- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 81
- Authors : Ravi Teja Bojanapally
- Paper ID : IJERTV7IS040001
- Volume & Issue : Volume 07, Issue 04 (April 2018)
- Published (First Online): 04-04-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Common Mode Feedback for Fully Differential Amplifier in ami06 micron CMOS process
Ravi Teja Bojanapally
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.
Abstract This paper is about the design of the schematic of a common mode feedback for fully differential amplifier. The circuit is designed using CMOS ami06 technology in Cadence. The circuit is optimized to provide a Figure of Merit of 100.74*109Hz/A and phase margin more than 60 degrees. The layout of the design is done and the LVS match is obtained.
Index Terms Common-mode feedback, Extracted file, Fully differential amplifier, CMOS ami06 technology, DC analysis, LVS match, STB simulation
AFully differential amplifier is a DC-coupled high-gain voltage amplifier which has differential inputs and differential outputs. A common-mode feedback circuit senses the common mode voltage and compares it with a reference and feeds it back to the correcting common mode signal as to cancel the output common mode current component and to fix the dc outputs to the desired level.
DESIGN AND CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
The size of a transistor is determined by its W/L ratio. The ratio of size of transistor M5 to size of transistor M8 should be large to allow more current flow through the differential pair to obtain high gain. The current through M5 is equally divided between transistors M1 and M2. Size of transistors M1 and M2 should be more to achieve high gain. The sizes of other transistors should be chosen to ensure that sufficient current flows through them to operate in active region.
Common mode feedback network consists of a simple feedback which stabilizes the common mode voltage without affecting the differential mode operation of the circuit. Referring to Fig1, if the common mode voltage at node Vout1 increases, the current through transistor M10 increases thereby reducing
M9, M10, M11,M12
Table1: Transistor sizes
the current though M13 transistor. Since the gate voltages of M13 and M3 transistors are the same, the gate voltage of M3 increases thereby decreasing the voltage at the drain of M3 due to inversion. Thus, the Vout1 value is decreased to the desired level.
Fig1: Common mode feedback for fully differential amplifier
A bias current is provided at the drain of transistor M8
which is then mirrored to transistors M5, M6, M7 depending on the ratio of their sizes. The value of the bias current chosen is 5ÂµA. This value is chosen to mirror sufficient current so that all the transistors are in active region and the total DC current consumption is less to optimize the Figure of Merit(FOM).
Circuit is simulated using Cadence software. The schematic of the common mode feedback for fully differential amplifier circuit is setup with desired transistor sizes and bias current as shown below.
Fig2: Schematic with transistor sizes
DC simulation is performed using spectre simulator. The DC operating points and DC node voltages are annotated.
Fig3: Schematic with DC node voltages
M1 M2 M3 M4 M6 M7
M9 M12 M13 M16
M10 M11 M14 M15
Table2: Currents flowing through transistors
GAIN AND PHASE MARGIN OF DIFFERENTIAL AND COMMON MODE FEEDBACK LOOPS
The figure below is used as a test bench to simulate differential and common mode loop gains.
Fig4: Test bench
M9 M12 M16
M10 M11 M14 M15
Table3: Currents through transistors after introducing test bench
Differential mode feedback loop
To obtain the gain and phase plots of differential mode feedback loop, we introduce a CMDM probe in the schematic such that both the common mode and differential mode loops are broken. STB analysis is performed using spectre simulator to obtain the gain and phase plots.
Fig5: Schematic with CMDM probe
To calculate phase margin and gain of differential mode feedback loop, the CDF parameter value in CMDM probe is set to -1.
Fig6: CMDM probe Edit Object Properties window
For differential mode, a Gain of 46.946db and a Phase Margin of 88.6425deg is obtained.
Fig7: STB simulation window
Fig8: Gain and Phase plot of differential mode feedback
Common mode feedback loop
To measure the gain and phase margin of common mode feedback loop, the CDF parameter value of CMDM probe is set
to 1. A gain of 49.8712db and a Phase Margin of 83.3384deg is obtained.
Fig9: Common mode feedback Gain
Fig10: Common mode feedback Phase Margin
Table4: Values of gain and phase margin
Figure of Merit
Figure of Merit (FOM) is defined as the ratio of Gain Bandwidth product to the total DC current. Figure of merit of differential mode gain is calculated. The total DC current is measured as 86.27ÂµA. The obtained bandwidth is 39.0634KHz. The Gain Bandwidth is 8691MHz.The Figure of Merit is 100.74*109Hz/A.
Figure of Merit
Table5: FOM parameter values
LAYOUT, DRC AND LVS
Layout is designed using common centroid technique with multi fingered gates. The advantages of common centroid layout are immunity from cross-chip gradients, best-matching performance possible and reduced area by sharing the sources. Multi fingered gates are used to reduced eries resistance in gate and minimize drain-to-bulk parasitic capacitance.
Fig13: Extracted Layout
DRC stands for Design Rule Check. It is used to determine whether the layout satisfies the recommended design rules.
Fig12: CDS.log window showing 0 DRC errors
LVS stands for Layout Versus Schematic. LVS match is performed to check if the layout designed matches with the schematic. The extracted layout file is compared with the
Fig14: Window showing LVS match
Fig14: LVS file
Differential mode STB analysis:
Phase Margin= 88.6425deg Bandwidth= 39.0634KHz Gain Bandwidth= 8691MHz Total DC Current= 86.27ÂµA
Figure of Merit(FOM)= 100.74*109Hz/A
Common mode STB analysis
A fully differential amplifier with common mode feedback is designed. Simulations have been performed and Phase Margin better than 60degrees is obtained. The layout is designed and LVS net-lists match.
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