 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 136
 Authors : Harish K Patil, Gowthami Yadav
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS042397
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 04 (April 2014)
 Published (First Online): 05052014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Certificateless Key Generation and Agreement Protocol for Virtual Private Networks
Harish Patil, Gowthami Yadav
(Department of Computer networks, Vishweshwaraya Technological University)
Abstract – Virtual Private Network is a network that provides interconnectivity to exchange information between the nodes that belongs to the network. A Virtual private network possesses all the features of the private network and is built on existing network, but they suffer severe security problems, particularly authentication problem. This paper introduces a authenticated key agreement protocol based on certificateless cryptography to authenticate users to establish a secure session between them. The proposed protocol attempts to mitigate the maninmiddle and key compromise impersonation attacks. It is found to be more efficient protocol.
Keywords – Virtual private network, Authenticated key agreement, key generation, certificateless public key cryptography, identity based public key cryptography.

INTRODUCTION
A virtual private network have been efficient tools that provide interconnectivity to exchange information between different (remote) parties that belong to a specific network .The VPN possesses all the features of the private networks which provide closed community of legitimate users that use resources and services .In a VPN,the traffic is within the network without being affected by the traffic from outside the network and vice versa. The term virtual means it is build upon existing network (eg. Internet).The vpn is based on tunneling, which is the process of using internetwork infrastructure to transfer data to a network over another network [1].before tunneling the users need to authenticate before transfer of data.
VPN uses passwords in order to authenticate them but this method is vulnerable to different types of attacks[2].vpn enhances this by two factor authentication that prove the identity of the users by what user knows and something in their possession ie,token. Recently vpns make use of
X.509 digital certificates to authenticate users generally suffers two major problems managing certificates and scalability of the infrastructure.
The alternative is to use authenticated key agreement protocol is used to allow two or more parties to establish a secure session key over open networks each party can encrypt any message such that only the parties sharing
secret key can decrypt the message. Authenticated key agreement should not only be secure against passive adversaries but also active adversaries who impersonate one party to communicate with another party.
The idea of key agreement protocols has been realized in public key infrastructure[3].identity based public key cryptography[4],certificate based public key cryptography[5] and certificateless public key cryptography[6].PKI protocols experience a heavy certificate management load while IDPKC requires all the participants to trust an authority (key escrow).A malicious KGC can compute the session keys of the participating entities, thus fully trusting an authority a very strong assumption especially over open networks. Hence IDPKC seems more suited for smaller networks or closed groups.CLPKC combines the advantages of the IDPKC and the traditional PKI.In CLPKC[15], first an identity dependent partial private key is received from KGC.The entity compute its private key using partial private key and a secret known only to the entity. The entity generates a public key which matches their private keys too. As a result the trust is reduced on KGC.The PKC is more suitable for open networks.

BACKGROUND

SSL VPN
The SSL VPN is a transport layer protocol, it provides confidentiality, integrity, and digital signature [7].The SSL VPN consist of one or more devices by which the user can connect to from his/her web browser and the traffic between vpn device and the web browser is encrypted using the SSL[8].To prepare using vpn based on the PPTP,L2TP,IPSEC ,it is required to install client software which of high cost.Therefore,the using of SSL is more convenient because it does not require the installation of any software[9].
B.EXISTING SYSTEM
Authentication in VPN: Virtual private Networks use different techniques for authentication. Those techniques developed gradually from using user names and passwords to using digital certificates. In the following, we give some details about these techniques.

Single Factor Authentication:
The most popular authentication method is the username and password[10]. The advantage of this method is easiness to implement and its cheap cost. The disadvantage is that the user may forget the password which results in many calls to helpdesk. Consequently, a user tends to select an easy password that he/she can remember and also it will be easy to guess by an attacker. From the previous discussion the risks in using the password authentication method led to the appearance of the two factors method.

Two Factor Authentication:
The solution of the authentication problem in the VPNs is enhanced by using the two factors authentication method, where the identity of a user is proved by something that the user knows (password) and something that belongs to him/her (one time PIN/token)[11]. This approach is facing problems such as difficulty of managing the token, the costs of issuing token for a client and revocation of the token for some client.

Digital Certificate:

A more advanced authentication method that is used with the VPNs is the digital certificates. A digital certificate can be issued for a user or a client (PC) and is stored in a smart card. The digital certificate authentication is considered the most secure authentication technology for VPNs. It does not need knowledge (as password) but on possession. A smart card that contains a digital certificate needs to be protected by some additional code like PIN or fingerprint. This adds additional overhead because the user needs reader to use smart card also to replace the smart card by token it has the previous problems of the second method. Moreover, the use of digital certificate has problems of certificate management in addition to the complexity of infrastructure of PKI.
C. Brief history on key agreement protocols based on certificateless cryptography: The certificateless public key cryptography (CLPKC) was first proposed by Al Riyami and Paterson in 2003 [15]. The CLPKC is an intermediate between Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Identity based Encryption (IBE). The CLPKC was proposed to solve the problem of managing certificates in PKI and the key escrow problem in the identity based encryption by generate part of the private key in the key generating Center (KGC) and the rest is generated at the clients side, there is no need for using certificate.
Autenticated key agreement protocols with pairing
AlRiyami and Paterson but it different in the calculation of the private key. In 2008 Swanson[16] made analysis of existing certificateless key agreement protocol and prove the failure of these protocols to satisfy key compromise impersonation attacks and known temporary session specific information security.
In 2009 Lippold et al[17] proposed formal model for certificateless KAP based on Swanson their security model is stronger than Swanson because it assumes the party uses the replaced public key in his computation rather than the original public key as in Swanson. The Lippold et al protocol is unacceptable because it uses
10 pairing to calculate he session key. In 2010 Zhang[18] et al proposed efficient AKA protocol that requires one pairing operation. In 2011, Mokhtarnameh et al proposed new scheme for AKA and claim that the protocol is secure but Yang et al prove the protocol is vulnerable to man in the middle attack.
Authenticated Key agreement protocols without pairing:
Because the relative computation cost of a pairing is approximately twenty times higher than that of a scalar multiplication over elliptic curve group different protocols were proposed without pairing. In 2011 He et al[19] proposed key agreement protocol. In 2011 Xing et al[20] proposed a new pairing free certificate less key agreement protocol. In 2011 He and chen[21] propose a new protocol. He,Padhye and chen [22] proposed a new key agreement protocol. In 2012 Mohammed et al[23] proposed a new key agreement protocol. They carried out a modification in the binding technique of AlRiyami and Paterson and proved the security of their scheme in the standard security model.
Two or more parties agree on a shared key,Both parties contribute with input,DiffieHellman model used today.Authenticated Key Agreement ensures that only the intended parties can compute the session key.Bilinear pairings of elliptic curve groups used extensively today (provides shorter keys) .


PRELIMINARIES
3.1 Assumptions
A. Bilinear Groups
Let G1 be a cyclic additive group of prime order q and G2 be a cyclic multiplicative group of prime order q, P is a generator of G1; assume that the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) is hard in both G1 and G2. DLP is explained in the following subsection. An admissible pairing e is a bilinear map e: G1 Ã— G1G2, which satisfies the following three properties:

Bilinear: for P, Q G1 and, a, b , we have e(aP,bQ)
=e(P,Q)ab ;

Nondegenerate: e(P, P) 1;

Computable: The map e is efficiently computable. The Weil [12] and modified Tate [13] pairings on elliptic curves can be used to construct such bilinear maps.
B.The security of the proposed protocol relies on the standard Computational DiffieHellman (CDH) and Bilinear Diffie Hellman (BDH) problem assumptions
which are understood to be computed with minor probability.

Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP): Given P, Q G1, find nsuch that P = nQ whenever such n exists.

Computational DiffieHellman Problem (CDHP): Given a tuple (P, aP, bP) G1 for a, b , find the element abP.

Bilinear DiffieHellman Problem (BDHP): Given (P, xP, yP, zP) G1 for some x, y, z chosen at random from , computee(P, P)xyz G2.
4 PROPOSED PROTOCOL
The target is to achieve higher degree of security by creating one public key for a corresponding private key using the features of IDPKC[14] . The relevant proposed algorithms are presented in this section.
KGC executes Setup algorithm to generate master key and system parameters. Then, it runs PartialPrivate KeyExtract algorithm to extract the partial private key for each entity. Every entity chooses a secret value and computes its public and private key. Subsequently, two entities run key agreement algorithm online in order to share a session key.
Setup and PartialPrivateKeyExtract .

KGC performs the following steps during the Setup process:

Select a cyclic additive group G1 of prime order q, a cyclic multiplicative group G2 of the same order, a generator P of G1, and a bilinear map e: G1 Ã— G1 >G2.

Choose a random masterkey, s Zq* and set P0 = sP. c)Choose cryptographic hash functions, H1: {0, 1}* –
>G1,H2: G2> {0, 1}n.


Entity A sends its identity IDA to KGC.

KGC generates the partial private key for entity A using the following steps:

Compute QA = H1 (IDA).

Generate the partial private key DA = sQA.


The system parameters (G1, G2, e, P, P0, H1, H2, n) are published while the masterkey s Zq* is kept in KGC.

Entity A executes:

SetSecretValue: choose a random value, xA Zq* as the entitys secret value.

SetPrivateKey: generate the private key, SA = xADA. c)SetPublicKey: compute the public key, PA = xAQA. KeyAgreement
Assume that an entity A with identity IDA has a
longterm private key SA = xADA and public key PA = xAQA, and an entityB with identity IDB has private key SB = xBDB and public key
PB = xBQB. A and B participate in the key agreement protocol as follows:
1)A chooses a shortterm private key, a Zq* randomly and computes TA = aP. B chooses a shortterm private key, b Zq*
randomly and computes TB = bP .
2)A sends (PA, TA) to B. B sends (PB, TB) to A.
3)A computes h = aTB and KAB = e (TA + PA, bP0 + SB). Bc omputes h = bTA, and KBA = e (aP0 +SA, TB + PB).
4)A and B have the same shared secret KAB = KBA =e(P,P)abs e(P,QB)asxB e(QA,P)bsxA e(QA,QB)sxAxB, The session key is K = H2 (QA,QB, h, KAB).
5. SECURITY ATTRIBUTES

Knownkey secrecy: A and B choose random a and b respectively in each protocol run; they will have distinct session key in each run. Thus, compromising the secret keys will not affect the next session key to be generated.

Forward secrecy: Even if the adversary knows the long term private keys of A and B, the adversary still needs to compute h from TA and TB which is a CDH problem.
Therefore, compromising the longterm private keys of all entities will not reveal previously established session keys. As a result, the proposed protocol achieves perfect forward secrecy.

KGC forward secrecy: CLPKC based schemes do not have key escrow problem. If an adversary has the KGCs master private key, s, the previously established session keys will not be exposed. Although the adversary may generate the partial private key, both the short term and longterm private keys of an entity are needed in order to compute the session key.

Keycompromise impersonation:
Assume that an adversary knows the private key of A, SA, and impersonates B to share the session key with A. The adversary will have the knowledge on SA, aP, and b, however, he would not be able to compute e(P.QB)asxB as SB is unknown. Another option is to
compute asxBP which is a CDH problem.

Unknown keyshare resilience: As QA and QB are used for computing the session key, each entity knows who he shares the key with.

No key control: Minimum two entities collaborate together to generate a session key using their random short termprivate keys. However, key control can be imperfect when A sends its (PA, TA) to B, but B does not send its (PB, TB) to A. This particular security attribute can be supported externally using special error checking or troubleshooting methods in the protocols.

Known sessionspecific temporary information security: Even the adversary compromises the shortterm private keys of a session; he will not be able to compute the session key as the longterm private keys are unknown to him.

Passive attack: Assume that the adversary observes the messages (PA, TA, TB, PB) transferred between the entities and he knows the master key of KGC, s. The adversary will not be able to compute the session key as he needs to calculate abPfrom aP and bP. This is a CDH problem.


CONCLUSION:
In this paper, secure and efficient certificateless authenticated key generation and agreement protocol are presented which produces distinct public key for a corresponding private key. In the original scheme, a dishonest KGC could restore an entity's public key by one for which it knows the secret value without fear of being recognized. However, in our proposed scheme, the existence of two public key for an identity can only result from the existence of two partial private keys binding that entity to two diferent public keys; only KGC could have created these two partial private keys. Thus, the new binding technique makes the KGC's substitute of a public key noticeable. The security analysis shows that the key agreement protocol achieves almost all of the known desirable security attributes such as knownkey secrecy, keycompromise impersonation, unknown keyshare, known sessionspecific temporary information security, forward secrecy and no key control. Furthermore, it conveys better efficiency in contrast to the existing protocols. In addition, the key generation and agreement protocols reduce the amount of trust on KGC. Currently, among the future work that we plan to pursue includes investigating the efficiency of the proposed protocol in distributed environments, e.g. peertopeer and grid computing platforms.
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