 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 2684
 Authors : R Bharath Reddy, Shilpa K Gowda
 Paper ID : IJERTV4IS051024
 Volume & Issue : Volume 04, Issue 05 (May 2015)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV4IS051024
 Published (First Online): 26052015
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Design and Analysis of CMOS Two Stage OPAMP in 180nm and 45nm Technology
R Bharath Reddy
M.Tech, Dept. of ECE,
S J B Institute of technology Bengaluru, India
Shilpa K Gowda
Asso Prof, Dept of ECE
S J B Institute of technology Bengaluru, India
Abstract This paper presents the buffered CMOS two stage opamp which uses 180nm and 45nm process for design and analysis of CMOS two stage opamp. Keeping 1.8V power supply, 20ÂµA bias current, aspect ratio W/L, slew rate 20V/Âµs, input common mode ratio constant. The tradeoff among various parameters such as Open loop gain, Phase margin, Gain Bandwidth Product and Power consumption are measured. It has been demonstrated that due to recent development through scaling the size of transistors decreases power dissipated through the device also decreases. This design has been carried out in Cadence design tools.
KeywordsCMOS Analog circuit, buffered Opamp, 180nm,45nm, CADENCE, Power consumption
I.INTRODUCTION
The operational amplifier, which has become one of the most versatile and important building blocks in analog circuit design. Operational amplifiers are amplifiers that have sufficiently high forward gain so that when negative feedback is applied, the closedloop transfer function is practically independent of gain. Operational amplifier that use two or more gain stages are widely used when higher gains are needed. One of the most popular op amps is a twostage op amp. CMOS op amps are very similar in architecture to their bipolar counterparts. A good portion of overall gain is provided by differentialinput stage, which improves noise and offset performance. If opamp drive a lowresistance load, the second stage must be followed by a buffer stage whose objective is to lower the output resistance and maintain a large swing. Biasing circuits are provided to establish the proper operating point for each transistor in its quiescent state. Compensation is required to achieve stable closedloop performance.
Fig1. General block diagram of two stage OpAmp

LITERATURE SURVEY
In [4], document gives the information about an unbuffered (Operationaltransconductance amplifiers or OTAs) two stage operational amplifier which was designed for moderate DC gain, high output swing and reasonable open loop Gain Band product (GBW).Results shows that a two stage opamp has been designed with gain of 48dB, unity gain frequency of 40MHz, Phase margin of 89degree.Design has been carried out in GPDK180 Cadence design tools.
In [5], document gives the information about an operational amplifier which uses an adaptive biasing circuitry along with an auxiliary circuit to improve the slew rate. Auxiliary circuit gets used when there is large transient or slewing period. Auxiliary circuit improves slew rate and at high frequencies less power is dissipated. Results shows that a two stage opamp has been designed with slew rate of 31.31V/Âµs, gain of 40.09dB,unity gain frequency of 52MHz,Phase margin of 88degree.Design has been carried out in GPDK90 Cadence design tools.
In [6], document gives the information about a buffered two stage operational amplifier which was designed in both 180nm and 45nm.And the results of these designs have been compared. Results shows that 180nm two stage opam gives gain of 47.85dB,unity gain frequency of 668.42MHz,Phase margin of 63.22 degree and 45nm two
stage opam gives gain of 52.68dB,unity gain frequency of 2.22GHz,Phase margin of 60.92 degree. Power dissipated through 45nm is very less compared to180nm. Design has been carried out in GPDK180 and GPDK45 Cadence design tools.
In [7], document gives the information about an unbuffered (Operationaltransconductance amplifiers or OTAs) two stage operational amplifier which was designed for gain of 71dB,unity gain frequency of 37KHz,Slew Rate of 2.344V/Âµsec and power dissipation of 10mW. Design has been carried out in GPDK180 Cadence design tools.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
Relationships describing the opamp performance[1]:
Slew rate SR = 5
.(i)
Fig.2 Two stage OpAmp
First stage gain Av1 = 1 = 21 .(ii)
2+4 5(2+4)
Secondstage Av2 = 6 = 6 .(iii)

The design procedure begins by choosing a device length to be used throughout the circuit.
6+7
Gain bandwidth GB = 1
Output pole p2 = 6
RHP zero Z1 = 6
6(6+7)
.(iv)
. (v)
.(vi)

The minimum value for the compensation capacitor Cc should be 0.22 times more than CL to get phase margin 60Âº.

Based on slew rate requirements the value of tail current I5 is determined.

The aspect ratio of M3 can be determined by positive input common mode ratio range by using the equation (vii).
Positive CMR Vin(max) = Vdd – 5 + (max)
3
+VT1(min) .(vii)
Negative CMR Vin(min) =Vss+ Vt1(max)+VDs5(sat)

Aspect ratio of M1 can be determined through transconductance gm1 by using equation (iv).

To calculate the saturation voltage of transistor M5 negative input common mode ratio range is used by equation (viii).
+ 5
1
.(viii)

For reasonable phase margin, the value of gm6 is
Saturation voltage V
DS(sat) = 2
.(ix)
approximately ten times the input stage transconductance gm1.To achieve proper mirroring of the first stage current mirror load of M3 and M4 requires VSG4 = VSG6. By VSG6 we can get the aspect ratio of M6.

The device size of M7 can be determined from the I6 current flowing through M6 and balanced equation.

The total amplifier gain against the specifications is given by[1]
Av = (2)(2)(6)
5(2+4)6( 6+7)


SIMULATION RESULTS
Fig.3Schematic diagram of two stage CMOS OpAmp
Fig.4 Open loop gain and Phase margin in 180nm .
Fig.5Transient Analysis of 180nm
Fig.6 Open loop gain and Phase margin in 45nm .
Fig.7 Transient Analysis of 45nm.
Fig3. shows schematic diagram of two stage CMOS op amp which was designed according to the procedure. For the frequency response plot, an ac signal of 1V is swept with 5 points per decade from a frequency of 100Hz to 100MHz. Fig4 illustrates the frequency response of 180nm opamp which shows a dc gain in dB versus frequency in Hz(in log scale) and phase margin of OpAmp in open loop. The dc gain is found to be 64.95dB and phase margin 600 which is good enough for an OpAmp operating at a high frequency. A dc gain of 64.95dB at unity gain frequency of 34MHz and slew rate 20v/Âµs is excellent for an OpAmp when all the other parameters are also set at an optimized value.Fig5.shows the transient analysis of 180nm CMOS OpAmp. Similarly Fig.6 illustrates the frequency response of 45nm opamp which shows a dc gain in dB versus frequency in Hz(in log scale) and phase margin of OpAmp in open loop. The dc gain is found to be 45 dB and phase margin 750 which is good enough for an OpAmp operating at a high frequency. Fig5.shows the transient analysis of 45nm CMOS OpAmp Power consumed by 45nm is very less compared to 180nm.
TABLE I. COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS RESULTS
Results
Designed twostage Opamp
[4] [5] [6] [7] Technology(nm)
180
45
180
90
180
180/p>
Power supply(V)
1.8
1.8
3.5
1.2
–
1.8
Bias current(ÂµA)
20
20
–
–
160
–
Cc(fF)
600
600
–
–
100
Open loop gain(dB)
65
45
48
40
53
71
Phase margin(deg)
60
75
89
89
60
Gain Bandwidth Product (Mhz)
34
55
40
52
668
.037
Slew rate(v/Âµs)
20
20
–
31
–
2.34
ICMR(+)(V)
1.6
1.6
–
–
1.6
–
ICMR()(V)
0.8
0.8
–
–
0.8
–
Power consumption (ÂµW)
301
142
–
92
3582

CONCLUSION
CMOS two stage opamp is simulated and analyzed in both 180nm and 45nm. Suitable effort is made to improve the open loop gain, phase margin, gain bandwidth product keeping initial parameters and slew rate constant for both 180nm and 45nm. .The 180nm CMOS two stage opamp is giving high performance with gain 65dB,phase margin 50deg, Gain Bandwidth Product 30MHz, power consumption 300ÂµW which is very much suitable for switched capacitor filters, analog to digital converters and instrumentation amplifiers. Results shows power consumption through 45nm opamp is very less compared to 180nm.
REFERENCES

P. Allen and D. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1987.

Behzad Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated circuits, McGrawHill Company, New York, 2001.

David Johns, Ken Martin, Analog integrated circuit design, John Wiley & Sons, New York,1997.

D. Nageshwar rao, K. Suresh Kumar, Y. Rajasree Rao, G. Jyothi. Implementation and simulation of CMOS two stage operational amplifier.

Biplab Panda, S. K. Dash, S. N. Mishra. High Slew Rate opamp design for low power Applications.

Siddharth, Mehul Garg, Aditya Gahlaut. Comparative Study of
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Shweta karnik, Ajay kumar kushwaha, Pramod kumar jain,D.S.Ajnar. Design of Operational Trans conductance Amplifier in 0.18m Technology

Sanjay Kumar, Pathak Jay, Rajendra Prasad. Gain improvement of two stage opamp through body bias in 45nm cmos technology .

Muhammad Syamsi Mohd Taufik,Ahmad anwar Zaimuddin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin.Design and simulation of CMOS twostage op amp for MEMS resonator.

Basanta Bhowmik, Manisha Pattanaik, Pankaj Srivastava. A Low Power Low Noise Two Stage CMOS Operational Amplifier for Biopotential Signal Acquisition System.
Mr. R Bharath Reddy Received B.E Degree from BMS Institute of Technology, Bangalore and presently pursuing M.Tech in VLSI Design and Embedded Systems from Dept. of ECE, SJBIT, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Mrs. Shilpa K Gowda Received M.tech Degree from SJCIT, Chikkaballapur and presently working as associate professor in Dept. of ECE, SJBIT, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.