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Comparative Study on Natural Sand and Crushed Stone Sand

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Comparative Study on Natural Sand and Crushed Stone Sand

Gowhar Aziz, Department of Civil Engineering Vivekananda Global University

Jaipur,India

Rahul Chaudhary Department of Civil Engineering Vivekananda Global University

Jaipur,India

Ms. Payal Bakshi Department of Civil Engineering Vivekananda Global University

Jaipur, India

Abstract India has a large road network covering an area of about 4 lakh million square kilometers including all types of pavements in urban as well as in rural areas [1]. The availability of conventional material is becoming a challenge for engineers in construction of pavements. In this concern requirement of good materials for construction is there. In order to provide good alternative materials for construction of pavement layers, crushed stone sand may be used as a replacement for conventional sand. In order to preserve the various natural resources the various types of wastes should have given keen attention in order to use them in the various road construction processes as a base and sub-base material. The utilization of the alternative material based on the industrial waste is the need of hour. This work is done in order to give utilization of crushed stone sand or M-sand by analyzing various characteristics of the pavement material by using the crushed stone sand in their construction processes. The main aim of the research is to strengthen the WBM course as well as the surface layer of the rigid pavement. In this work, gradation of particles, moisture content, specific gravity and workability is determined in order to compare the various characteristics of natural sand and crushed stone sand

Keywords Crushed stone sand, natural sand, physical properties.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Crushed stone sand is a common by-product of mining and quarrying. Rather than being discarded it as a waste material it can be utilized in various construction processes of the pavements. The crusher dust is also known as the M-sand. The cost of crushed stone sand is relatively low compared to other conventional materials. The price of M-sand ranges from Rs. 500 per ton as compared to natural sand which is Rs. 830 per ton. Crushed stone sand use less water than other alternatives and have excellent load bearing capabilities and durability. Rather than being discarded it as a waste material it can be utilized in various construction processes of the pavements. For this work various tests will be performed and by analyzing various properties the characteristics of crushed stone sand as a pavement material are analyzed. The objective of my work is to replace the conventional materials of construction by making the use of crushed stone sand in the various pavement construction processes.

    The basic mix chosen for the analysis is M20.The crushed stone sand is added for the replacement of the aggregates

    partially or fully. Test results indicate that fine aggregate should be replaced with the utilization of crushed stone sand.

  2. MATERIALS

    1. Crushed Stone Sand (CSS)

      The material is collected from the local crusher, Ganpati Stone Crusher, Hatipura, Garh, Bassi, Rajasthan, 30 kms from Jaipur city. The crusher dust is also known as the M- sand. Crushed stone sand is a common by-product of mining and quarrying. Rather than being discarded it as a waste material it can be utilized in various construction processes of the pavements

    2. Natural Sand

    The material is collected from the Banas River, Tonk, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 100kms from Jaipur city.it is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    In order to determine the gradation of the crushed stone sand and natural sand sieve analysis test were performed as per IS code. In present investigation the moisture content test was performed by oven dry method, specific gravity was determined by pycnometer method as per IS: 2720 (Part III)- 1980 and the workability was determined by compaction factor test as per IS 1199 [3].

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    1. Gradation of Particles

      The gradation of the particles of crushed stone sand and natural sand was determined by the sieve analysis of fine aggregates. In this analysis 200 grams of the sample were taken and sieved for the period of 10 minutes. The test results were expressed in the tubular form.

      Type of Sieve analysis: Dry (passing 4.75mm sieve) Total weight of crushed stone sand = 200g

      Weight of dish = 2888g

      Table 1: Sieve analysis of crushed stone sand

      IS

      Siev e Ope nin g, mm

      ,µ

      Wt. of dish, g

      Wt. of ( dish+ CSD)

      retaine d, g

      Wt. of CSD

      retained, g

      Cum. wt. retaine d, g

      Cum.

      %

      retai ned

      Cum.

      % finer

      4.75

      375

      376

      1

      1

      0.5

      99.50

      2.36

      311

      313

      2

      3

      1.5

      98.50

      1

      397

      482

      85

      88

      44

      56.00

      600

      415

      438

      23

      111

      55.50

      44.50

      300

      373

      398

      25

      136

      68.00

      32.00

      150

      352

      368

      16

      152

      76.00

      24.00

      75

      336

      352

      16

      168

      84.00

      16.00

      Pan

      327

      363

      Type of Sieve analysis: Dry (passing 4.75mm sieve) Total weight of natural sand = 200g

      Weight of dish = 2888g

      Table 2: Sieve analysis of natural sand

      IS

      Sieve Openi ng, mm,µ

      Wt. of dish, g

      Wt. of ( dish+ sand) retaine d, g

      Wt. of sand retained, g

      Cum. wt. retaine d, g

      Cum.

      %

      retain ed

      Cum

      . %

      finer

      4.75

      375

      375

      0

      0

      0

      0

      2.36

      311

      312

      1

      1

      0.50

      99.50

      1

      397

      414

      17

      18

      9.00

      91.00

      600

      415

      438

      23

      41

      20.00

      80.00

      300

      373

      456

      83

      123

      61.50

      38.50

      150

      352

      412

      60

      183

      91.50

      8.50

      75

      336

      351

      15

      198

      99

      1.00

      Pan

      327

      330

      The gradation of the practices in te natural sand and crushed stone sand are comparable therefore the fine aggregates in concrete should be replaced by utilizing the crushed stone sand.

    2. Moiture Content

      Moisture content of crushed stone sand was determined by oven dry method. The weight of the sample of crushed stone sand and natural sand was taken as 30 grams.by determining the moisture content of the crushed stone sand and natural sand at certain intervals, behavior of the crushed stone sand and natural sand with respect to water content can be analyzed.

      Table 3: Moisture content of crushed stone sand

      Sample no.

      Wt. of empty container

      , g

      Wt. of (container + sample),

      W1 g

      Oven dried Wt. ,g

      %

      moisture content

      W1

      44

      74

      73.92

      0.125

      W2

      44

      74

      73.80

      0.313

      W3

      43

      73

      72.65

      0.558

      AVERAGE

      0.332

      The moisture content of the crushed stone sand determined by the oven dry method is 0.332%.

      Sample no.

      Wt. of empty container , g

      Wt. of (container + sample),

      W1 g

      Oven dried Wt. ,g

      %

      moisture content

      W1

      44

      74

      73

      1.36

      W2

      44

      74

      73

      1.36

      W3

      43

      73

      72

      1.38

      AVERAGE

      1.36

      Moisture content of natural sand by oven dry method Table 4: Moisture Content of natural sand

      The moisture content of crushed stone sand is comparatively less than that of the natural sand.

    3. Specific Gravity

      This test was performed by the pycnometer method. The specific gravity of the crushed stone sand is 2.81 whereas the specific gravity of the natural sand is 2.40.Therefore crushed stone sand has higher specific gravity as compared to natural sand which results in higher density. Due to the higher density, higher degree of compaction is achieved.

    4. Workability

      The workability of the concrete remains unaffected at addition of 5% of crushed stone sand while increasing the amount of crushed stone sand, workability decreases.

  5. CONCLUSIONS

Due to the comparable gradation of the particles, crushed stone sand can be utilized as a partial replacement of the fine aggregate in concrete.

Due the higher specific gravity, density increases which results in higher degree of compaction.

Due to the increase of percentage of crushed stone sand workability decrease.

REFERENCES

    1. Krishna Rama,P.V.V.Satayanarayan, Effect of Crusher Dust, Stone & Tier waste as Granular pavement Material, International Journal Of Engineering Science Invention, volume 5 April 2016,pp 30-34.

    2. P.V.V.Satayanarayan, R. Prem, K. Lewis, T. harshanandan, A study on the use of Crushed Stone Aggregate & Crushed Dust Mixes in Flexible Pavements, International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, volume 4, November 2014,pp. 1126,1135.

    3. IS: 2386-1963 Indian standards code of practice for methods of test for Aggregate for concrete, Bureau of Indian standard Institution, New Delhi.

    4. Syed Yaqub Abbas, Vikas Srivastava, V.C.Agarwal, Effect of stone dust on compressive strength of concrete an experimental

      investigation, International Journal Of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, volume 4, February 2015, pp. 541, 542.

    5. N Patil Suraj, S Talekar Ashutosh , The utilization of crushed stone dust as a replacement of sand in cement concrete, Journal of Information, Knowledge and Research in Civil Engineering, volume 4, October 2017, pp. 478-480.

    6. A. A. M. Ahmed and M. A. Yusuf, Use of stone powder in concrete and mortar as an alternative of sand, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, volume 5, May 2011, pp.385-388.

    7. Brajesh Kumar Suman Vikas Srivastava, Utilization of stone dust as fine aggregate replacement in concrete, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, Volume 2, 4, April 2013, pp. 703-707.

    8. Er. S. Thirougnaname, Use of unseived stone dust as fine aggregate in mortar, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Volume 5, 7, July 2014, pp. 4-6.

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