Design, Analysis and Weight Optimization of Monoleaf Spring by using Composite Material

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV11IS050178

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Design, Analysis and Weight Optimization of Monoleaf Spring by using Composite Material

Bhagyashri J. Mali

Department of Mechanical Engineering JSPMs Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering Tathawade, Pune, India

Prof. P.D. Patil

Department of Mechanical Engineering JSPMs Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering Tathawade, Pune, India

Abstract The leaf spring is widely used in automobiles as major component of suspension system. This spring is intended to bare jerks and vibrations during traveling on uneven surfaces. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobiles as it accounts for ten to twenty percent of the unsparing weight. The reduction in weight will achieve fuel efficiency and improve riding quality. The objective of the project is to apply FEA concept to compare two materials for leaf spring and proposed the one who is having best strength to weight ratio. In this paper I used composite Carbon Fiber Epoxy material to replace Omni leaf spring with steel material.

Keywords Leaf spring, Composite material, E Glass Fiber, Static analysis, Weight optimization Introduction


A spring is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed. Leaf springs absorb the vehicle vibrations, shocks and bump loads (induced due to road irregularities) by means of spring deflections, so that the potential energy is stored in the leaf spring and then relieved slowly. The spring consists of a number of leaves called blades. The blades are varying in length but in this case, blades are same length. The blades are us usually given an initial curvature or cambered so that they will tend to straighten under the load. The leaf spring is based upon the theory of a beam of uniform strength. The lengthiest blade has eyes on its ends. This blade is called main or master leaf, the remaining blades are called graduated leaves. All the blades are bound together by means of steel straps.[1]

Fig.1 Geometry of Leaf Spring [1]

As shown in figure the leaves are held together with the help of two U-bolts and also Centre clip. Also, in that Rebound clips are provided to keep the leaves in alignment and save from lateral shifting of the plates during the working condition.[2]

The spring is mounted on the axle of the vehicle. The entire vehicle load rests on the leaf spring. The front end of the spring is connected to the frame with a simple pin joint,

while the rear end of the spring is connected with a shackle. Shackle is the flexible link which connects between leaf spring rear eye and frame. When the vehicle comes across a projection on the road surface, the wheel moves up, leading to deflection of the spring. This changes the length between the spring eyes. If both the ends are fixed, the spring will not be able to accommodate this change of length. So, to accommodate this change in length shackle is provided at one end, which gives a flexible connection. The front eye of the leaf spring is constrained in all the directions, whereas rear eye is not constrained in X-direction. This rare eye is connected to the shackle. During loading the spring deflects and moves in the direction perpendicular to the load applied.[4]

Composite Material

A composite material is defined as a material composed of two or more constituents combined on a macroscopic scale by mechanical and chemical bonds. Typical composite materials are composed of inclusions suspended in a matrix. The constituents retain their identities in the composite. Normally the components can be physically identified and there is an interface between them. Many composite materials offer a combination of strength and modulus that are either comparable to or better than any traditional metallic materials. Because of their low specific gravities, the strength weight- ratio and modulus weight-ratios of these composite materials are markedly superior to those of metallic materials. The fatigue strength weight ratios as well as fatigue damage tolerances of many composite laminates excellent. For these reasons, fiber composite have emerged as a major class of structural material and are either used or being considered as substitutions for metal in many weight-critical components in aerospace, automotive and other industries.


To reduce the weight of the mono leaf spring in vehicle to increase the fuel efficiency. Static analysis of standard Steel leaf spring, E-glass epoxy spring, & Carbon fiber spring using FEA. Determining effects of deflection and bending stress. Comparison results of ANSYS and concluded result for best material for leaf spring.


We have applied gradual increasing load on all material leaf spring, its from 1000N to 6000N. In this paper we shows a results for maximum load applied condition.

Fig. 2 Boundary condition of 6000N force applied on original leaf spring

Fig. 3 Total deformation of Original leaf spring due to applied load of


Fig. 4 Stress generated due to applied boundary condition in original leaf


Fig. 5 Total deformation of Glass fiber leaf spring due to applied load of 6000N

Fig. 6 Stress generated due to applied load of 6000N in Glass fiber leaf


Fig. 7 Total deformation of Carbon Fiber leaf spring due to applied load

of 6000N

Fig. 8 Stress generated due to applied load of 6000N in Carbon fiber leaf



Sr. No.


Stress (MPa)









Glass Fiber





Carbon Fiber




Table1. Results of leaf spring with different loading condition due to applied load of 6000N


  1. Bending stress and deflection occurred in the composite leaf spring is less as compared to conventional steel spring.

  2. Results obtained through ANSYS are got validation from Theoretical calculations and Testing.

  3. Composite E-glass epoxy spring has 30 %and carbon fiber has 55 % less weight than conventional steel spring. So composites can be suggested for mono leaf spring.


[1] K.Ashwini, Prof C.V. Mohan Rao, Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring using Various Composites An Overview Science Direct 2018.

[2] Ke Jun, Wu Zhenyu, Chen Xiaoying Ying Zhiping, A review on material, selection, design method and performance investigation of composite leaf springs Journal pre-proof 26 July 2019.

[3] T. Keerthi vasan, S.M. Shibi, C.K. Tamilselvan, Fabrication and testing of composite leaf spring using carbon, glass and aramid fiberInternational Journal of New Technology and Research (IJNTR)ISSN: 2454-4116, Volume-1, Issue-2, June 2015

[4] Trivedi Achyut V., Prof. R.M. Bhoraniya ,Static and dynamic analysis of automobile leaf spring.( TATA ACE) International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 1 | Issue 11 | May 2015

[5] Gharinathgowd ,Evenugopalgoud, Static analysis of leaf spring vol.

4 No.08 August 2012.

[6] Achamyeleh A Kassie1, R Reji Kumar and Amrut Rao, Design of single composite leaf spring for light weight vehicle. ISSN 2278 0149, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2014.

[7] Miss. Gulshad Karim Pathan , Prof. R.K.Kawade, Prof. N.Jamadar, Design and analysis of composite leaf spring for light weight commercial vehicle (tata ace).4(4): april, 2015] ISSN: 2277-9655

[8] M. Raghavedra, Syed Altaf Hussain, V. Pandurangadu, K. PalaniKumar, Modeling and anaylsisof laminated composite leaf spring under the static load condition by using FEAInternational Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.4, July- Aug. 2012 pp1875-1879.

[9] MujawarAjijI. ,Prof. S.D.Katekar , Design and Analysis of S- Glass/Epoxy Composite Monoleaf Spring for Light VehicleInternational Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol 03, Issue 05, May 2017

[10] Shahrukh Salam, Gunendra Yadav and Harsh R. Agrawal, Design and Static Structural Analysis of Simple Leaf SPRING of Maruti Omni Krishi Sanskriti Publications Vol 1, Number 2, October- December,2014 pp. 54-60.

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