 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 500
 Authors : Gutta Vijaya Aditya Pavan Kumar, Dr. R. Harinadha Babu
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS100082
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 10 (October 2014)
 Published (First Online): 08102014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Damage Assessment of Multistoried Structures under Seismic Loading using Pushover Analysis
Gutta Vijaya Aditya Pavan Kumar

Civil Engineering,
Sir. C. R. R College of Engineering, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Dr. R. Harinadha Babu Professor in Civil Engineering,
Sir. C. R. R. College of Engineering
Abstract The buildings which do not fulfill the requirements of seismic design may be affected by either damage or collapse if shaken by a severe ground motion which results in huge economic and loss of life. A building has the potential to wave back and forth during an earthquake and severe wind storm. This is called fundamental mode, and is the lowest frequency of building response. Most buildings, however, have higher modes of response, which are uniquely activated depending up on the intensity of earthquakes. The purpose of this paper is to assess the damage and to evaluate the performance of the structures which are already designed and analyzed using linear static analysis for seismic loads as per the Indian codes IS456, IS1893 and IS 13920. It is proposed to study the performance of the structure before and after the linear state. To make such assessment, simplified linearelastic methods are not adequate. Thus, the structural engineering community has developed a new generation of design and seismic procedures (ATC40, FEMA356 and FEMA440) that incorporate performance based structures and is moving away from simplified linear elastic methods and towards a more nonlinear technique i.e., Pushover analysis which is a series of incremental static analysis. It is carried out on the 12storied building modal which was designed and analyzed for the earthquake analysis using STAAD for two seismic load cases (Zone3 and Zone5) considering both are Special Moment Resisting Frames. Pushover analysis is propounded to perform by SAP to get the extent of damage experienced by the structure at target displacement by the sequence of yielding of components, plastic hinge formation and failure of various structural components. Finally both the frames which were designed to linear static analysis for earthquake loading performed well and the damage is within the limits. Initially, yielding of the beams taken place then yielding of columns. This shows that the analysis theory is based on the strong column and weak beam i.e., both the frames behaving as ductile frames.
Keywordsfundamental mode; linear static analysis; Nonlinear analysis; pushover analysis; Target displacement ; plastic hinge; ductile frame.

INTRODUCTION
Indian subcontinent experienced severe earthquakes in the past decades. The major reason for the high frequency and intensity of the earthquakes is that the Indian plate is driving into Asia at a rate of approximately 47 mm per year. Geographical statistics of India shows that almost 54 percent
of land is vulnerable to earthquakes. World Bank and United Nations report shows estimates around 200 million city dwellers in India will be exposed to storms and earthquakes by 2050.
The latest version of seismic zoning map of India given in the earthquake resistant design code of India [IS 1893 (part 1) 2002] assigns four levels of seismicity for India in terms of zone factors. In other words, the earthquake zoning map of India divides India into 4 seismic zones (Zone 2, 3, 4, 5). Zone 5 expects the highest level of seismicity whereas Zone 2 is associated with the lowest level of seismicity. The zone factors for the different zones are as follows:
TABLEI ZONE FACTORS
S.NO
ZONE
Zone Factor
1.
Zone 2
0.10
2.
Zone3
0.16
3.
Zone 4
0.24
4.
Zone 5
0.36
Seismic analysis is a subset of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a building structure to earthquakes. It is part of the process of structural design, earthquake engineering and retrofit in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. Structural analysis methods are classified into following five categories:

Linear Static Analysis:
Linear static analysis or Equivalent static analysis can only be used for regular structure with limited height. Elastic analysis gives a good indication of the elasticity capacity of the structures though it cannot predict failure mechanisms but indicates where first yielding occurs. Design forces that are acquired from elastic spectrum are reduced using response modification factor. The larger the value of modification factor, the larger will be the level of energy
absorption, resulting in formation of more number of plastic joints.

Response Spectrum Method (Dynamic Analysis):
This is an approach to find earthquake response of structures using waves or vibration mode shapes. This method comes under linear dynamic analysis. This method is usually used in conjunction with a response spectrum. The mathematical principles of oscillations in ndegree of freedom systems were adopted from Rayleigh theories. The structures response is determined by mass and stiffness distributions. The stiff building will experience low accelerations relative to the ground. Tall buildings accelerate away from the ground motions.
C.) TimeHistory Analysis (linear and nonlinear):
Time history method of analysis uses appropriate ground motion and shall be performed using accepted principle of dynamics. This is the most rational method available for assessing building performance. There are computer programs available to perform this type of analysis.
d.) Push over Analysis:
The pushover analysis of a structure is a static non linear analysis under permanent vertical loads and gradually increasing lateral loads. The equivalent static lateral loads approximately represent earthquake induced forces. A plot of the total base shear versus top displacement in a structure is obtained. By this analysis any permanent failure or weakness can be identified. The analysis is carried out up to failure, thus it enables determination of collapse load and ductility capacity. on a building frame, plastic rotation is monitored and lateral inelastic forces versus displacement response for the complete structure is analytically computed. This type of analysis enables us to identify the weakness in the structure. The decision to retrofit can be taken in such studies.


SEISMIC EVALUATION BY PUSHOVER
ANALYSIS
Pushover analysis is performed by subjecting a structure to a monotonically increasing pattern of lateral loads, that shows the inertial forces which would be experienced by the structure when subjected to ground motion. Under incrementally increasing loads many structural elements may yield sequentially. Therefore, at each event, the structure experiences a decrease in stiffness. Using a non linear static pushover analysis, a representative nonlinear force displacement relationship can be obtained. A two or three dimensional model which includes bilinear or trilinear loaddeformation diagrams of all lateral force resisting elements is first created and gravity loads are applied initially.
A predefined lateral load pattern which is distributed along the building height is then applied. The lateral forces are increased until some membrs yield. The
structural model is modified to account for the reduced stiffness of yielded members and lateral forces are again increased until additional members yield. The process is continued until a control displacement at the top of building reaches a certain level of deformation or structure becomes unstable.

Types of Pushover Analysis:
Pushover analysis can be performed as force controlled or displacementcontrolled. In forcecontrolled pushover analysis, full load combination is applied i.e., force controlled analysis should be used when the load is known (such as gravity loading). Also, in forcecontrolled pushover analysis some numerical problems that affect the accuracy of results occur, since target displacement may be associated with a very small positive or even a negative lateral stiffness because of the development of mechanisms and Pdelta effects.
Generally, pushover analysis is performed as displacementcontrolled to overcome these problems. In displacementcontrolled procedure, specified drifts are sought (as in seismic loading) where the magnitude of applied load is not known in advance. The magnitude of load combination is increased or decreased as necessary until the control displacement reaches a specified value. Generally, roof displacement at the center of mass of structure is chosen as the control displacement. The internal forces and deformations computed at the target displacement are used as estimates of inelastic strength and deformation demands that have to be compared with available capacities for a performance check.

Performance Levels of Building:
Pushover analysis gives an insight into the maximum base shear that the structure is capable of resisting. A building performance level is a combination of the performance levels of the structure and the nonstructural components. A performance level describes a limiting damage condition for a given building with specific ground motion. The performances levels as per FEMA, ATC 40 are:
Immediate Occupancy (IO):
Damage is relatively less, the structure retains a significant portion of its original stiffness. The risk of life threatening injury as a result of structural damage is very low, and although some minor structural repairs may be appropriate, these would generally not be required prior to re occupancy
Life safety Level (LS):
Substantial damage has occurred to the structure, and it may have lost a significant amount of its original stiffness. However, a substantial margin remains for additional lateral deformation before collapse would occur. It should be possible to repair the structure; however, for economic reasons this may not be practical. While the damaged structure is not an
imminent collapse risk, it would be prudent to implement structural repairs or install temporary bracing prior to re occupancy.
Collapse Prevention (CP):
At this level the building has experienced extreme damage, if laterally deformed beyond this point, the structure can experience instability and collapse. The structure may not be technically practical to repair and is not safe for re occupancy, as aftershock activity could induce collapse.

Pushover Curve:
In order to obtain performance points of structure as well as the location of hinges in different stages of analysis, we can use the pushover curve. In this curve, the range AB is the elastic range, B to IO is the range of instant occupancy, IO to LS being the range of life safety and LS to CP being the range of collapse prevention
When a hinge touches point C on its force displacement curve then that hinge must start to drop load. The load will be released until the pushover force or base shear at point C becomes equal to the force at point D.
As the force is released, all of the elements unload as well as the displacement is decreased .After the yielded hinge touches the point D force level, the magnitude of pushover force is again amplified and the displacement starts to increase again.
If all of the hinges are within the given CP limit then that structure is supposed to be safe. Though, the hinge after IO range may also be required to be retrofitted depending on the significance of structure.
Figure 1 Typical Pushover Curve and Performance Levels

Key Elements of Pushover Analysis:
Defining Plastic Hinges:
In SAP2000, nonlinear behavior is assumed to occur within frame elements at concentrated plastic hinges. The default types include an uncoupled moment hinges, an uncoupled axial hinges, an uncoupled shear hinges and a coupled axial force and biaxial bending moment hinges.
Defining control node:
Control node is the node used to control displacements of the structure. Its displacement versus the baseshear forms the capacity (pushover) curve of the structure. For developing the pushover curve it is important to consider a force displacement that is equal to the expected distribution of the inertial forces. Different forces
distributions can be used to represent the earthquake load intensity.
Estimation of Displacement Demand:
This is a crucial step when using pushover analysis. The control node is pushed to reach the demand displacement which represents the maximum expected displacement resulting from the earthquake intensity under consideration.
Evaluation of the Performance Level:
Performance evaluation is the main objective of a performance based design. A component or action is considered satisfactory if it meets a prescribed performance. The main output of a pushover analysis is in terms of response demand versus capacity. If the demand curve intersects the capacity envelope near the elastic range, then the structure has a good resistance. If the demand curve intersects the capacity curve with little reserve of strength and deformation capacity, then it can be concluded that the structure will behave poorly during the imposed seismic excitation and need to be retrofitted to avoid future major damage or collapse.

Evaluation Procedures:
The procedures for building evaluation are different from one another but their basic principles are all the same. The following are the evaluation procedures according to the respective codes.
ATC 40 1996 Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM):
ATC 40 adopts the capacity spectrum method (CSM) which uses the intersection of capacity (pushover) curve and a reduced response spectrum to estimate the maximum displacement. The push over or capacity curve represents the lateral displacement as a function of the force applied to the structure. The important assumption is that inelastic displacement of nonlinear single degree freedom system will be approximately equal to the maximum elastic displacement of linear single degree freedom system, whose damping values are greater than the initial values for those in non linear system with in natural time period.
FEMA 356 – 2000 Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM):
FEMA 356 adopts the displacement coefficient method that uses pushover analysis and a modified version of the equal displacement approximation to estimate maximum displacement. The DCM is based on the statistical analysis of the results obtained by the time history analysis of SDOF oscillators of various types. The results from various analyses indicate that the capacity spectrum method underestimates the response of the structure in inelastic range while the displacement coefficient method yields reasonable values in most cases.
FEMA 440 – 2005 Equivalent LinearizationModified CSM:
In equivalent linearization method, the inelastic equivalent single degree of freedom system will be converted to its equivalent elastic single degree of freedom. In Equivalent Linearization method equivalent period and
damping is defined in a way that inelastic displacement is nearly close to the elastic displacement of equivalent system. The assumption in capacity spectrum method tht the equivalent stiffness of inelastic system will be the same as its secant stiffness is not used here. Instead, the equivalent stiffness is obtained effective from time period and damping properties derived using equations from statistical analyses.
FEMA 440 – 2005 Displacement Modification Improvement of DCM:
In FEMA 440 Displacement Modification, several improvements to the displacement coefficient procedures in FEMA 356 are made. They relate to the coefficient of target displacement which is used for estimating the maximum inelastic global deformation demands of buildings for earth quake ground motions. The improvement for the angular displacement coefficient method uses advanced equations for different coefficients.


MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE

Brief overview:
A Twelve storied, 4 x 4 bay regular frame with bay width 5m and floor height 3.2m is to be considered for the analysis. The total height of the building frame is 38.4m. As per IS code 1893 2002, the natural time period is 1.157 sec. Present project is proposed to study the damage assessment of the multistoried buildings which were already designed for earthquake linear static analysis. Nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) is considered for the seismic evaluation of the already designed multistoried buildings using ESA method. Linear Static Analysis is performed using STAAD analysis package, which is a regular practice for most of the professional people and Pushover Analysis is performed using SAP analysis package for the damage assessment.

Modeling of the structure:
Number of members, nodes and supports of building frames are given in the table 2.
TABLE 2
Figure 2 Selected Frame with supports, framing and
nodes.
TABLE 3
Material properties considered for analysis
Building frames
Regularity
Number of members
Number of nodes
Number of supports (fixed)
3D Bare Frame
Regular in plan
780
325
25
Concrete
Modulus of elasticity
(E)
kN/m2
Poisson
ratio
Density
kN/m3
Coefficient of thermal expansion
@ / 0K
Fck / fy
kN/m2
2.73861e+007
200e
003
25
1.17e005
30
Reinforcing bar (rebar)
1.999e+0
08
300e
003
76.97
1.17e005
415
Figure3 3DRendered Frame Table 4
Physical properties of the columns and beams
Member
Size (mm x mm)
Case1: SMRF and Zone3
Beams for all floors
250 x 500
Columns (1,2,3 floors)
470 x 470
Columns (4,5,6 floors)
450 x 450
Columns (7,8,9 floors)
420 x 420
Columns (10,11,12 floors)
410 x 410
Case2: SMRF and Zone5
Beams for all floors
300 x 500
Columns (1,2,3 floors)
600 x 600
Columns (4,5,6 floors)
550 x 550
Columns (7,8,9 floors)
500 x 500
Columns (10,11,12 floors)
450 x 450

Load Consideration:
Table 5
Dead load and Live loads considered for the analysis
Type of load
Load value
Dead load*
On floor slabs (member
loads)
14.6 kN/m
On roof slabs (member loads)
10.7 kN/m
Live load**
On floor slabs (member
loads)
6.0 kN/m
On roof slabs (member loads)
3.0 kN/m
* which includes self weight, wall load and equivalent slab load
** which is equivalent UDL over the member due to live load on the slab
Earthquake loads: earthquake loads considered for the calculation of seismic weights are as per the IS 1893(Part
1) : 2002 and are given in the table 6.
Table 6
Loads considered for the calculation of seismic weights
Loads on the floors
Full dead load acting on the floor plus 25 percent of live load(since, as per clause 7.3.1 Table 8 of IS 1893(Part 1):2002, for imposed uniformly distributed floor loads of 3 kN/m2 or below, the percentage of imposed load is 25 percent).
Loads on the roof slab
Full dead load acting on the roof (since, as per clause 7.3.2, for calculating the design seismic forces of the structure, the imposed load on roof need not be considered).
Seismic Load Case1:
For the analysis purpose, structure is assumed to be located in zoneIII (zone factor0.16) on site with medium soil and Sa/g value taken from the figure 2 of IS1893: 2002 i.e., Response spectra for rock and soil sites for 5% damping. Structure is taken as a general building and hence Importance factor is taken as 1 and the frame is proposed to design as Special moment resisting frame (SMRF) and hence the Reduction factor is taken as 5. Ductile detailing is adopted as per the IS Code 139201993.
Seismic Load Case2:
Floor
Section(mm x mm)
Longitudinal Reinforcement
Lateral Reinforcement
Materials
Seismic Load Case 1
Beams for all floors
250 x 500
316mmÃ˜top of support
216mmÃ˜
bottom span
4legged8mm
Ã˜ @100mm c/c
M30, Fe 415
Columns
(1,2,3
floors)
470 x 470
1620mmÃ˜
4legged8mm
Ã˜ @100mm c/c
M30, Fe 415
Columns
(4,5,6
floors)
450 x 450
1612mmÃ˜
4legged8mm
Ã˜ @100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
Columns (7,8,9
floors)
420 x 420
1612mmÃ˜
4legged8mm Ã˜@100mm c/c
M30, Fe 415
Columns (10,11,12
floors)
410 x 410
1612mmÃ˜
4legged8mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
SEISMIC LOAD CASE 2
Beams for all floors
300 x 500
616mmÃ˜top of support
316mmÃ˜
bottom span
4legged 8mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
Column s
(1,2,3
floors)
600 x 600
1616mmÃ˜
4legged 8mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
Column s
(4,5,6
floors)
550 x 550
1616mmÃ˜
4legged 12mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
Column s
(7,8,9
floors)
500 x 500
1216mmÃ˜
4legged 8mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
Column s (10,11,1
2 floors)
450 x 450
1216mmÃ˜
4legged 10mm Ã˜
@100mm c/c
M30,
Fe 415
For the analysis purpose, structure is assumed to be located in zoneII (zone factor0.36) on site with medium soil and Sa/g value taken from the figure 2 of IS1893: 2002 i.e., Response spectra for rock and soil sites for 5% damping. Structure is taken as general building and hence Importance factor is taken as 1 and the frame is proposed to design as Special moment resisting frame (SMRF) and hence the Reduction factor is taken as 5. Ductile detailing is adopted is as per the IS Code 13920 1993.

Load Combinations and Envelope:
Earthquake load combination is only considered for the analysis.
TABLE 8 DESIGN RESULTS
TABLE 7 LOAD ENVELOPE
Envelope
1.0DL+1.0LL
0.9DL+1.5(ELx)
1.5DL+1.5LL
0.9DL+1.5(ELz)
1.5DL+1.5(ELx)
0.9DL+1.5(ELz)
1.5DL+1.5(ELx)
1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2(ELx)
1.5DL+1.5(ELz)
1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2(ELx)
1.5DL+1.5(ELz)
1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2(ELz)
0.9DL+1.5(ELx)
1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2(ELz)
After linear static analysis (as per STAAD) for the above modeling, the design results obtained are given in the following table 8 for the both seismic load cases. The design results obtained are proposed to take as material and sectional properties in the pushover analysis using SAP.
SAP 2000 which is a finite element analysis package has been used for the analyses. SAP 2000 provides default hinge properties and recommends PMM hinges for columns and M3 hinges for beams as described in FEMA356.After designing and detailing the reinforced concrete frame structures as given in table 8, a nonlinear pushover analysis is carried out for evaluating the structural seismic response. Pushover analysis consists of the application of gravity loads, dead and live loads and a representative lateral load pattern. In the nonlinear analysis, lateral loads were applied monotonically in a stepbystep procedure. The lateral loads were taken as accelerations in the respective direction in lieu of the forces that would be experienced by the structures when subjected to ground motion. Under monotonic loading,
elements may yield one after the other. As a result, at each stage, the structure experiences a stiffness change because of damage. The analysis results are shown in the following tables and graphs. Sequence of damages and their intensity of damage are shown in 3.7 and 3.10 for Zone3 and Zone5.

Analysis Results of Seismic Load Case1 (SMRFZ3):
TABLE 9 Base Shear Vs Displacement
TABLE10 Sd/ Sa (ATC 40) Capacity and Demand Spectrum

Capacity and Demand Curves (Frame designed for Zone 3 and SMRF):
Capacity Curve (FEMA 356)
Capacity Curve (FEMA440)
Capacity and Demand Curve ATC40
Capacity and Demand Curves FEMA440

Damage at different stages in Zone3:
Stage0 Stage1
Stage2 Stage5
Stage8 Stage11
Stage16 Stage21
B IOImmediate occupancy

Analysis Results of Seismic Load case1 (SMRFZ5)
TABLE 11 Base Shear Vs Displacement
TABLE 12 Sd/Sa (ATC40) Capacity and Demand
Spectrum
LSLife Safety CCollapse

Capacity and Demand Curves (Frame designed for Zone 5 and SMRF):
Capacity Curve (FEMA356)
Capacity Curve (FEMA – 440)
Capacity and Demand Curve (ATC40)
Capacity and Demand Curve (FEMA440)

Damage at different stages in Zone5:
Stage0 Stage1
Stage2 Stage5
The base shear and target displacement values are obtained as shown in table below.
Evaluation Procedure
ATC 40
FEMA 356
FEMA 440 EL
FEMA 440DM
Target Displacement (m)
0.337
0.402
0.327
0.402
Base Shear (kN)
2220.95
2334.25
2203.82
2334.45
Table 13 Target Displacement and Base Shear ZONE3
Stage8 Stage11
Stage15 Stage19
B IOImmediate occupancy LS Life Safety CCollapse


OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

In the present study it is proposed to assess the damage and to evaluate the performance of designed structure for earth quake loads. The frames are designed for the two zones i.e., zone3 and zone5 considering both are Special Moment Resisting Frames, whose response reduction factor is 5. The zone factors for the zoneIII is 0.16 and zoneV is

as per IS code 18932002. Physical properties of the model will change in the analysis and design because of zone. Hence, two building frame models are available for the non linear static analysis i.e., pushover analysis. We performed the push over analysis for the displacement control using analysis package SAP. The target displacement values are obtained from four evaluation procedures:

ATC40 Capacity Spectrum Method.

FEMA 356 Coefficient Method.

FEMA 440 Equivalent Linearization.

FEMA 440 Displacement Modification.
TABLE 14 ZONE4
Evaluation Procedure
ATC 40
FEMA 356
FEMA 440 EL
FEMA 440DM
Target Displacement (m)
0.285
0.360
0.284
0.360
Base Shear (kN)
3014.13
3065.27
30.13.67
3065.27
From the Tables 9 to12, Graphs 3.6 & 3.9 and Deformed shapes with hinge locations 3.7 & 3.10 shows that damage of the structure in stage wise. This damage assessment shows that performance of the structure under seismic loading. Firstly it is observed the damage of the building frame for the nonlinear static analysis for dead and live loads i.e., the initial stage of the push over analysis for the both frames there is no hinge formation or there is no damage after the completion of nonlinear static analysis for the dead and live loads. This is shown as stage 0 in the Figure
3.7 & 3.10. The target displacement may vary according to the evaluation procedures i.e., ATC40(CSM), FEMA 356(CM), FEMA440 (EL), FEMA440(DM). The Target displacement considered is the maximum of four evaluation procedures. Now in the case of ZONE3 the maximum value of target displacement for the damage assessment considered is 0.402 seconds where the base shear is 2334.25 kN.In case of ZONE5 the maximum value of target displacement is
0.360 seconds and the corresponding base shear is 3065.27 kN.
The Graphs 3.6 & 3.9 shows that the capacity and demand curves for zone3 and zone5. Figures 3.7 & 3.10 shows stage wise hinge formation and damage sequence for zone3 and zone5. Tables 9 & 11 shows the number of hinge formations at every stage i.e., damage level at every step. In case of ZONE3 design, the stiffness of the frame is less, hence the damage appeared up to CP level with in the target displacement i.e., 0.402 seconds. There is a formation of hinges up to CP (Figure 3.7). In case of ZONE5 design,
the stiffness of the frame is higher than in ZONE 3 frame, hence the damage appeared up to LS level with in the target displacement i.e., 0.360 seconds (Figure 3.10). Finally both the frames which were designed to linear static analysis for earth quake loading performed well. The damage is within the limits and it is observed by conducting the push over analysis. Initially, the yielding of the beams takes place and then yielding of columns. This shows that the analysis theory is based on the strong column and weak beam i.e., both the frames behaving as ductile frames

FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK
Pushover analysis is an efficient method to understand the performance of the structure during earthquakes; however, it is not a dynamic phenomenon and lacks accuracy. This may not consider all the deformation within the structure. To know the complete behavior of the structure from initial stage to collapse stage, knowledge of nonlinear analysis for the numerical modals using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Applied Element Method (AEM) is most essential.

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