 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 523
 Authors : M. Ramya, V. Parimala, Dr. S. Chenthurpandian, Dr. D. Ganeshkumar
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS030730
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 03 (March 2014)
 Published (First Online): 21032014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Comparative Study on Control Strategy for Harmonic Reduction in Three Phase Four Wire System
V. Parimala1, Dr. S. Chenthurpandian2, D. Ganesh Kumar 3, M. Ramya4
1Asst.Prof (SG)Dept of PGElectrical Science, P.A College of Engineering and Technology,
2Principal, SNS College of Technology.
3Prof, Dept of EEE, P.A College of Engineering and Technology.
4PG Scholar, Dept of PGElectrical Science, P.A College of Engineering and Technology.
Abstract This paper deals with improvement of power quality in three phase four wire system and to make source current as sinusoidal using four leg Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) was used. The control of SAPF is based on reference current generation and current control methods. The comparative study on reference current computed by using instantaneous active and reactive power theory (pq theory) and instantaneous current component theory (Modified dq theory) with PI controller. The hysteresis controller is used to generate gate pluses and applied to four leg SAPF. The simulation of the work carried using MATLAB Simulink.
Keywords Hysteresis Controller, Modified dq Theory, pq Theory, PI Controller, SAPF

INTRODUCTION
In the power system there is an increase in harmonic instability which caused by the power electronic equipment. The ac mains are connected with the nonlinear load so that harmonics is generated to affect power quality. The nonlinear loads are adjustable speed drives, static power supplies and uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) which causes harmonics instability [1]. The passive filter is simplest method to reduce harmonic distortion but it have some disadvantages are large size and increase resonance problem. The SAPF is compared to other technique has been better for solving the harmonic related issues and reduce the harmonics [6].
The three phase four wire system uses split capacitor and four leg shunt active filter for VSI topologies. The split capacitor use six IGBT for compensate three phase current and the neutral point is connected in the mid of DC link capacitor. The SAPF based split capacitor VSI topology has some drawback are two capacitor at voltage deviation problem and overheating of components. The four leg SAPF is commonly used, it has 8 IGBT, the three leg are connected to three phase current and fourth leg is connected to neutral point for compensating neutral current and DC link at capacitor.
This work presents three phase four wire system with four leg shunt active filter in VSI topology, SAPF under instantaneous active and reactive power theory and instantaneous current component theory with PI controller for calculating reference current and the hysteresis current controller is used to generate gate pulses [4]. The work is organized as follows, chapter II described the proposed method, chapter III described the proposed control strategies in that a. instantaneous real and reactive power theory and b. instantaneous current component theory, chapter IV described the hysteresis controller and chapter V described the simulation result.

PROPOSED METHOD
The three phase four wire system is connected to nonlinear load in that three phase and single phase uncontrolled rectifier is used. The filter design is based on the topology of four leg SAF. The PI controller is used to regulate the DC link voltage. The four leg shunt active filter at three leg compensate source current and fourth leg compensate neutral current or zero sequence current shown in Fig.1.
Fig.1 Four leg shunt active power filter with nonlinear

PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGIES

Instantaneous Real and Reactive Power Theory
= 2 [ 1 + 3 ] (9)
3 2 2 2
= 2 [ 1 3 ] (10)
The pq theory is based on set of instantaneous real and reactive power defined in time domain method. It is valid for both steady state and transient state [15]. This theory is efficient for designing shunt active filter. The three phase voltage and current (abc) are converted into 0 stationary reference frames. The Clarke and inverse Clarke transform of three phase voltage are given by,
3 2 2 2
The instantaneous real and reactive power theory having some drawbacks, they are unable to compensation of harmonics current under non sinusoidal voltage conditions [14].
The block diagram of reference current calculation, in that Clarke transform to calculate real, reactive and zero sequence power and stationary frame at compensated reference current
1 1
V0 2 2
V = 2 1 1
1
2 Va
1 Vb (1)
generate by using PI controller shown in Fig.2. The SAPF at using DC link capacitor and DC link reference voltage and
V 3
2 2
0 3 3 Vc
2 2
1 1 0
actual voltage compared to voltage to be regulated. Then inverse Clarke transform to calculate three phase compensated reference current [2]. The real and reactive power is calculated to pass low pass butterworth filter, in that
V
2 V
cutoff frequency is 50Hz. The hysteresis current control is
V = 2
1 1
3 V (2)
used to compare actual and reference current to trigger gate
3 2 2 2
pulses and given to shunt active power filter.
V
1 1
2 2
3 V
2
Similarly three instantaneous line current ia,ib,ic can be converted into 0 coordinate,
1 1
i0 2 2
1
2 ia
i = 2 1 1
1 ib (3)
i 3
2 2
ic
0 3 3
2 2
1
1 0
i0
i
2
i = 2 1 1 3 i (4)
i
i
3 2
2 2
0 1
2
3 2
Fig.2 Block diagram of Reference Current Calculation Using pq Theory
The three phase instantaneous real, reactive and zero sequence power calculated by,
p0 V0 0 0 i0
p = 0 V V i (5)
q 0 V V i
The stationary reference frame used for calculating compensating reference current given by,

Instantaneous Current Component Theory
The Modified dq theory is based on set of rotating direct and quadrant power defined in time domain method. It is valid for both steady state and transient state. This theory is very efficient and flexible for designing shunt active filter in non sinusoidal voltage condition. The three phase voltage and current (abc) are converted into dq0 synchronous rotating reference frames [12]. The park and inverse park transform of
= 1
Â²+ Â²
[ + ] (6)three phase current are given by,
= 1
[ + ] (7)1 1
i0 2 2
1
2 ia
Â²+ Â²
i = 2 1 1
1 ib (11)
i 3
2 2
ic
The inverse clarke transform of three phase instantaneous compensated reference current given by,
= 2 [ + ] (8)
3 3
0
2 2
=
(12)
3 2
cos() sin()
= sin() cos() (13)
The three phase compensated reference current calculated by inverse park transform is given by,
= sin + cos() (14)
= sin 2 + cos( 2) (15)
(ica,icb,icc) to generate the triggering of gate pulses and applied to VSI based four leg shunt active power filter [7].
3 3
= sin + 2 + cos( + 2) (16)
3 3
= + + (17)
p>The block diagram of shunt active power filter based Modified dq theory shown in Fig.3. The three phase current is converted into rotating reference frame and passed to high pass filter (HPF), it attenuate higher order harmonics and through compute the compensated reference current using inverse Clarke transformation.
Fig.3 Block diagram of Reference Current Calculation using Modified dq Theory

DC Link Voltage Regulator
The PI controller is generally used to regulate the DC Link voltage of shunt active power filter. The PI controller is used to compare actual dc link voltage and reference voltage in that error value is sampled. Its transfer function H(s) is represented as given by,
Fig.4 Hysteresis current control method
The hysteresis control method involves selection of two levels of current; one slightly greater than the reference compensated current and other slightly lower the reference current shown in Fig.4. The actual current is taken by feedback signal. When the actual current is less than lower value, the IGBT are switched on, and when the current crosses the higher value, the IGBT are switched off [13]. As a result, the actual current remains within the upper and lower bands of the current reference.


SIMULATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The Matlab/Simulink simulation tool was used to develop a three phase four wire system with 4leg SAPF model that allowed the simulation and testing of controllers. The open loop simulation of three phase four wire system is connected to nonlinear load in that three phase and single phase uncontrolled rectifier with RL load is used. The simulated output waveform for source voltage, source current, Load voltage, Load current and neutral current before filter circuit shown in Fig.5.
= +
(18)
Where Kp is proportional constant and Ki is integral constant. The Kp and Ki are used to determine dynamic response of dc link voltage control and settling time. The PI control is used to improve the loop gain and eliminate steady state error values. The PI controller is to compare actual and reference DC link voltage to be regulated shown in Fig.3. The rotating frame coordinates dq0 converted into three phase compensated reference current Ica, Icb, Icc.

Hysteresis Current Control
The hysteresis current control is used to compare actual source current (ia,ib,ic) and compensated reference current
Fig.5 Simulation Waveforms for before SAPF Filter
Fig.6 THD Value of source current before Filter
Fig.7 THD Value of Neutral current before Filter
The Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) analysis of open loop source current THD value is 34.90% shown in fig.6 and neutral current THD value is 56.40% shown in fig.7. The source current is sinusoidal by using four leg shunt active power filter.
The closed loop system for three phase four wire system is connected to nonlinear load. The source current is controlled by using four leg shunt active power filter with instantaneous active and reactive power theory with PI controller. The four leg SAPF with dc link capacitor to compensate the current harmonics. In fig.8 the point of common coupling (PCC) at using four leg shunt active power filter with dc link capacitor.
Fig.8 Simulation model of four leg SAPF with instantaneous active and reactive theory (pq)
The three leg are compensating three phase current and fourth leg compensates neutral current in four leg SAPF method. The SAPF based reference current generated by using instantaneous active and reactive power theory with PI control. The PI control is comparing the actual and reference dc link voltage to eliminate error value and regulate of that voltage.
Fig.9 Simulation Waveforms for pq theory based on four leg SAPF
Fig.10 FFT analysis of Source current in SAPF based pq
theory
Fig.11 FFT analysis of Neutral current in SAPF based p
q theory
The simulated output waveform for pq theory based four leg SAPF method shown in Fig.9. The Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) analysis of open loop source current THD value is 4.62% shown in Fig.10 and neutral current THD value is 5.32% shown in Fig.11.
Fig.12 Simulation model of instantaneous current component theory (Modified dq Theory)
Fig.13 Simulation Waveform for SAPF based instantaneous current component theory (Modified dq theory)
The closed loop simulation model of four leg SAPF with instantaneous current component theory (Modified dq Theory) shown in Fig. 12. In that three phase four wire system and non linear load at four leg SAPF is connected in VSI. The SAPF at reference current calculated by using Modified dq theory and dc link voltage is regulated using PI controller. The park transformation and inverse park transformation simulated in this diagram.
Fig.14 FFT analysis of Source current in SAPF based instantaneous current component theory
Fig.15 FFT analysis of Source current in SAPF based instantaneous current component theory
The Simulation output waveform for SAPF based Modified d q theory with PI controller shown in Fig.13. In that three phase Source Voltage and current, three phase load voltage and current, neutral voltage to be presented. The FFT of source current is 3.50% shown in fig.14 and neutral current should be 2.98% shown in Fig.15. The four leg SAPF based Modified dq theory is compared to pq theory harmonics to be less in source current and neutral current. The PI controller is used to regulate the dc link voltage and improve the power factor.
A. Tables:
Table 1: Comparison of THD Values
THD Value
Before Filter
SAPF
based
pq theory
SAPF
based Modified
dq theory
Source
current (Ampere)
34.90
%
4.62%
3.51%
Neutral current (Ampere )
56.40
%
5.32%
2.98 %
Table 2: Parameter Values
Parameter
Value
Supply Voltage
Vs = 70.7
Source resistance
Rs = 0.1
Source inductance
Ls = 0.5mH
DC link capacitance
Cdc = 3000Âµf
DC link Voltage
Vdc = 800 v
PI
Kp = 10 Ki = 0.4
Load resistance
Rl = 20
Load inductance
Ll = 60mH


CONCLUSION
In this paper four leg SAPF based two control strategies compared instantaneous real and reactive power theory and instantaneous current component theory (modified dq theory), current control method at using hysteresis current controllers in three phase four wire system and their result are tabulated. In this method source current and neutral current harmonics has been compensated, THD value in IEEE 519 standard and reactive power to be compensated.
REFERENCE
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V.Parimala has obtained her Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Madras University. Masters Degree in Power Electronics and Drives from Anna University. Currently working as Senior Assistant Professor. Her area of interests includes Power Quality, Power Electronics,
Soft Computing Techniques and Virtual Instrumentation.
Prof.D.Ganeshkumar has obtained his Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Electronics and Instrumentation and Master in Applied Electronics. He has received his Ph.D in Vibration Analysis using Virtual Instrumentation. Principle investigator for DST, Government of India funded project or Sound and Vibration Analysis in Electrical
Machines using Virtual Instrumentation Techniques. His area of interest includes Process Monitoring and Control in Virtual Instrumentation Systems.
M.Ramya has obtained her Bachelors degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from P.A. College of Engineering and Technology and currently pursuing her Masters degree in Power Electronics and Drives from P.A. College of Engineering and Technology. Her area of interest includes Power quality and Power Electronics.