So, calculating the Moment of Inertia for the selected column section will be,
I = 3 = 500Ã—5003 = 5.2 x1094
CHECKING THE BUCKLING OF BUILTUP COLUMNS.
Forbuiltup columns, we have to determine the safe load by Rankines Formula having the column length of 3.2 meters.
Length, l = 3.2 meters
12 12
Safe Load = Buckling Load = 2.78×106 KN
. . .
Since, the column is fixed at one end and free at other end,
the equivalent length of column is,
L= 2 x l (length) = 2 x 3 x103 mm= 6 x103 mm
Fig 1.3 Buckling of builtup section
Factorof safety = 5
Sr. No 
End Connections 
Crippling Load 
Relation between equivalent and actual length 
1 
Both ends hinged 
2 2 
L=1 
2 
One end fixed 
2 

and the other free 
22 
L=2l 

3 
Both end fixed 
2 
L= 
(/2)2 
2 

4 
One end fixed and other hinged 
2 Ã— Ã— (/2)2 
L= 1 2 
Area, a = 500 x 500 = 2.5 x 105 mm2
Moment of Inertia, I= 1.56 x 1010
Table No. 1.1 The equivalent lengths (L) for given end conditions [1]
Effective length of struts
The effective lengths according to IS: 8001984 for various combinations of the end connections are
Effectively held in position at both ends and restrained against rotation at one end is given by,
0.80 L = 0.80 x 4
The total height is approximately 13 FT = 4 meters = 0.80×4
= 3.2 Meters.
Fig. 1.2 Effective length
Radius of gyration is given by,
= (1.56 x 1010 / 2.5 x 105)= 249.7 mm Say = 250 mm.
For builtup columns, we have to determine the safe load by Rankines Formula having the column length of 3.2 meters.
Length, l = 3.2 meters Factor of safety = 5
Area, a = 500 x 500 = 2.5 x 105 mm2 Moment of Inertia, I= 1.56 x 1010 Radius of gyration is given by,
= (1.56 x 1010 / 2.5 x 105)= 250 mm
Therefore the Crippling load on the column is calculated by following,
P = (c x A) / (1 + a (L/K) 2)
[1] [6]P = (320 x 2.5 x 102) / (1 + (1/7500) x ((3.2 x 103) / 250)) =
80 x 103 KN
Safe load on the column = (80 x 103 / 5) = 16 x 103 KN Thus column is safer for Buckling.
DESIGN OF COLUMN BASES:
The central portion has bending in two directions and also supported by web, hence thickness of plate is halved.Therefore, t = (64 / 2) = 32 mm
So provided thickness of the base plate is 32 mm.
Design of Bolts: [1] [5]
The column section and the cover plates attached with the flanges as one unit. Therefore the bolts connecting gusset plate and column section are in single shear.
p = P / A total = P / (n x A) = (25×103) / (8x x (242)) = 7
Required width of gusset plate (B) = (Depth of girder + 2 x Cover plate thickness + 2 x Gusset plate thickness + Width of an angle connecting base plate + Clearance.
B = 00 + 2 (16) +2 (16+100+14)
B = 792 mm and A = 114 mm
Fig 1.4 Column bases
Length of the gusset plate = 4.16 x103 / 792= 5.25 mm say 6mm
Area of a gusset plate provided = 6 x 792 = 4752 mm2> 4160 mm2
Intensity of pressure between the plate and concrete = 25 x103 / 4.752 x103= 5.26 MPa < 6 MPa
The critical section for the bending moment is at the face of the angle.
Length of the critical section = (11516) + 14= 113 mm Considering unit width,Bending moment at critical section
= 5.26 x (1132 /2) = 33582.5 N mm
Plastic modulus required,
4
N/mm2
Actual moment load applied on the plate and bolt is 65 KN m = 65 x103 N m.
c = Number of bolts= 24 = Average shear stress max= Max shear stress
= (T x r) / (A x r2) = 1655.21 N/ mm2
max = (T x r) / (A x x r2) = 11605 N/ mm Torsional load,
Pt = (T) / (r / r2) r = 300
Fig 1. 5 Design of column bases with bolts
Shearing force= (T x r) / ( r2)=11 KN and direct load = 25 KN.
Resultant load = (252 + 112) = 28 KN
Maximum shear stress = (28 x 103) / 245 = 114.28 N / mm2
Zp = M x mo mm3
Where,
/ Fy = 33582.5 x (1.1 / 250)= 147.8 Say 148
Combined stress on the plate = 122 N / mm2
Therefore, for M20 bolt size the tensile stress area = 245 mm2
mo= Partial safety factor = 1.1
Elastic modulus,
Ze = 148 / 1/14= 129.8 say 130 mm3
130 = 1 x (t2 / 6)
t= 27.9 mm say 28 mm.
Bending moment at critical section yy,
= W (B2a) 2 / 8 W x (a2/2)5.26 (792 (2 x 114)2 / 8 5.26
x 1142 / 2= 174968.64 N.mm
Plastic Modulus required;Zp = M x mo/ Fy = 174968.64 x 1.1 / 250= 769.8 mm3 say 770 mm3
Elastic Modulus;Ze = 770 / 1.14= 675.43 = 1x t2 t2 = 174968.64 x 6 = 63.66 mm say 64 mm.
For minimum shear strength of bolt grade 4.6 is 185 N/mm2 which is 1.32 times safe.

Calculations of the maximum stresses induced in the members of the vertical structure of the crane.
Bending Stresses: By the simple theory of bending, Fb= (M/I) x y
Allowable bending stress
As per IS: 8001984, the allowable bending stress in tension Fbt is based upon the guaranteed minimum yield stress Fy of the steel. Considering factor of safety for bending stress is 1.5 times the bending stress.
Therefore,
Fbt = 0.66 x Fy= 250 MPa
Means Fbt = 165 MPa. And Shear stress
Fa= VAy / Ib and Fs= 0.45 Fy
According to Standard table IS800, data for Design of beams, coefficient of maximum deflection K=1/3.
Therefore,
= (1/3) (WL3 / EI)
W = 10KN = 10X103 N, L = 6300mmE = 200×103 N/mm2
Fig 1.6 Moment of Inertia
I = 66.32 cm4 = 66.32 mm4
Load to be distributed considering 3 tubes, 10KN / 3 = 3.33 KN Say 3.5 x 103 N
The maximum deflection at the end point will be
= (1/3) (WL3 / EI) = 2199mm
Calculating moment of Inertia: IA = BD3 / 12
IA = 8.5×109 mm4andIB = BD3 / 12 IB = 18×109 mm4
Total Moment of Inertia,
IC = IA2IB = 6.7 x 109 say 7 x 109
Therefore the maximum deflection at the end is given by;
= (1/3) (WL3 / EI) = (1/3) (10 x 103 x 63003) / (200 x 103
The applied load =10 KN= 10 x 103 N and E = 200 x 103 N/mm2
The maximum deflection is given by;
= (1/3) (WL3 / EI) = 20.63 mm say 21 mm. Thus / L = 21 / 6300 = 1/300
As per IS: 800, the allowable deflection should not exceed than 2/325 of span for cantilever. Thus, design is safe for deflection.

Design considerations for drive section and calculations for thestresses and loadcarrying capacity of the main drive shaft of the crane. [1] [3] [5]
When a shaft is subjected to bending moment Mb and Torsional moment Mt, the bending stress 6b and Torsional shear stress given by,
Fig 1.7 Design of drive shaft
Mt, the bending stress b and Torsional shear stress 6b= (Mb x y) / I = 32 Mb / d3
= (M x r) / y = 16 M / d3
x 7 x 109)= 0.622 mm t t
The maximum deflection at the middle is given by;
= (1/3) (WL3 / EI) = (1/3) (10 x 103 x 31503) / (200 x 103 x 7 x 109)= 0.07 mm
Considering the deflection practically, we can define every aspect separately and then add it to deflection formula,
The square section having an area = 8.54 cm2 = 854 mm2 Considering horizontal section of 20 mm bar having length 392 mm,
Material – En8 with Yield strength of 620 N/mm2. And Mt= 63×106 N mm
Shear stress can be taken as,
Sst= 0.577 x 620 N/mm2= 357.74 say 358 N/mm2
Considering shaft diameter 110 mm.
= 16 Mt / d3 = (16x63x106) / ( x 1103)= 241.04 say 241N/mm2
FOS = / max= 358 /241= 1.48 say 1.5 times
IBar = BD3 / 12= 20 x (392)3 / 12= 100 x 106 mm4
Considering bending strength,
RB x 660= (15 x 300) x 330= 2250 N and RA = (15 x 300) –
2250= 2250 N
Therefore the total moment of inertia;
Isq.section = 66.32 cm4 = 66.32x 104 mm4and I mm4= 201.98 x 106= 202 x 106 mm4
Bar
= 100 x 106
The shear force diagram above and values tabulated below. FA= +RA= 2250 andFC= 2250 N and FD = 2250(15×300)=
2250 N and FB= 2250 N
Nominal Diameter
(mm)
Approximate Mass (kg/100 m)
Minimum breaking load to tensile designation of wires of
(KN)
1230
1420
1570
6
12.5
13.6
15.7
17.4
7
17.0
18.5
21
24
8
22.1
24
28
31
9
28.0
31
35
39
10
34.6
38
44
48
11
41.9
46
53
58
12
49.8
54
63
69
Fig. 1.8 SFD and BMD
On calculating MA= 0 MC= 337500, MD= 337500 MC= wl2 / 8 MC= 168750 Nmm
We have yield strength, Syt= 620 N/mm2.
Table 1.2 Breaking load and mass for 6×9 (12/6/1) Construction wire ropes as per IS
So two wire ropes of 10 mm taken in to account. On an availability of material or wire rope selected is Â½ or 12 mm. considering, the diameter is selected is much safer side. Considering the maximum tension in the wire rope is 30 KN.
If we consider that the shaft is having keyway, then max= (16/ d3) x {(Kb x Mb)2 + (Kt x Mt)2}
We know that,
Sst= 0.3x Syt = 186 N/mm2 and Sut= 0.18x Syt = 111.6 N/mm2
According to standard, the following constants taken in to consideration.
Kb=1.5 and Kt= 1
max= (16/ d3) x {(Kb x Mb)2 + (Kt x Mt)2}= 241.06 say 241 N/mm2
Factor of safety = 241 / 114= 2.11 means design for shaft in tension and shear is safe.

Procedure for selection of Wire rope for safe working of crane. [1] [5]
Assuming number of wire ropes n. The force acting on each wire rope compares weight of the material to be raised, the weight of the wire rope and the force due to the acceleration of the material and the wire rope.
The weight of the material raised by each wire rope, (10 x 1000/n) N (1)
From table mass of 100 m wire rope is 34.6 Kg, since the weight is,
= 34.6 x 9.81 x 40 / 100=135.77 N (2)
The mass of the material raised by each wire rope is (10000 / (n x9.81)) and that of each wire rope is, (34.6 x
40) / 100. Therefore, due to each acceleration is,
= [((10000/(nx9.81))+(34.6×40)/(100)]x1=[((1019.36)/n)+13. 84]N(3)
From below table, the breaking strength of the wire rope is 44 KN.
Assuming the FOS to be 10.
(44000/10) =(10000 / n) + 135.77 + (1019.36 / n) + 13.84=
2.59 say 3
The mechanical properties of wire ropes considering IS800: 22661981, Steel wire ropes general engineering purpose specifications, the nominal diameter (dr) of the wire rope indicate the diameter of the smallest circle enclosing the wire rope. The designation of the wires, such as 1570 or 1770 indicates the minimum ultimate tensile strength (in N/mm2) of the individual wires used for making of the rope.
According the table for 6×19 (12/6×1) construction wire ropes for nominal diameter 81 KN for 1570 N/mm2. This proves much safer for working.

Procedure to find out knuckle pin joint for wire rope.
[5]The total load carrying at the end of the mast is subjected to maximum stresses induced at the joining part of the rope and horizontal mast. This load is carried by means of the knuckle pin.
Considering the factor of safety to total load of 5 KN.
Fig 1.9 Design of Knuckle pin
The torque (T) transmitted by pulley, T = 30 x 5= 1.5 x 105 N mm
D = Minimum shaft diameter Torque, T = 1.5 x 105 N mm = 45 MPa
D = to be find out T= (/16) x x D3
D3 = (1.5 x 105 x 16) / ( x 45) = 26 mm.
On an availability of the standard Knuckle pin at market, we have bought 30 mm knuckle pin on safer side.

FEA analysis of Crane with the help of NX 8 NASTRAN
Simple mathematical model can be solved analytically, but more complex model requires use of numerical methods. FEA is one of the numerical methods used to solve complex mathematical problem. The entire solution domain must be discredited into simply shaped sub domain called as elements. NX 8 NASTRAN software is used for the analysis of the Material Handling Crane, which is based on the FEA method.
STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

3D modeling of Material Handling Crane.
The parts have been created with parametric modeling in 3Dusing NX8 software
The created 3D model is saved in part.prt file format, as this file format is suitable during importing this
model for meshing in NX NASTRAN software.
Fig 1.10 3D model

Meshing of the 3D model of Drive section.
In simple term meshing means connecting elements with each other. Elements are the building blocks
of the finite element analysis.Meshing is carried out by using NX NASTRANsoftware which is largely used for
Fig 1.11Meshed model
meshing. Model is meshed by using SOLID 45 element and with 10 element size.
Total 41231 nodes and 410232 elements were created after meshing.

Material properties:After completion of meshing material properties are assigned to meshed model.
These properties are listed below.
Material usedSteel En 8
Youngs Modulus2.1x 105 N/mm2
Poisons Ratio 0.26

Applying constraints: After modeling of the parts the proper constraining of the part is carried out.

Structural loading on the component: Structural loading means applying proper stresses on the drive section parts.

Solving of the FEA model: In this case Post Solver of NX NASTRAN solves the matrices internally. In this case, the solver solves mathematical model and gives the required results

Results and its physicalinterpretation

After applying material properties and boundary conditions, problem was solved by the NASTRAN solver. NASTRAN solver formulates the governing structural stress strain equations for each and every element those formulated governing equation are solved for deformation.
SUMMARIZED PRINCIPAL STRESS DATA USING FEA:
The following images shows the various results for the vertical section, horizontal boom, drive section box, drive shaft, pulley bracket, etc.
Fig 1.12 Deflection of horizontal boom
Fig 1.13 Von mises stress at horizontal boom
Fig 1.14Displacement at drive shaft
Fig 1.15 Vonmises stresses at drive shaft
Fig 1.16 Displacement at drive Box
Fig 1.17Vonmises stresses at drive Box
Chapter 2: Manufacturing
According to the design considerations the manufacturing of the Material Handling Crane was carried out at Maharatna Steel Industries, Sakharale. Before the manufacturing of the crane, following things considered;
1) 
Availability of 
the 
2) 
Working 
space 
machineries. 

3) 
Manufacturing 
4) 
Handling 

knowledge 
equipments 

5) 
Their clients. 
6) 
Manpower 

7) 
Technical 
8) 
Transportation 

knowledge 
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Manufacturing of a crane was divided in to following parts;

Fabrication of vertical structure

Fabrication of horizontal boom structure

Fabrication and manufacturing of drive section.

Fabrication of supplementary parts like temporary base, rope support bracket, support plate.
The following photos elaborate the fabrication of a steel structure, manufacturing of the shaft, bearing plates, drive box setion.
Fig. 2.1 Manufacturing of Drive Box
Fig. 2.3 Manufacturing of Vertical Section
CHAPTER 3: CONCLUSION
In this dissertation work an attempt has been made for Design and Development of Material Handling Crane. Various design considerations made by previous design parameters and analyzed these models for better results.
Fig 2.4 manufacturing of Horizontal Section
Chapter 3: Assembly and Testing

Assembly of the crane structure
The total assembly of the crane structure is carried out after manufacturing and fabrication of all components. The heavy structure is assembled at free space at Maharatna Steel industries. Followingprocedure is carried out during the assembly of the Crane structure.
Fig. 3.2 Complete assembly of crane

Inspection and Testing
After assembly of the crane structure the testing procedure is carried out. The inspection report is generated with reference to IS: 807 and IS: 3177 for cranes.
For testing purpose, the small weights weighing 20 Kg each has been taken. Load is gradually increased while testing of the crane.
Fig. 3.3 Testing of Crane
The advent of innovative crane design has bought with the provision and tendency for being used as items of lifting and material handling equipment. This situation will present a whole new set of health and safety hazards to crane owners, operators.
. Following mentioned are some of the conclusion made on the Design and Development of Material Handling crane

Designing of this new concept i.e. a crane balancing using a wire rope or without counter weight.

Good ergonomic design theme.

The overall working space is more in this type of design.

Manufacturing or fabrication is much easier and suitable for working.

Comparatively assembly time is less considering the overall assembly.

Working capability as per initial requirement completed.

User friendly working.

Less dismantling time.

Low manufacturing cost.

Nice protective painting yellow coat. CHAPTER 4: REFERENCES

Books:

Design Of Structural Steel by Prof. A. S. Arya and J. L. Ajmani

Analysis Of Structures by V. N. Vazirani and M. M. Ratwani

Design of Machine Elements by V. B. Bhandari.

Strengh of Materials by R. S. Khurmi.

Cranes Design, Practice, and Maintenance by Ing. J. Verschoof.


Journal Papers:

Shih Chung Kang, Eduardo Miranda, Journal of Automation in Construction 15 (2006) 398 414, Planning and visualization for automated robotic crane erection processes in construction, a) Stanford University, 556H Bldg 550 (CIFE), Stanford CA 94305, USA. b) Stanford University, Room 293, Terman Engineering Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Kerem Murat O zdemir, CemTopkaya, Journal of Engineering Structures 28 (2006) 11621172, Lateral buckling of overhanging crane trolley monorails, Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey.

Gonzalo Taubmanna, Laurent Brochet a, Macarena Liniers b, Mercedes Medranob,XabierSarasolab, Jose Botija, Javier Alonsob, Carlo Damianic, Journal of Fusion Engineering and Design, Design of an overhead crane for the ITER NB cell remote handling maintenance operations, a) IBERTEF A.I.E., IbÃ©rica de TecnologÃa de FusiÃ³n, C/Magallanes 3, 28015 Madrid, Spain, b) AsociaciÃ³n EURATOMCIEMAT para la FusiÃ³n, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spain, c) FUSION FOR ENERGY, JosepPla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Ed B3, 08019 Barcelona, Spain