Comparative Analysis of Various DC-DC Converters using MATLAB

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Comparative Analysis of Various DC-DC Converters using MATLAB

Anil Agrahari1, Ashutosh Verma2, Abhishek Maurya3 , Ashish Kumar Pandey4

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial College of Engineering and Management, Lucknow, India

2,3,4UG Students, Department of Electrical Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial College of Engineering and Management, Lucknow, India

Abstract The design and simulation of various isolated and non isolated dc-dc converters is the focus of this research article. It includes theoretical derivations as well as parameter formulae, design and examples. Since the Electricity consumption is increasing day by day due to which a scarcity of conventional energy sources such as coal, petrol, gasoline, occurring day by day , so to fulfill requirement of energy sources an alternative methods are required urgently to meet the growing demand for electricity, therefore the researcher and industries are highly motivated towards the solar energy generation , wind power generation dc dc converter etc . A DC-DC converter is a stage in the power conversion process , This converter changes the voltage level from one level to another. Likewise the value of power level varies from small to high level . The standard approach frequently encounters problems such as poor power quality, delayed dynamic response, high device stress, harmonic rich, periodically dense, peaky, distorted input current, and harmonic rich, periodically dense, peaky, distorted output current in the conventional energy generation . This transgresses the international power quality limitations using the MATLAB tool different isolated and non isolated dc dcconvter are analyzed With changing the input parameters like inductance, capacitance, and switching frequency to see how the output voltage varies And added with simulation graph .

Index Terms: Buck converter, Boost converter, Cuk converter, Sepic converter, Zeta converter, Flyback converter, Half bridge DC-DC converter, Full bridge DC-DC converter, Push pull converter.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    As a tremendous growth in semiconductor devices, the switching devices are available with extremely fast switching rates and great power handling capabilities. It is possible to design converters with efficiency greater than 90% and also it can be designed at a low cost, small size, and light weight. As semiconductor devices are used to operate in OFF state or in ON state and each switching state will result in a low switching voltage or low switching current, and using a switching regulator, it is feasible to convert DC to DC with greater efficiency.

    The Pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques and switching frequency modification are used to regulate the converter switching operation. Non-isolated DC-DC converters are converters that use pulse width modulation (PWM) for switching control. The various types of non- isolated type of converters include buck, boost, buck-boost, CUK, and SEPIC converters and various types of isolated converters include fly back, full bridge, half bridge etc. Since High frequency transformers are not included in the

    structure of non-isolated converters as a result they are smaller, cheaper and easier to regulate. The non-isolated type of converters have a series inductor connection at the input, smaller output capacitance and output filter size, which provide switch protection against overvoltage and electromagnetic interference (EMI), lower stress on the components, better transient response, efficiency, and high power density.

    Buck converters and boost converters are typically used to scale down the output voltage

    Practical considerations limit the output voltage of a conventional boost converter to be approximately six times its applied voltage. In order to supply a high output voltage, the conventional boost converter must operate at extremely high duty cycle ratios, which impose a small off time or low switching frequency.

    A feedback path can also be connected from outside side to input side of these converters to obtain a more accurate and less fluctuating output. Their feedback path includes a PID controller whose derivative, integral and proportional parameters need to be set according to circuit parameters.

    In this paper, we have designed simulink models of converters with feedback loop as well.

    Some loads are sensitive in nature. They require a stable supply with very less or no fluctuations at all. So, isolated types of converter are best for such kind of loads as they can isolate such loads from supply side with the use of transformers (generally referred to as isolating transformer). There are some type of converters which can both step up or step down the voltage level like Buck-Boost converter and CUK converter. In such type of converters, duty cycle decides their mode of operation. If value of duty cycle is greater than 50%, it steps up the voltage level, that is, it operates in boost mode. While, if duty cycle is less than 50%, it steps down the voltage level, operating in buck mode.

    Various types of electronic switches can be used to design such types of converters like MOSFETs, BJTs, IGBTs, GTOs, FETs, etc. The use of any particular switch depends upon the load requirements and ratings. For example, MOSFETs are used in low power applications because their switching losses are less and their input resistance is also higher. IGBTs are generally used in high power applications.

    Such DC-DC converters can be used in various electronic and electrical devices like in charging circuits.

  2. TYPES OF DC-DC CONVERTERS

Fs=40 kHz

Duty Cycle=Vo/Vs=15/48=0.3125 , i.e. 31.25%

Inductance value:

=

Lmin (1)

2

= (10.3125)8

2×40×1000

= 68.75µ

……………(1)

We assume inductance to be 25% larger for inductor current to be continuous .So, we have

L=85.93µH

Capacitance Value:

C= 1

8()2

…………….(2)

We assume ripple () to be less than 5%

So, C=125.01µF (from above formula)

There is no feedback provided in Open loop Buck Converter , so variation of output voltage from required value is larger.

Fig.1: Types of DC-DC Converters

  • NON-ISOLATED DC-DC CONVERTERS

In this type of DC-DC converter input side is not isolated from output side. Hence, these type of converters are not used with sensitive type of loads which can not bear voltage or current fluctuations.

  1. BUCK CONVERTER

    • It steps down the DC voltage level.

    • It can be designed in two ways:

    1. Open loop

    2. Closed loop OR with feedback loop

      1. OPEN LOOP BUCK CONVERTER

        PARAMETERS

        Value

        Resistor, R

        8 ohm

        Inductor, L

        85.93 µH

        Capacitor, C

        125 µF

        Vs (Supply voltage)

        48V

        Vo (Output Voltage)

        15V

        Duty Cycle

        31.25%

        Frequency

        40 kHz

        DESIGN:

        Required Output voltage=15V Vs=48V

        R=8 ohm

        Fig.2: Simulink Model of Buck Converter

        INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.3

        OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.4

      2. CLOSED LOOP BUCK CONVERTER ( WITH FEEDBACK PATH)

      To obtain output voltage in permissible range, we eed to use a feedback path in the circuit. This type has greater reliance and much less variation of output voltage.

      Parameters of PID Controller: Controller parameters: Proportional(P)=0

      Integral(I)=7 Derivative(D)=0 Filter Coefficient=100

  2. BOOST CONVERTER

    • It steps up the DC Voltage level.

    • It can be designed in two ways:

      1. Open loop

      2. Closed loop OR with feedback loop

        1. OPEN LOOP BOOST CONVERTER

          PARAMETERS

          Value

          Resistor, R

          16.2 ohm

          Inductor, L

          60µH

          Capacitor, C

          16.44µF

          Vs (Supply voltage)

          12V

          Vo (Output Voltage)

          18V

          Duty Cycle

          33.33%

          Frequency

          25 kHz

          DESIGN:

          Duty cycle=1 = 1 12 = 0.333 = 33.33%

          18

          Fig.5: Simulink model of Buck converter with feedback loop

          Inductance Value:

          2 2

          Lmin=(1) = 0 .33 (1 0.333 ) 8 = 47.99µ

          INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

          ………….(3)

          2

          2×25×1000

          We assume inductance to be 25% larger for inductor current to be continuous ,we have, Lmin=60µH

          Capacitance Value:

          C=

          (

          )

          ………….(4)

          We assume ripple () to be less than 5%

          Fig.6

          OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

          Fig.7

          C=16.44µF

          Fig.8: Simulink Model of BOOST converter

          INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

          Fig.9

          OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

          Fig.10

        2. CLOSED LOOP BOOST CONVERTER (WITH FEEDBACK LOOP)

        To obtain output voltage in permissible range, we need to use a feedback path in the circuit. This type has greater reliance and much less variation of output voltage.

        Parameters of PID Controller:

        Controller parameters:

  3. BUCK- BOOST CONVERTER

    • It can both step up and step down the DC voltage level depending upon the duty cycle of the control switch

    • It changes the polarity of output voltage with respect to input voltage.

      PARAMETERS

      Value

      Resistor, R

      33.33 ohm

      Inductor, L

      165µH

      Capacitor, C

      66.60µF

      Vs (Supply voltage)

      40V

      Vo (Output Voltage)

      -50V

      Duty Cycle

      55.55%

      Frequency

      25 kHz

      DESIGN:

      Inductance Value:

      2 2

      Lmin=(1) = (1 0.55 ) × 33 .33 = 132µ ……(5)

      2

      2×25×1000

      Proportional(P)=0

      Integral(I)=7 Derivative(D)=0 Filter Coefficient=100

      We assume inductance to be 25% larger for inductor current to be continuous,we have, Lmin=165µH

      Capacitance Value:

      C=

      (

      )

      …………..(6)

      We assume ripple () to be less than 5%

      Fig.11: Simulink Model of BOOST converter with feedback loop

      INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.12

      OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.13

      C=16.44µF

      Fig.14: Simulink Model of BUCKBOOST converter

      INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.15

      OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.16

  4. SEPIC CONVERTER

      • It stands for Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter.

      • It can step up or step down the voltage level depending upon the duty cycle of the control switch.

      • It is a combination of Boost Converter and BUCK- BOOST Converter. Hence, it works similar to BUCK-BOOST converter , but it has advantage of non-inverted voltage unlike BUCK-BOOST Converter(that is, output voltage has same polarity as that of input voltage).

        Fig.17: Simulink Model of SEPIC converter

        INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.18

        OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        PARAMETERS

        Value

        R

        2 ohm

        L1

        35.62 µH

        L2

        14.25 µH

        C1

        28.57µF

        C2

        28.57µF

        Vs (Supply voltage)

        15V

        Vo (Output Voltage)

        6V

        Duty Cycle

        28.57%

        Frequency

        250 kHz

        DESIGN:

        Duty cycle,D= 0

        +0

        = 0.2857(28.57%)

        Fig.19

  5. SEPIC CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK LOOP

    To determine average inductor currents and change in inductor

    currents

    IL2= = 6 = 3

    2

    IL1= = 1.2

    Assuming 40% change in ripple current,

    IL1= 0.4 x 1.2=0.48A

    IL2=0.4 x 3=1.2A

    Determination of inductor values:

    To obtain output voltage in permissible range, we need to use a feedback path in the circuit. This type has greater reliance and much less variation of output voltage.

    Parameters of PID Controller: Controller parameters: Proportional(P)=0

    Integral(I)=7 Derivative(D)=0

    IL=

    L1=

    1 ×

    L2=

    2 ×

    = 35.62µ

    = 14.25µ

    ………..(7)

    Filter Coefficient=100

    Determination of capacitor values:

    C2=C1=

    0

    (

    )

    = 28.57µ ………….(8)

    0

    We have assumed 2% ripple .

    Fig.20: Simulink Model of SEPIC CONVERTER with feedback loop

    INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    Determination of inductor values:

    IL=

    …………(9)

    L1=

    1 ×

    L2=

    2 ×

    = 820 µ

    = 681 µ

    Determination of capacitor values:

    C1=

    (1)

    1

    = 7.92µ …………(10)

    Fig.21

    C2= = 3.33µ ………….(11)

    82(0)2

    OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    Fig.22

  6. CUK CONVERTER

    CUK CONVERTER works similar to BUCK-BOOST converter. But it has advantage of zero ripple current. It can both step up and step down DC voltage depending on the duty cycle of the control switch. In this converter output voltage has opposite polarity with respect of input voltage.

    0

    We have assumed 1% ripple

    Avg. voltage across C1 is 25-(-30)=55 volt

    Max. change in Vc1=55 x 0.05=2.75 V (Ripple for C1 is taken as 5%)

    Fig.23: Simulink Model of CUK converter

    INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    Fig.24

    OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    PARAMETERS

    Value

    R

    15 ohm

    L1

    820 µH

    L2

    681 µH

    C1

    7.92 µF

    C2

    3.33 µF

    Vs (Supply voltage)

    25V

    Vo (Output Voltage)

    -30V

    Duty Cycle

    54.5%

    Frequency

    50 kHz

    DESIGN:

    Duty cycle,D= 0

    +0

    = 0.545 (54.5%)

    To determine average inductor currents and change in inductor

    currents

    IL2= = 30 = 2

    15

    IL1= = 25 = 1.66

    15

    Assuming 20% change in ripple current,

    IL1= 0.2 x 1.66=0.332 A

    IL2=0.2 x 2=0.4 A

    Fig.25

  7. ZETA CONVERTER

    • It can increase or decrease voltage level depending on the duty cycle of the control switch.

    • It does not chang polarity of the output voltage.

      OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      PARAMETERS

      Value

      R

      10 ohm

      L1

      1.6 mH

      L2

      1.6 mH

      C1

      720 µF

      C2

      15 µF

      Vs (Supply voltage)

      12V

      Vo (Output Voltage)

      18V

      Duty Cycle

      60 %

      Frequency

      25 kHz

      DESIGN:

      Duty cycle=

      +

      = 18

      12+18

      = 0.6 (60%)

      Fig.28

      • ISOLATED DC-DC CONVERTERS

      In these type of converters , output side is isolated from input side with the help of a transformer.

      Determination of inductor current and change in inductor current:

      IL1=IL2= = 18 = 1.8

      10

      IL1=IL2=0.1×1.8=0.18 A (Assuming 1% ripple in current)

      Determination of inductor values:

      Types of Isolated DC-DC Converters:

      1. Flyback Converter

      2. Forward Converter

      1. FLYBACK CONVERTER

        IL=

        L=

        I×f

        L1=L2= 12×0.6

        0.18×25×1000

        = 1.6

        ……….(12)

    • It can be used to convert either AC to DC or DC to DC.

    • It is similar to BUCK-BOOST Converter.

      PARAMETERS

      Value

      R

      40 ohm

      C

      17.45µF

      VS (Supply voltage)

      24V

      VO (Output Voltage)

      40V

      Duty Cycle

      35.71 %

      Frequency

      100 kHz

      Fig.26: Simulink Model of ZETA CONVERTER

      INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      DESIGN:

      Determination of Capacitor values:

      =

      ………..(13)

      Fig.27

      Substituting values,

      C=17.85µF

      Fig.29: Simulink Model of FLYBACK CONVERTER

      INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.30

      OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

      Fig.31

      1. FLYBACK CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK PATH

        To obtain output voltage in permissible range, we need to use a feedback path in the circuit. This type has greater reliance and much less variation of output voltage.

        Parameters of PID Controller: Controller parameters: Proportional(P)=0

        Integral(I)=7 Derivative(D)=0 Filter Coefficient=100

        OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.34

      2. HALF BRIDGE DC TO DC CONVERTER

  • It is a type of isolated DC-DC converter, which can higher or lower the output voltage value with respect to input voltage.

  • It provides isolation via a transformer.

  • It has two MOSFETs as control switches in its circuitary.

    PARAMETERS

    Value

    R

    8 ohm

    L

    268.19 µH

    C

    41.42 nF

    Vs (Supply voltage)

    50V

    Vo (Output Voltage)

    17.5V

    Duty Cycle

    70 %

    Frequency

    150 kHz

    DESIGN:

    Determination of inductance:

    Average inductor current is given by,

    IL= =17.5/8=2.187 A

    Assuming 40% ripple, we get,

    IL=0.4×2.187=0.87 A

    L=(0.5) = 268.19µ

    ×

    ………..(14)

    Determination of capacitance:

    Fig.32: Simulink Model of FLYBACK CONVERTER with

    12

    feedback loop

    = …………(15)

    322

    Assuming ripple to be 5%, = 0.05

    INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    Fig.33

    Solving we get, C=41.42 nF

    Fig.35: Simulink Model of HALF BRIDGE DC TO DC CONVERTER

    DESIGN:

    Determination of inductance:

    Average inductor current is given by,

    IL= =35/8=4.375 A

    Assuming 40% ripple, we get,

    IL=0.4×4.375=1.75 A

    L=(0.5) = 26.66 µ ………..(16)

    ×

    Determination of capacitance:

    = 1 2

    …………(17)

    INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    322

    Assuming ripple to be 5%, = 0.05

    Solving , we get,

    C=416.77 nF

    Fig.36

    OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

    Fig.37

    1. FULL BRIDGE DC-DC CONVERTER

      • Full bridge DC-DC Converter provides isolation in addition to stepping up or down or input voltage.

      • Isolation of input and output side is done via a transformer.

        PARAMETERS

        Value

        R

        8 ohm

        L

        26.66 µH

        C

        416.77nF

        Vs(Supply voltage)

        50V

        Vo(Output Voltage)

        35V

        Duty Cycle

        70 %

        Frequency

        150 kHz

      • It has four MOSFETs as control switches in its circuitary.

        Fig.38: Simulink Model of FULL BRIDGE DC TO DC CONVERTER

        INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.39

        OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

        Fig.40

    2. PUSH PULL CONVERTER

    • It is an isolated DC to DC converter.

    • It utilizes two control switches so that flow of current in the primary winding of the transformer is continuous. Hence efficiency at the output is high and it can operate for higher power rating.

OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

Fig.43

TABLE 1: OBTAINED OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF VARIOUS CONVERTERS

PARAMETERS

Value

R

8 ohm

L

268.19 µH

C

41.42 nF

Vs(Supply voltage)

50V

Vo(Output Voltage)

17.5V

Duty Cycle

70 %

Frequency

150 kHz

Type of Converter

Supply Voltage

Duty Cycle

Output Voltage( in volts)

BUCK CONVERTER

25V

50%

12.03435

BUCK CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK PATH

25V

50%

15.0008 (Vref*=15V)

BOOST CONVERTER

25V

50%

47.7448

BOOST CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK PATH

25V

50%

35.62675

( Vref=36V)

BUCK BOOST CONVERTER

25V

50%

(-)24.01485

CUK CONVERTER

25V

50%

(-)23.86625

SEPIC CONVERTER

25V

50%

21.9498

SEPIC CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK PATH

25V

50%

5.841( Vref=6V)

ZETA CONVERTER

25V

50%

23.71805

FLYBACK CONVERTER

25V

50%

24.04045

FLYBACK CONVERTER WITH FEEDBACK PATH

25V

50%

39.95725(Vref=40V)

HALF BRIDGE DC-DC CONVERTER

25V

50%

11.54735

FULL BRIDGE DC-DC CONVRTER

25V

50%

23.4931

PUSH PULL CONVERTER

25V

50%

23.9011

DESIGN:

Determination of inductance:

Average inductor current is given by,

IL= =17.5/8=2.187 A

Assuming 40% ripple, we get,

IL=0.4×2.187=0.87 A

L=(1) = 268.19µ …………(18)

×

Determination of capacitance:

= 1 2

………….(19)

322

Assuming ripple to be 5%, = 0.05

Solving we get,

C=41.42 nF

Fig.41: Simulink Model of PUSH PULL CONVERTER

INPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

*Vref refers to reference voltage in case of converters with feedback loop

Fig.42

III CONCLUSION

Comparative analysis and comprehensive study of both non- isolated and isolated type of DC-DC converters is performed successfully. Simulink model of various DC-DC converters is designed successfully in MATLAB and their voltage waveform is also obtained in. A table showing obtained output voltage of various DC-DC converters (with respect to supply voltage of 25 volts

) is also drawn.

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