Crime Investigation using Attribute Enhanced Sparse Codewords Face Detection

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV3IS06001

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Crime Investigation using Attribute Enhanced Sparse Codewords Face Detection

Gauri Katkar, Gauri Wadhvekar, Jyotsna Shelar,

1-3 B.E. Students

4 Project Guide Department of Computer Engineering,

K.C. College of Engineering & Management studies & Research,

Kopri,Thane(E)-400 603, India.

AbstractMany applications including face verification use face image retrieval method. Its a challenging technique since all the faces will be similar due to its similar geometrical configuration of face structure. This paper retrieves similar faces using content based method. In earlier stage content based retrieval was performed using low level features such as appearance and posing. But low level features lack to give correct semantic description of images. For an e.g., face of different people is retrieved as similar in low level features. This problem is solved by incorporating low level features with high level human attributes like race, gender, hair etc. Two valuable methods such as attribute enhanced sparse coding and attribute embedded inverted indexing are proposed here to retrieve the image more effectively. These techniques can achieve above improvement by comparing with existing techniques.

Index Terms Face image, human attributes, content-based image retrieval, content based image retrieval, attribute enhanced sparse coding, and attribute embedded inverted indexing, high level features.


    Social networks such as facebook twitter etc are widely used in our day to day life. Many of them use human face images for their profile. And also people use celebritys faces. Now a days human faces are mostly used for manipulations such as searching and mining. Face image retrieval using content based method is an emerging technology in many real world applications. Due to different people having similar faces, problems can be faced while we arrive to retrieve for similar faces. To solve this issue technology such as Retrieval based face annotation use common outline for same categories of image. For example kid cap can be set as constrain to retrieve childrens, long hair for womens. Two main challenges should be faced while we overcome the existing system that is the first challenge is we have to efficiently short list the similar face images. On the other hand we have to effectively exploit the short list of face image and its week labeled information that differs from the original face. Our main goal is to retrieve the similar images from large scale database using content based. In existing content based method used low level features for retrieval and also it cannot detect the human faces automatically. These issues are solved in proposed by

    incorporating low level and high level attributes. Low level features are just appearance and posing in which we cannot get the exact information whether it is similar or different human faces. For this purpose we use high level attributes which can differentiate the unique faces from all common faces. High level attributes include gender, race, hair etc. The attributes should be selected effectively as it can provide a crystal clear result from all the faces in large scale database. By incorporating low level and high level attribute we can gain promising result to retrieve similar faces from large scale database. It is clear from the image that when we use low level feature, the result is unsatisfactory. But by combining high level feature with the low level then the result will be satisfactory. High level attributes i.e. Gender and hair shows that whether the face belongs to men or women. High level attribute will give the semantic meaning, whereas low level appearance lack to give semantic description about the face. A face image is given as input to retrieve similar faces from large scale database using content based image retrieval system (CBIR). CBIR is also known as QBIR that is query based image retrieval. Before storing the image in the database an index number is given to the images. Using the index number features are extracted from the image. And the extracted features are stored in feature database. By using this technique similar faces can be extracted. It was an important technology in many upcoming applications such as crime investigation, face annotation etc


    Content based image retrieval technique works with low level attributes as color, shape, and texture of the query image. This method can achieve high precision on retrieval of rigid object, causes low recall problem because of semantic gap. Many researchers have been focused on the task of bridging semantic gap; by which performance of content based image retrieval is improved. In traditional content based image retrieval, intensive human annotations are used for constructing semantic codewords. In this paper, automatically detected attributes are used to construct semantic codewords for retrieval of face image instead of using tags

    It gives an overview of some of the well-known methods like which operates on intensity. The method of dealing with video sequences that require other sensory data such as 3D information is also explained.It gives an idea of the state of the art of face recognition technology. In this dynamic face recognition scheme appear to be at a disadvantage relative to their static counterparts.

    Taking advantage of the simplicity and effectiveness of the sparse coding to local binary pattern (LBP) feature improved characteristics of Face images, the same approach as Chen et al. Combining component based LBP with sparse coding to construct sparse codewords. However, rather than using manual tags for identity information, this system have utilized automatically detected human attributes to construct sparse codewords by attribute enhanced sparse coding.

    In addition, we further characterized the information from the orthogonal view to construct attribute embedded inverted indexing for online stage. The proposed methods can combine both advantages of identity information and automatically detected human attributes

    Features are transformed using various transformations. Transformed data arranged in increasing order of frequency makes process systematic & fast.


    This paper automatically detects the human attributes using two valuable methods called attribute enhanced sparse coding and attribute embedded inverted indexing. Attribute enhanced sparse coding will create the sparse

    code from the image by combining the low level and high-level attribute. Only by including high level attributes we can gain the semantic description of the image. Each detected face is divided into multiple grids and from each grid image patch will be extracted and LBP feature descriptor is used to extract the local features that are local patches. And these local patches will be used to generate the sparse coding. All these steps are performed in attribute enhanced sparse coding algorithm. Attribute embedded inverted indexing will extract the sparse code words form the input image and database image and retrieve the similar faces from the database. Sparse coding is generated in offline stage and inverted indexing is performed in online stage. By incorporating these two algorithms with low level features (appearance) and high level attributes (gender) we can achieve the promising result in extracting similar faces from the large scale database. This will be an efficient procedure for extracting related faces from large scale database. The architectural design explains the processing of sparse coding and inverted indexing. Image is iven as input. Before entering into major algorithm, the query image will go through preprocessing. Preprocessing removes the background and identifies the face region. In matlab, imfilter and imadjust is used to filter the face and remove the background region. The noisy data from the query image is also removed here. By extracting the face region, it can be divided into multiple grids From the grid points, Local patches are extracted and by using the patches LBP features are obtained. From every LBP descriptor sparse code words are quantized. In face recognition technology mostly we crop only face region using preprocessing method and we normalize the posing, lighting etc. By doing these steps we are ignoring hair, color, and skin etc., rich semantic cues are ignored so while performing preprocessing we cannot get the correct semantic description about the image. For example hair is one of the major attribute in deciding whether the image is the man or women. In that case it fails to identify the correct semantic meaning of the face. After preprocessing step the information are lost to find the attribute of the images. And when the faces are cropped then it will fail to compare the cropped version with uncropped. So only by using the surrounding context of the face we can get the exact semantic meaning of the image. This issue is solved by performing post processing that takes the face as the center point and detects its surrounding area including hair. By post processing we can gain extra information about the face. Both pre processing and post processing are performed to provide the semantic cues of image. Preprocessing is performed to extract the inner face patterns that are sparse code. Post processing is performed to extract outer face attributes such as hair and its color, size etc.

    Attribute Enhanced Sparse Coding:

    It describes the automatic detection of human attribute from the image and also creates the different sparse coding. These collections of sparse coding represent the original image.

    Attribute embedded inverted indexing:

    It collects the sparse code words from the attribute enhanced sparse coding and check the code words with the online feature database and retrieve the related images similar the query image. For every image in the database face detector is used to detect the location of face region.

    73 possible attributes can be taken. For example hair, color, race, gender etc. Active shape model is used to mark the facial landmarks and by using that land mark alignment of the face is done. For each face component 7*5 grid points are taken. Each grid will be a square patch. These grid components include eyes, nose, mouth corners etc. LBP feature descriptor is used to extract features from those grids. After extracting the features we quantize it to code words known as sparse coding. All these code words are summed and generate a single pattern for the image. These steps are obtained by using attribute enhanced sparse coding. Before storing the image in database an index number will be provided to it and by using that index number we can identify the image. All these process will be performed in offline stage. Attribute embedded inverted indexing will be performed in online stage which compares the sparse codeword of query image and the database image and finally provide all the similar faces from the database. This technology is the emerging one that is used in real time applications.

    Block diagram



      First query image will be given as input to the preprocessing block. The block will first detect the face, its shape and its alignment will be done in this step.The local patches from aligned face will be identified and related to it features will be identified and this will be given to the sparse coding block.The attributes of the face after identifying will be given to the attribute enhanced sparse codewords and attribute embedded inverted indexing block. Now patch level sparse codewords will be given to the invertedindexing block. It checks the codewords with the database and retrieve the related images similar to the query image.


Thus to conclude about our project we are using Attribute enhanced sparse coding for criminal investigation. In our proposed system we can get the high performance on the image retrieval in large scale image database. In the existing system we cannot use the human attributes only use the low level features of the human images. But in the proposed system we use the high level attribute. It increases the effectiveness of the image. Attribute enhanced sparse codewords retrieve less number of images due to that we can get only the related images. From that we can obtain the main image from the large image database.


We thank Prof. Monika Pal, who has been the guide and has been helping in the project. She has personally corrected us. Also we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our Principal Dr. Hansraj Guhilot and our

H.O.D Prof. Amarja Adgaonkar for giving us the opportunity to enhance our knowledge in the present and futuristic project like attribute enhanced sparse codewords for face detection in crime investigation.We would also like to thank our friends and all those who have stood by us throughout this endeavour.


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