Characteristic Studies on Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Waste Granite Powder

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Characteristic Studies on Concrete by Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate with Waste Granite Powder

Molakani Pavan Kumar

PG Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences Kadapa, India.

Smt. K. Chandrakala

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences Kadapa, India.

Abstract Concrete is the main construction material in the world. It consist of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water as main ingredients. Now days due to high global consumption of natural sand, sand deposit are being depleted and causing serious threat to environment as well as society. River sand is becoming a scarce commodity and hence an exploration alternative to it has become imminent. Manufactured sand is the good alternative to river sand and it is purposely made, fine crushed aggregate produced under controlled conditions from a suitable sand source rock. Plastics are non-biodegradable common environmental polluting materials. These are going to affect the fertility of soil.

In present study the detailed characteristic studies of concrete is carried out by partial replacement of natural sand by waste granite powder in concrete composition with different percentages (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%).The mechanical properties of concrete like compressive strength, tensile strength are carried out by replacing the quantity of sand with waste granite powder with different percentages as mentioned above.

Hence an attempt is made to find the optimum strength properties at which percentage of replacement it will gives better strength properties.

Keywords Concrete, waste granite powder, compressive strength, tensile strength.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The usual relevance of concrete in actually all civil engineering exercise and constructing construction works cannot be overemphasized Concrete is a mixture of cement, excellent and coarse aggregates and water which are combined in a precise unique strength. The cement and water react together chemically to form a paste which binds the combination particles together The combination units into a rock-like stable mass, which has full-size compressive power. However, the development enterprise depends heavily on traditional cement, granite and sand for the production of concrete. The high and growing value of these substances has greatly hindered the development of refuge and other infrastructural facilities in creating countries. As the infrastructure of the entire world is kept developing, the construction industry is in need of large amount of raw materials. As the consumption of raw materials increases the demand increases material. The growing situation of aid depletion and international air pollution has challenged many researchers and engineers are to be looking for and advance new substances relying on renewable resources. These consist of the use of by-products and waste materials in constructing

    construction. Many of these by-products are used as combination for the production of lightweight concrete. The most considerably used outstanding combination for the making of concrete is the natural sand mined from the riverbeds. However, the availability of river sand for the teaching of concrete is turning into scarce due to the immoderate nonscientific techniques of mining from the riverbeds, lowering of water desk and sinking of the bridge piers amongst others, is turning into frequent treats.

    The international consumption of sand as high- quality mixture in concrete manufacturing is very high, and a number of growing nations have encountered some stress in the furnish growing needs of infrastructural improvement in current years Nonetheless, accumulation of unmanaged wastes specially in developing countries has resulted in an increasing environmental concern. Concrete is considered to be the biggest structural fabric due to its quality to form up in extra than a few geometrical configurations. In some conditions, one may count on that every day weight concrete is inconvenient due to its density (2200-2400kg/m3). Replacing partly or totally the daily weight mixture concrete with limit weight aggregates produces light-weight mixture concrete large growing quantity in the populace of the world requires large group of the settlement.

    Now-a-days, due to excessive international consumption of herbal sand, sand credit are being depleted and inflicting serious danger to surroundings as nicely as society. River sand is becoming a scarce commodity and consequently an exploration choice to it has emerge as imminent. Manufactured sand is the exact alternative to river sand and it is purposely made, fine crushed combination produced under managed stipulations from an appropriate sand source rock. Concrete is most extensively used building fabric in world. It is manmade constructing material it can be mold into any shape. Concrete is composite cloth having homes of excessive compressive electrical energy, low tensile strength, low post cracking capacity, brittleness and low have an effect on strength. These residences can be prolonged with the aid of the usage of addition of fiber in the concrete. The fibers are dispersed and dispensed randomly in the concrete throughout mixing and this improves certain residences like tensile strength, flexural electricity etc. Fiber bolstered concrete can be described as composite materials consist of cement in particular based totally matrix containing an ordered or randomly disbursed of fibers. The regular fibers used in the concrete are steel, glass, asbestos, jute, coir,

    polypropylene, nylon, sisal. The uses of sisal fibers in the concrete are going to enhance the mechanical houses of concrete.

  2. METHODOLOGY

    MATERIALS

    Cement:

    Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 12269:1987 was used. The followings are the test results of cement.

    S.no

    .

    Description

    Test results

    Is code limits

    Is codes

    1.

    Specific gravity

    3.13

    3.10 – 3.15

    IS: 269-

    1989

    2.

    Fineness modulus

    4.33 %

    <10 %

    IS: 4031-

    1988

    3.

    Normal consistency

    29 %

    >26 %

    IS: 4031 –

    1988 (Part 4)

    4.

    Initial setting time

    60 mins

    > 30 mins

    IS: 269-

    1989

    5.

    Final setting time

    9 hrs 45 mins

    < 10 hrs

    IS: 269-

    1989

    S.no

    .

    Description

    Test results

    Is code limits

    Is codes

    1.

    Specific gravity

    3.13

    3.10 – 3.15

    IS: 269-

    1989

    2.

    Fineness modulus

    4.33 %

    <10 %

    IS: 4031-

    1988

    3.

    Normal consistency

    29 %

    >26 %

    IS: 4031 –

    1988 (Part 4)

    4.

    Initial setting time

    60 mins

    > 30 mins

    IS: 269-

    1989

    5.

    Final setting time

    9 hrs 45 mins

    &l; 10 hrs

    IS: 269-

    1989

    Table 1: Test results of cement

    Fine Aggregates:

    Locally available river sand passing through 4.75mm IS sieve is used.

    Fine granite powder is one of the maximum used among such materials to update river sand, an opportunity to satisfactory mixture in concrete. Fine granite powder is a nice aggregate that is produced by way of crushing stone, gravel or slag. The combination fabric less than four.75 mm this is processed from beaten rock or gravel and supposed for production use. Fine granite powder is a material of high quality, in contradiction to non-refined surplus from coarse aggregate production. Fine granite powder is widely used all technicians of major projects around the world insist on the compulsory use of fine granite powder because of its consistent gradation and zero impurity. The followings are the test results on granite waste powder.

    Specific gravity of granite fines G=2.23

    The maximum bulking of the given granite fines is 0.29 @4% of moisture content.

    Mix design:

    M30 Concrete mix design

    Coarse Aggregate: 20 mm

    Design based on BIS recommended guidelines for mix design as per SP: 23-1982-BIS Publications

    4.1.1. Design mix test data as per (IS: 10262)

    Table 2: Test results of fine aggregates

    S.no.

    Property

    Value (%)

    IS specification

    1.

    Bulk density

    1569 Kg/m3

    IS: 2386 (Part-4)-1963

    2.

    Specific gravity

    2.70

    3.

    Water absorption

    0.15%

    Coarse Aggregates:

    Crushed granite aggregate available from local sources has been used.

    Table 3: Test Results of Coarse Aggregates

    S.No.

    Property

    Value (%)

    IS Specification

    1

    Bulk density

    1488 Kg/m3

    IS: 2386 (Part-4)-

    1963

    2

    Aggregate Impact value (%)

    11

    3

    Flakiness Index (%)

    12

    4

    Elongation Index (%)

    11

    5

    Specific gravity

    2.65

    6

    Water absorption

    15

    Waste Granite Powder:

    The main concern is the non-renewable nature of natural sand and the corresponding increasing demand of construction industry. River sand that's one of the fundamental ingredients inside the manufacture of concrete has end up especially scarce and luxurious. Therefore seeking out an opportunity to river sand has come to be a need. Hence, the crusher granite dirt which is also known as waste granite fines can be used as an opportunity cloth for the river sand. Waste own similar residences as that of river sand and consequently normal as a building cloth.

    1. Design Stipulations

      1. Characteristic compressive strength required in the field @ 28 days: 30 Mpa

      2. Max size of Aggregate : 20 mm (Angular)

      3. Degree of workability : 0.9 (compaction factor)

      4. Degree of quality control : Good

      5. Type of exposure : Moderate

    2. Target Mean Strength of Concrete

      The target mean compressive strength for the specified characteristic cube strength = 30+ (1.65*6) =39.9 Mpa

    3. Selection of Water Cement ratio

      Water/Cement ratio required for the target mean strength of 39.9 Mpa is = 0.38.But minimum W/C ratio based on workability =0.40

      Therefore W/C = 0.40<0.55 (Max. for Moderate exposure) hence ok

      For 20 mm Max .Size of aggregate, air content = 2 %

    4. Selection of water and sand content

      For M30 Grade concrete, for 20 mm Max. Size of aggregate and sand conforming to grading Zone- 2, water content per cubic meter of concrete = 185 kg and sand content as % of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35%. For change in value in water-cement ratio compacting factor and for sand belonging to Zone-2, the following adjustments are required.

      The required sand content as% of total aggregate by absolute volume = (35-3.0) =32 required water content = (185+3 %( 185) =190.58 lit/m3 say 191 lit/ m3

      Selection of water and sand content.

      Change in condition

      Adjustments Required

      Water content (%)

      % Sand in total Aggregate

      For decreasing water cement ratio of (0.55-0.40)=0.15

      0

      -3.0

      For increase in compacting factor ( 0.90)

      +3.0

      0

      Total

      +3.0

      -3.0

    5. Determination of cement content

      Adopting water cement ratio = 0.40 Water = 191 liters

      Cement =191/0.40 =477.5 kg/m3< 550 kg/m3 (Max. cement content)

      Adopting cement content = 450 kg/m3

    6. Determination of coarse and fine aggregate content

      The Specified Maximum Size of Aggregate of 20 mm, the quantity of entrapped air in the wet concrete is 2 % taking this into consideration and applying equations

      0.98= [185+ (450/3.15) + (1/0.32)*(fa/2.7)] (1/1000) and [185+ (450/3.15) + (1/0.68)*(ca/2.65)]

      Fig 1: Compressive testing machine

      SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH TEST:

      The cylinder is placed on the bottom compression plate of the testing machine and is aligned such that the centre lines marked on the ends of the specimen are vertical.

      (1/1000)

      Fa=563.45 say 565 kg / m3

      Ca= 1175.0 kg / m3 say 1175 kg / m3 The Mix Proportion then becomes

      0.4 1 1.25 2.61

    7. Actual qualities required for the Mix per cubic meter of cement

      1. Cement = 450 kg

      2. Sand = 565 kg

      3. Coarse Aggregate = 1175 kg

      4. Water = 185 lits

    DETAILS OF CUBES, CYLINDERS

    Concrete cubes of size 15 cmx15cm are used to determine the compressive strength of concrete.

    The split tensile strength can be calculated by using concrete cylinders of size 15cm diameter and 30cm length

    Number of cubes casted= 6 (3 for 7 days & 3 for 28 days)

    Number of cylinders casted = 6 (3 for 7 days & 3 for 28 days)

    TEST SETUP AND TESTING

    Cubes compressive strength test:

    Compression test on cubes is conducted with 1200 KN capacity compression testing machine. The machine has a least count of 2 KN.

    Fig 2: Split tensile strength test

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Based on the experimental investigations, the results of cubes are presented below.

    Table 4: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 0% fine granite waste

    Table 5: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 10% fine granite waste

    Table 6: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 20% fine granite waste

    Table 7: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 30% fine granite waste

    Table 8: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 40% fine granite waste

    Table 9: Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 50% fine granite waste

    Test results on concrete cylinder:

    Table 10: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 0% fine granite waste

    Table 11: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 10% fine granite waste

    Table 12: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 20% fine granite waste

    Table 13: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 30% fine granite waste

    Table 14: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 40% fine granite waste

    Table 15: Split tensile strength of concrete specimens at 50% fine granit waste

    GRAPH 1: 7 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    28 Days Compressive Strength in N/mm2

    50

    28 Days Compressive Strength in N/mm2

    50

    Compressive strength in N/mm2

    Compressive strength in N/mm2

    GRAPH 2: 28 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    GRAPH 3: COMPARISION OF 7 DAYS AND 28 DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    GRAPH 4: 7 DAYS SPLIT-TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    41.63 42.21 42.96

    41.63 42.21 42.96

    45.62 43.84 44.21

    45.62 43.84 44.21

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    % Of Fine granite powder

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    % Of Fine granite powder

    GRAPH 5: 28 DAYS SPLIT-TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

    GRAPH 6: COMPARISION OF 7 DAYS AND 28 DAYS SPLIT-TENSILE STRENGTH

  4. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION

Conclusion:

  1. The cost of concrete is less than conventional concrete. The concrete becomes environment friendly, due to use of waste industrial material.

  2. There is an increase of 17% compressive strength for 30% replacement of fine aggregate compare with normal concrete for 7-days and 8.74% increase in strength for 28-days.

  3. The split tensile strength also follows the similar pattern compare with the compressive strength that is at 30% replacement of fine aggregate with waste granite fines it shows the maximum split tensile strength.

  4. Hence, we can conclude from the above results that the maximum compressive and split tensile strength is obtained at 30% replacement of fine aggregate with waste granite fines

    Scope for the future investigation:

    1. The mechanical properties of Concrete with the waste granite powder as a replacement for fine aggregate in concrete can be studied by using Super Plasticizer.

    2. Stability Studies can be approved on this existings.

    3. The behavior of Reinforced Concrete can be studied by replacing the fine aggregate with waste granite powder.

    4. High Strength Concrete with other mixtures can be tried.

REFERENCES

  1. Babafemi Adewumi John and Olawuyi Babatunde James (2012): They investigated on effect of replacement of sand with granite powder on the Compressive Strength and Split Tensile Strength of Palm Kernel Shell concrete and felt that 100% replacement of Natural sand by Crushed granite powder is possible and compressive strength and split tensile strength increases with increase in crushed granite powder and with the curing age.

  2. Manasseh Joel (2010): He also recommended that 20% replacement of natural sand by crushed granite powder when laying rigid concrete pavements gives increased compressive strength and split tensile strength can be found.

  3. T. Felixkala (et al 2010): He had obtained the test results that granite powder of marginal quantity as partial sand replacement has beneficial effects on the mechanical properties such as Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength and Modulus of Elasticity. They also indicated that the values of both plastic and drying shrinkage of concrete in the granite powder concrete specimens

  4. Kanmalai Williams (et al 2008): He reported the results an experimental study on the high performance concrete made with granite powder as fine aggregate.

  5. Mithanthaya and Jeyaprakash Narayan (2002): He conducted experiments to find the suitability of fine granite powder as fine aggregate for plastering and pavement design. Test was conducted for the mix proportion of cement and fine granite powder in 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7.

  6. Selvakoodalingam and Palanikumar (2002):

    Analysed through experimental study the use of granite powder as fine aggregate in cement concrete. M15 mix was considered with three proportions say 100% sand, 50% sand and 100% granite powder

  7. Shetty M.S. Concrete Technology S.C. Chand and Co .Ltd. New Delhi.

  8. Gambir. M.L Concrete Technology Tata McGraw-Hill Publications, New Delhi.

  9. IS 10262:2009 Concrete mix proportion guidelines.

  10. IS 456:2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete.

  11. IS 383-1970 Specification for coarse and fine aggregate from natural source of concrete.

  12. IS 2386-1963 Indian standards test methods for aggregate for concrete.

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