 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 689
 Authors : B.Sasikala, Khamruddin Syed
 Paper ID : IJERTV1IS10547
 Volume & Issue : Volume 01, Issue 10 (December 2012)
 Published (First Online): 28122012
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design and Control of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances
B.Sasikala1, Khamruddin Syed2
Department of Electrical and Electronics, K. G. Reddy College of Engineering and Technology
Abstract
Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling (PCC) of industrial loads.This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the Power Quality (PQ) of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved PQ can be made available at the point of common coupling . The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Introduction
PQ problems have received a great attention nowadays because of their ill effects. Nowadays most of the domestic and industrial equipment are corrupting the quality of the delivered power. The most common PQ problem is due to the utilization of modern semiconductor switching devices more and more in a wide range of applications in distribution networks , particularly in domestic and industrial loads These semiconductor devices present nonlinear operational characteristics, which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at PCC of industrial loads. Nowadays VSC based custom power devices are increasingly being used in custom power applications for improving the PQ of power distribution systems. Devices such as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) have already been in use. A
DSTATCOM can compensate for distortion and unbalance in a load. A DVR an compensate for voltage sag/swell and distortion in the supply side voltage such that the voltage across a sensitive/critical load terminal is perfectly regulated. A UPQC can perform the functions of both DSTATCOM and DVR. The UPQC consists of two VSCs that are connected to a common DC bus. One of the VSCs is connected in series with a distribution feeder, while the other one is connected in shunt with the same feeder. The DC links of both VSCs are supplied through a common DC capacitor.
This paper presents the new connection for UPQC i.e., IUPQC which is the most sophisticated mitigating device for the PQ problems. It was firstly introduced to mitigate the current harmonics and voltage disturbances. The main aim of the IUPQC is to hold the voltages Vt1 and Vl2 constant against voltage sag/sell/any power disturbances in either of the feeders. Many contributions were introduced to modify the configurations and the control algorithms to enhance its performance. Most of the existing control algorithms which are employed to control IUPQC have some drawbacks. These drawbacks have significant influence on the performance of IUPQC.

IUPQC Connection
The singleline diagram of an IUPQC connected distribution system is shown in Fig. 1.
Two feeders, Feeder1 and Feeder2, which are connected to two different substations, supply the system loads L1 and L2. The supply voltages are denoted by Vs1 and Vs2. It is assumed that the IUPQC is connected to two buses B1 and B2, the voltages of which are denoted by Vt1 and Vt2, respectively. Further two feeder currents are denoted by is1 and is2 while the load currents are denoted by il1 and il2. The load L2 voltage is denoted by Vl2. The purpose of the IUPQC is to hold the voltages Vt1 and Vl2 constant against voltage sag/swell, temporary interruption and momentary interruption etc. in either of
the two feeders. It has been demonstrated that the IUPQC can absorb power from one feeder (say Feeder1) to hold Vl2 constant in case of a sag in the voltage Vs1. This can be accomplished as the two VSCs are supplied by a common dc capacitor. The dc capacitor voltage control has been discussed here along with voltage reference generation strategy. Also, the limits of achievable performance have been computed. The performance of the IUPQC has been evaluated through simulation studies using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Fig. 1. Singleline diagram of an IUPQC distribution system
But basically IUPQC is nothing but the device UPQC kept in between two individual feeders, (called feeder1 and feeder2). UPQC consists of two back to back connected IGBT based voltage source bidirectional converters or VSCs (called VSC1 and VSC2) with a common DC bus. VSC1 is connected in shunt with feeder1 while VSC2 is placed in series with the feeder
2. All the inverters are supplied from a common single DC capacitor and each inverter has a transformer connected at its output. The AC filter capacitors are also connected in each phase (Fig.1) to prevent the flow of the harmonic currents generated due to switching. The six inverters of the IUPQC are controlled independent.
Fig. 2. Typical IUPQC connected in a distribution system.
An IUPQC connected to a distribution system is shown in Fig. 2, the feeder impedances are denoted by the pairs (Rs1, Ls1) and (Rs2, Ls2). It can be seen that the two feeders supply the loads L1 and L2. The load L1 is assumed to have two separate components an unbalanced part (L11) and a nonlinear part (L12). The currents drawn by these two loads are denoted by il11 and il12, respectively. We further assume that the load L2 is a sensitive load that requires uninterrupted and regulated voltage. The system parameters are mentioned in Table1.
Table 1: System parameters
System quantities
Values
System fundamental
frequency
50Hz
Voltage source Vs1
11kv(LL,rms), phase angle 00
Voltage source Vs2
11kv(LL,rms), phase angle 00
Feeder1 (Rs1 + j2fLs1)
Impedance:3.05+j0.036
Feeder2 (Rs1 + j2fLs2)
Impedance:3.05+j30.73
Load L11
Unbalanced RL component
Phase a: 24.2+j62.54 Phase b: 36.1+j81.86
Phase b: 48.2+j97.90
Load L12
Nonlinear component
A threephase diode rectifier
That Supplies a load of 250+j31.41
Balanced load L2
Impedance
95+j85.86

Design Considerations
The design considerations of IUPQC can be evaluated by using the following filtering systems

Active Filtering System
The active filtering system is based on a philosophy that addresses the load current distortion from a time domain rather than a frequency domain approach. The most effective way to import the distortive power factor in a nonsinusoidal situation is to use a nonlinear active device that directly compensates for the load current distortion. The performance of these active filters is based on three basic design criteria. They are:

The design of the power inverter (semiconductor switches, inductances, capacitors, dc voltage).

The PWM control method (hysterisis, triangular carrier, periodical sampling)
li>
Method used to obtain the current reference or the control strategy used to generate the reference template.


Design of Power Inverters
Inverter: Both series voltage control and shunt current control involve use of voltage source converters. Both these inverters each consisting of six IGBTs with a parallel diode connected in reverse with each IGBT are operated in current control mode employing PWM control technique
Capacitor: Capacitor is used as an interface between the two back to back connected inverters and the voltage across it acts as the dc voltage source driving the inverters. The IUPQC parameters are shown in Table2.
Table 2: IUPQC Parameters
System Quantity 
Parameters 
System fundamental frequency 
50Hz 
VSC1 Single phase transforme 
1MVA,3/11kv 10% leakage reactance 
VSC2 Single phase transforme 
1MVA,3/11kv 10% leakage reactance 
Filter capacitor (Cf) 
490Âµf 
Filter capacitor (Ck) 
99Âµf 
DC capacitor (Cdc) 
3000 Âµf 

Control Strategy for IUPQC

Shunt Control Strategy
Shunt control strategy shown in Fig. 3 involves not only generating reference current to compensate the harmonic currents but also charging the capacitor to the required value to drive the inverters.
Fig. 3. Block diagram for generation of gating signals
PI Control
With a view to have a self regulated dc bus, the voltage across the capacitor is sensed at regular intervals and controlled by employing a suitable closed loop control. The DC link voltage, Vdc is sensed at a regular interval and is compared with its reference counterpart Vdc *. The error signal is processed in a PI controller. The output of the PI controller is denoted as isp(n). A limit is put on the output of controller this ensures that the source supplies active power of the load and dc bus of the UPQC. Later part of active power supplied by source is used to provide a self supported DC link of the UPQC. Thus, the DC bus voltage of the UPQC is maintained to have a proper current control. Three phase reference supply currents (isa*, isb*, isc*). Subtraction of load currents (ila, ilb and ilc) from the reference supply currents (ila*, ilb*, ilc*) results in three phase reference currents (isha*, ishb*, ishc*) for the shunt inverter.
These reference currents Iref (isha*, ishb*, ishc*) are compared with actual shunt compensating currents Iact (isha, ishb, ishc) and the error signals are then converted into (or processed to give) switching pulses using PWM technique which are further used to drive shunt inverter. In response to the PWM gating signals the shunt inverter supplies harmonic currents required by load. (In addition to this it also supplies the reactive power demand of the load). In effect, the shunt bidirectional converter that is connected through an inductor in parallel with the load terminals accomplishes three functions simultaneously. It injects reactive current to compensate current harmonics of the load. It provides reactive power for the load and thereby improve power factor of the system. It also draws the fundamental current to compensate the power loss of the system and make the voltage of DC capacitor constant. The subsystems of shunt controller and pwm signal generation subsystems are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5.
Fig. 4. PWM Shunt controller (Subsystem)
Fig. 5. Direct Shunt controller (Subsystem)

Series control strategy
The series controller could be a variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor etc. Power electronics based variable source of main frequency, sub synchronous and harmonic frequencies to serve the desired need. In principle, all series controllers inject voltage in series with the line. Even variable impedance multiplied by a current flow through it, represents an injected series voltage in the line. The block diagram is shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Block diagram for generation of gating signals
The series inverter, which is also operated in current control mode, isolates the load from the supply by introducing a voltage source in between. This voltage source compensates supply voltage deviations such as sag and swell. In closed loop control scheme of the series inverter, the three phase load voltage (Vla, Vlb, Vlc) are subtracted from the three phase supply voltage (Vsa, Vsb, Vsc), and are also compared with reference supply voltage which results in three phase reference voltages (Vla*, Vlb*, Vlc*). These reference voltages are to be injected in series with the load. By taking recourse to a suitable transformation, the three phase reference currents (isea*, iseb*, isec*) of the series inverter are obtained from the three phase reference voltages (Vla*, Vlb*, Vlc*). The PWM generation subsystem of series controller shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. PWM Series controller (Subsystem)
isa* = isp.usa; isb* = isp.usb; isc* = isp.usc; (3) To obtain reference currents, three phase load currents are subtracted from three phase reference supply currents:
These reference currents (isea*, iseb*, isec*) are fed
isha
* = isa

– ila; i
shb
* = isb

– ilb
; (4)
to a PWM current controller along with their sensed counterparts (isea, iseb, isec). The gating signals obtained from PWM current controller ensure that the series inverter meets the demand of voltage sag and swell, thereby providing sinusoidal voltage to load. Thus series inverter plays an important role to increase the reliability of quality of supply voltage at the load, by injecting suitable voltage with the supply, whenever the supply voltage undergoes sag. The series inverter acts as a load to the common DC link between the two inverters. When sag occurs series inverter exhausts the energy of the dc link. Thus, UPQC, unlike Dynamic Voltage Restorer, does not need any external storage device or additional converter (diode bridge rectifier) to supply the DC link voltage.
The direct series controller subsystem as shown in Fig.8
Fig. 8. Direct Series controller (Subsystem)

Model Equations of the IUPQC

Computation of Control Quantities of Shunt Inverter
The amplitude of the supply voltage is computed from the three phase sensed values as:
vsm =[ 2/3(vsa2 + vsb2 +vsc2)]1/2 (1) The three phase unit current vectors are computed as: usa = vsa/vsm; usb = vsb/vsm; usc = vsc/vsm; (2)
Multiplication of three phase unit current vectors (usa, usb and usc) with the amplitude of the supply current (isp) results in the threephase reference supply currents as:
ishc* = isc* – ilc; (5)
These are the iref for Direct current control technique of shunt inverter. The iref are compared with iact in PWM current controller to obtain the switching signals for the devices used in the shunt inverter.

Computation of Control Quantities of Series Inverter
The supply voltage and load voltage are sensed and there from, the desired injected voltage is computed as follows: vinj=vsvl (6)
The magnitude of the injected voltage is expressed as: vinj= vinj (7)
Whereas, the phase of injected voltage is given as:
pq
pq
inj= tan(Re[v ]/Im[v ]) (8) for the purpose of compensation of harmonics in load voltage, the following inequalities are followed: vinj<vinjmaxmagnitude control; (9)
0<inj<3600hase control; (10) Three phase reference values of the injected voltages are expressed as:
Vla*= (11)
Vlb*= (12)
Vlc*= (13)
The three phase reference currents (iref) of the series inverter are computed as follows:
isea*= vla*/zse; iseb* = vlb*/zse; isec * = vlc*/zse; (4) The impedance zse includes the impedance of insertion transformer. The currents (isea*, iseb*, isec*) are ideal current to be maintained through the secondary winding of insertion transformer in order to inject voltages (Vla, Vlb, Vlc) thereby accomplishing the desired task of compensation of the voltage sag. The currents iref (isea*, iseb*, isec*) are compared with Iact (isha, ishb, ishc) in PWM current controller, as a result six switching signals are obtained for the IGBTs of the series inverter


Operation Of IUPQC for Different Power Distrubances
Now, the performance of IUPQC has been evaluated considering various disturbance conditions.
Table. 3: IEEE Standard Power Quality Disturbances
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load side is found to be 1.02%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
source current
200
0
The table shows that various IEEE Standard
200
shunt compensating current
1000
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Power Quality disturbances, which are being applied to IUPQC and analyzing the performance.
1000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
load voltage
100
0
IUPQC with series and shunt PI Controller:
100
dc link voltage
5000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
A 3phase supply voltage of 11kv line to line, 50Hz with different disturbances at source end, nonlinear and unbalanced load at load end is considered. Nonlinear load (whether Diode Rectifier feeding an RL load or thyristor feeding an RL load) injects current harmonics into the system. IUPQC is able to reduce the harmonics from entering into the system using shunt control.
Case 1: Impulsive

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Impulsive Sag
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with impulsive sag of 0.3 pu magnitude and the duration about
0.5 to 30 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 30 cycle impulsive voltage sag of 0.3 pu magnitude is occurring at 0.2 msec for which the peak of the supply voltage reduces from its nominal value of 11kv to 8kv.
4
x 10
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Fig. 2: Simulation resultsmitigating the effect of impulsive sag of 0.3 pu with duration 0.5 to 30 cycles using direct current control technique with PI controller
(a) Load current in phase A (b)shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.294%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.30%.

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Impulsive Swell
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with impulsive swell of 0.3 pu magnitude and the duration about 0.5 to 30 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 0.5 to 30 cycle impulsive voltage swell of 0.3 pu magnitude is occurring at 0.2 msec for which the peak of the supply voltage raises from its nominal value of 11kv to 14kv.
source voltage
1
0
1
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
4
4
x 10
series
load compensating source
voltage voltage voltage
2
series compensating voltage
x 10
1
0
1
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
4
x 10
load voltage
1
0
1
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
dc link voltage
5000
0
0
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
4
x 10
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
4
x 10
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
time
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
time
Fig. 1: Simulation results mitigating the effect of impulsive sag of 0.3 pu with duration 0.5 to 30 cycles using series voltage controller.

Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
Fig. 3: Simulation results mitigating the effect of impulsive swell of 0.3 pu with duration 0.5 to 30 cycles using series voltage controller.
(a) Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load side is found to be 1.71%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
source current
200
0
200
shunt compensating current
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
2000
0
2000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
load voltage
100
0
100
Fig. 5: Simulation results mitigating the effect of momentary sag of 0.2 pu with duration 20 to 30 cycles using series voltage controller.
(a) Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage
Fig. 5(a) shows the series injected voltage, injecting the required compensating voltage. Fig. 5(b) shows the compensated feeder2 load voltage. As can be seen from the Fig. 5(c) there is perfect compensation for momentary sag. Fig. 5(d) shows the DC link voltage. In order to supply the balanced power required to the load, the DC capacitor voltage drops as soon as the sag occurs. As the sag is removed the capacitor voltage returns to the steady
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
state.
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
time
Fig. 4: Simulation results mitigating the effect of impulsive swell of 0.3 pu with duration 0.5 to 30 cycles using direct current control technique with PI cotroller.
(a) Load current in phase A (b) shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.584%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.61%.
side is found to be 1.65%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
source current
200
0
200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
shunt
compensating current
1000
Case 2: Momentary

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Momentary Sag
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with momentary sag of 0.2 pu magnitude with the duration about 20 to 30 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 2030 cycle momentary sag of 0.2 pu magnitude is occurring at 8 msec for which the peak of
0
1000
load current
100
0
100
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
time
the supply reduces from its nominal value of 11kv to 9kv.
4
x 10
source voltage
1
0
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
4
series
compensating voltage
x 10
1
0
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
4
x 10
Fig. 6: Simulation results mitigating the effect of momentary sag of 0.2 pu with duration 20 to 30 cycles using direct current control technique with PI controller.
(a) Load current in phase A (b) shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.496%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.44%.
load voltage
1
0
1
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
time

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Momentary Swell
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with momentary swell of 0.3 pu magnitude with the duration about 20 to 30 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 2030 cycle momentary swell of 0.3 pu magnitude is occurring at 8 msec for which the peak of the supply raises from its nominal value of 11kv to 8kv.
4
x 10
source voltage
2
0
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
4
series
compensating voltage
x 10
1
0
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
4
x 10
load voltage
1
0
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
time
Fig. 7: Simulation results mitigating the effect of momentary swell of 0.3 pu with duration 20 to 30 cycles using series voltage controller.
(a) Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage
Fig. 8:Simulation results mitigating the effect of momentary swell of 0.3 pu with duration 20 to 30 cycles using direct current control technique with PI controller.
(a) Load current in phase A (b) shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.567%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.60%.
CASE 3: TEMPORARY

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Temporary Sag
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with temporary sag of 0.07 pu magnitude with the duration about 30 to 40 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 3040 cycle momentary sag of 0.07 pu magnitude is occurring at 12 msec for which the peak of thesupply reduces from its nominal value of 11kv to 9kv.
4
source voltage
x 10
Fig. 7(a) shows the series injected voltage, injecting the required compensating voltage. Fig. 7(b) shows the compensated feeder2 load voltage. As can be seen from the Fig. 7(c) there is perfect compensation for momentary swell. Fig. 7(d) shows the DC link voltage. In order to supply the balanced power required to the load, the DC capacitor voltage raises as soon as the sag occurs. As the swell is removed the capacitor voltage returns to the
1
0
1
0
4
series
compensating voltage
x 10
1
0
1
0
4
x 10
load voltage
1
0
1
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
steady state.
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load side is found to be 1.71%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
10000
dc link voltage
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
time
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
source current
200
0
200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
shunt
compensating current
2000
0
2000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
load current
100
0
100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Fig. 9: Simulation results mitigating the effect of temporary sag of 0.07 pu with duration 30 to 40 cycles using series voltage controller.
(a) Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage
Fig. 9(a) shows the series injected voltage, injecting the required compensating voltage. Fig. 9(b) shows the compensated feeder2 load voltage. As can be seen from the Fig. 9(c) there is perfect compensation for temporary sag. Fig. 9(d) shows the DC link voltage. In order to supply the balanced power required to the load, the DC
capacitor voltage drops as soon as the sag occurs. As the
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
time
sag is removed the capacitor voltage returns to the steady state.
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load side is found to be 1.63%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
source current
200
0
The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load side is found to be 1.65%. The source voltage THD is effectively found to be 0.045%.
Compensating Load Current Harmonics Using Direct Current Control Technique
200
shunt
compensating current
1000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
source current
200
0
1000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
load current
100
0
100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
shunt compensating current
2000
0
2000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
100
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
time
0
load current
100
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Fig. 10: Simulation results mitigating the effect of temporary sag of 0.07 pu with duration 30 to 40 cycles using direct current control technique with PI controller.
(a) Load current in phase A (b) shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.479%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.49%.

IupqcMitigating The Effect Of Temporary Swell
A 3phase supply voltage (11kv, 50Hz) with temporary swell of .15 pu magnitude with the duration about 30 to 40 cycles is taken. With the system operating in the steady state, a 3040 cycle temporary swell of 0.15 pu magnitude is occurring at 12 msec for which the peak of the supply reduces from its nominal value of 11kv to 12.5kv.
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
time
Fig. 12: Simulation results with mitigating the effect of temporary swell of 0.15 pu with duration 30 to 40 cycles using direct current control technique with PI controller.
(a) Load current in phase A (b) shunt compensating current in phase A
(c)Supply current in phaseA (d) DC capacitor voltage The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) at load
side is found to be 0.502%. The source current THD was effectively found to be 14.56%.
Table 4: Comparison of the THD Content after Compensation in Three Different Cases of Interruptions Used For IUPQC
source voltage
2
0
2
series compeensating voltage
1
0
1
load voltage
1
0
1
dc link voltage
10000
5000
0
4
x 10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
4
x 10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
4
x 10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
time
Fig. 11: Simulation results with mitigating the effect of temporary swell of 0.15 pu with duration 30 to 40 cycles using series voltage controller.

Supply voltage in phaseA (b) Series injected voltage in phaseA
(c) Load voltage in phase A (d) The DC capacitor voltage


Conclusions
The closed loop control schemes of Direct current control, series voltage converter for the proposed IUPQC have been described. A suitable mathematical model of the IUPQC has been developed with shunt (PI) controller and series voltage controller the simulated results have been described.
The simulated results shows that PI controller of the shunt filter (current control mode), series filter (voltage control mode) compensates of all types of interruptions in the load current and source voltage, so as to maintain sinusoidal voltage and current at load side. The series filter was tested with different types of interruptions. The simulated results show that in all the stages of circuit operation, the feeder2 load voltages and load currents are restored close to ideal supply.
For all the types of disturbances (interruptions) the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) after compensation is to be less than 5% which is as per IEEE standards.By observing below factors we conclude that performance of IUPQC for different interruptions

The THD content willnot change for small term interruptions like impulsive nano, impulsive micro, impulsive milli, momentary interruption, temporary interruption etc.

The THD content with sag and swell is slightly changing from 3 to 5% only.


References

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F. Z. Peng and J. S. Lai, Generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for threephase power systems, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 293297, Feb. 1996.

G. Ledwich and A. Ghosh, A flexible DSTATCOM operating in voltage and current control mode, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen., Transm. Distrib., vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 215224, 2002.

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F. Kamran and T. G. Habetler, Combined deadbeat control of a seriesparallel converter combination used as a universal power filter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 160168, Jan. 1998.

H. M. Wijekoon, D. M. Vilathgumuwa, and S. S. Choi, Interline dynamic voltage restorer: an economical way to improve interline power quality, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen., Transm. Distrib., vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 513 520, Sep. 2003.

A. Ghosh, A. K. Jindal, and A. Joshi, A unified power quality conditioner for voltage regulation of critical load bus, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, Denver, CO, Jun. 610, 2004.

A. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for simultaneous voltage and current
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A. Ghosh, G. Ledwich, O. P. Malik, and G. S. Hope, Power system stabilizer based on adaptive control techniques, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS103, no. 8, pp. 19831989, Aug. 1984.
IX. Biographies Of Authors
B. Sasikala was born in Bapatla, A.P., India, in 1985. She completed her B.Tech from Bapatla Engineering College in 2007 and pursued her M.Tech Electrical Power Systems from St.Martins college of Engg & tech., in 2012.
She has totally 3years of teaching experience and presently working in K.G.Reddy college of engineering and technology.
Mr. Khamruddin Syed was born in Krishna District, A.P, in 1981. He completed his B.Tech from koneru Lakshmaya Engg college in 2003 and pursued his M.Tech(Power Systems) from R.V.R Engineering college, in 2006. He has five years of teaching experience. presently working as an Assistant Professor in K.G.Reddy college of engineering and technology.