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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID PROFILE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED OIL FROM ARID ZONE OF RAJASTHAN


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID PROFILE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED OIL FROM ARID ZONE OF RAJASTHAN

Dr. Akleshwar Mathur, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Sciences, JIET Co-Ed. Jodhpur.

akleshwar.mathur@jietjodhpur.com

Abstract-In the course of our research on the seed oil of desert plant, the phytochemical composition of seeds of moringaoileifera (moringaceae) called drum stick were studied. The seed were collected from wild growing plants at road side/waste lands and also from cultivated areas .the presence of

UV, IR and TLC techniques. Olic acid was found the major component in all the samples. The results mainly with temperature region of Pakistan , Periyakulam-1,varity of Malaysia and from peninsula origin

Key word: Moringaoleifera, seed oil ,oleic acid.

INTRODUCTION

Moringaoleifera belongs to Moringaceaefamily.The presence of myrosine cells, elongated, threevalved,onelocular capsule fruit and three wing seeds are important characteristics of this family.Moringaoleiferais one of the common medium sized tree, found in wild as well as cultivated for fruits and young flowers in kitchen gardens1,2,3.The flowering and fruiting time is November to March and seeds ripening time is March to May.

It contains several phytochemicals some of which are of high interest because of their ,value. This tree has been reported as a boon to arid lands due to versatile unique applications4.Young fruits and flower buds are used as vegetable, leaves as camel fodder, seed oil in acute rheumatism, fruits in plasteringbones are some of them5,7.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

First of all a detailed field survey was done on the basis of literature of distribution of species in the Arid and Semi Arid zone of Rajasthan6. Seeds were collected in the month of April-May from different parts of Western Zone of Rajasthan. The air dried seeds were grounded and extracted with petroleum ether (40-60 degree boiling point range) at 40-60 degree Celcius, using Soxhletapparatus. The solvent was recovered by Rota-evaporator under vacuum. The analytical values of seed oil were determined according to the procedure recommended by

American Oil Chemical Society as shown in Table- 18,9

The analytical TLC was carried out on 0.25 mm layers of Silica gel G using petroleum ether and diethyl ether (80:20).The spots were visualized by exposure to iodine vapor and then charring with sulphuric dichromate spray.

The Infra red spectra were recorded on Shimatzu8201 PC (400-350cm-1) Spectrophotometer and

Ultraviolet Spectra on Hitachi 320 Perkin Elmer Lambda 15 Spectrophotometer in methanol.The refractive index was recorded on Abbe Refractometer.GLC analysis were carried out with Varian Vista 6000 Gas Liquid Chromatograph using DEGS and SE-30 columns. The UV and IR Spectra showed the absence of any unusual functional group. Various TLC methods were used for further confirmation.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Total Saturated Fatty Acids:The total amount of saturated fatty acids were found as 7.21%.Myristic,Palmitic and Behinic acids were found absent in selected species.

Total Unsaturated Fatty Acids: The amount of oleic acid was found as 56.16% as majorcomponent. Other unsaturated acids viz. lonolic and linolenic acids were also found in good amount.

Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids(PUFA):The combined content of linolic and linolenic acid was found as 36.62%.

Category of Oil:On the basis of PUFA content the seed oil of Moringaoleiferais categorized as a non- drying oil.

Comparision with earlier reports: The comparisons of present findings with earlier reports were done. The richness of oleic acid (56.16%) and absence of any oxygenated fatty acid component were similar. The percentage composition of fatty acids varied in present study due to environmental factors. For example Palmitic acid was not found in our sample while it has been reported up to 12.51%.Similarly Arachidic Acid also show presence in our sample, whichwas not reported in earlier findings.10,11,12

Moisture content

1.26%

Oil content

38.9%

Protein content

61.60%

Refractive index nD30

1.462

Unsaponifiable matter

2.18%

Iodine value

140.37

Saponification value

252.0

TABLE-1 PHYSICO CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEED AND OIL

Ultra violet

Usual

Infra red

No specific absorption

TABLE -2 COMPONENT FATTY ACIDS OF SEED OIL BY GLC

Characteristics Fatty Acid

Percent

14:0

———

16:0

———

18:0

4.56

18:1

56.16

18:2

19.53

18:3

17.09

20:0

2.65

22:0

——-

TABLE -3 COMBINED CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS

Total saturated fatty acids

7.21%

Total unsaturated fatty

acids

92.78%

PUFA

36.62%

Category of seed oil

Non drying

CONCLUSION AND SCOPE

The seed oil of M.oleifera is classified as non-drying oil. Due to abundance of unsaturated fatty acids its oiliness is good. It can easily be used as food grade cooking oil as well as industrial oil. It can be recommended for large scale cultivation for beneficial outcomes of products.

Since this plant is commonly found in almost all parts of Rajasthan and requires less care, hence its cultivation on large scale for industrial applications has more advantages. It is a source of multipurpose phytochemicals including the seed oil also. Again, since the oil contains is high so applications in industrial, domestic and medicinal areas should be given attention by researchers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

Author is thankful to Dr.A.M.Khan, Asst.Dean, Department of Applied Sciences, JIET,Jodhpur for encouragement,Dr.M.R.K.Sherwani,HOD- Department of Chemistry,JNVU,Jodhpur for guidance and to Director CDRI Lucknow for Spectroscopic Analysis.

TABLE-1 PHYSICO CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEED AND OIL

Moisture content

1.26%

Oil content

38.9%

Protein content

61.60%

Refractive index nD30

1.462

Unsaponifiable matter

2.18%

Iodine value

140.37

Saponification value

252.0

Ultra violet

Usual

Infra red

No specific absorption

TABLE -2 COMPONENT FATTY ACIDS OF SEED OIL BY GLC

Characteristics Fatty Acid

Percent

14:0

Absent

16:0

Absent

18:0

4.56

18:1

56.16

18:2

19.53

18:3

17.09

20:0

2.65

22:0

Absent

TABLE -3 COMBINED CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS

Total saturated fatty acids

7.21%

Total unsaturated fatty

acids

92.78%

PUFA

36.62%

Category of seed oil

Non drying

TREE GROWN IN A HOUSE

WILD GROWING TREES IN A GROUP

RERERENCES

  1. Flora of Indian Desert, Bhandari M.M., MPS Reports (1990)

  2. Flora of Rajasthan, BSI volume 1 (1991) (3)Wikipedia.Search

  1. The Horseradish Tree-Moringapterygosperma (Moringaceae)- A Boon to Arid Lands, Morton J.F. Economic Botany, 45, 318-333. (1991)

  2. The Wealth of India-A dictionary of Indian Raw Material and Industrial Product,NISC,CSIR, volume 6,L-M.(1962)

  3. Local Communications.

  4. Drum stick (Moringa)-A multipurpose Indian vegetable. Ramchandram c., Peter K.V. and Gopalkrishan P.K. Economic Botany, 34,276- 283.(1980)

    DRIED PODS AND CLEANED SEEDS

    MATURE PODS ON TREE

  5. Official and Tentative Method of American Oil Chemists Society,3rd Edition(1978)

  6. Chemical Examination of Wild Plant Seed oils from Arid Land of Rajasthan. Devra A., Mathur A.,Sindal R.S. and Sherwani M.R.K., oriented Journal of Chemistry, Volume 21(2),295-298(2005)

  7. The Potential of Moringaoleifera for Agricultural and Industrial uses.Foidl N., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K. oct 20th-Nov 2nd,Dar Es Salaam.(2001)

  8. Possible Role of Moringaoleifera root in epithelial ovarian cancer.Chinmoy Bose K., Journal List, Med. General Volume 9 (1), 2007

  9. Characterization ofMoringaoileferaseed oil Variety Priyakulam-1 Stavros Lalas and John Tsaknis Journal of food Composition and Analysis- ELSEVIER Vol 15, issue-1, 65-77(2002)

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